1 The statistics in this publication were compiled from data collected in the Labour Force and Other Characteristics of Migrants survey, that was conducted throughout Australia in November 2004 as a supplement to the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) monthly Labour Force Survey (LFS). Respondents to the LFS who were in the scope of the supplementary survey were asked further questions.
2 The publication Labour Force, Australia (cat. no. 6202.0) contains information about survey design, sample redesign, scope, coverage and population benchmarks relevant to the monthly LFS, which also apply to supplementary surveys. It also contains definitions of demographic and labour force characteristics, and information about telephone interviewing which are relevant to both the monthly LFS and supplementary surveys.
3 From April 2001, the LFS has been conducted using a redesigned questionnaire containing additional questions and some minor definitional changes. These changes also affect the supplementary surveys. For further details, see Information Paper: Implementing the Redesigned Labour Force Survey Questionnaire (cat. no. 6295.0) and Information Paper: Questionnaires Used in the Labour Force Survey (cat. no. 6232.0).
4 Information for this survey was collected using computer assisted interviewing (CAI), whereby responses are recorded directly onto an electronic questionnaire on a notebook computer.
5 The change of interviewing procedure since the 1999 Survey, which was conducted using the 'pen and paper' method, is not expected to have affected the estimates in any meaningful way.
CONCEPTS, SOURCES AND METHODS
6 The conceptual framework used in Australia's LFS aligns closely with the standards and guidelines set out in Resolutions of the International Conference of Labour Statisticians. Descriptions of the underlying concepts and structure of Australia's labour force statistics, and the sources and methods used in compiling these estimates, are presented in Labour Statistics: Concepts, Sources and Methods (cat. no. 6102.0.55.001) which is available on the ABS web site <http://www.abs.gov.au> (Methods, Classifications, Concepts & Standards).
7 The scope of the LFS was restricted to people aged 15 years and over and excluded the following people:
8 Students at boarding schools, patients in hospitals, residents of homes (e.g. retirement homes, homes for people with disabilities), and inmates of prisons are excluded from all supplementary surveys.
- members of the permanent defence forces
- certain diplomatic personnel of overseas governments, customarily excluded from the census and estimated populations
- overseas residents in Australia
- members of non-Australian defence forces (and their dependants).
9 This supplementary survey was conducted in both urban and rural areas in all states and territories, but excluded approximately 120,000 people living in very remote parts of Australia who would otherwise have been within the scope of the survey. The exclusion of these people will have only a minor impact on any aggregate estimates that are produced for individual states and territories, except the Northern Territory where such people account for over 20% of the population.
10 This survey was restricted to people who were born overseas, arrived in Australia after 1984, were aged 15 years and over on arrival, and had either obtained permanent Australian resident status prior to or after arrival, or were temporary residents who planned to stay in Australia for 12 months or more.
11 The estimates in this publication relate to people covered by the survey in November 2004. In the LFS, coverage rules are applied which aim to ensure that each person is associated with only one dwelling, and hence has only one chance of selection in the survey. See Labour Force, Australia (cat. no. 6202.0) for more details.
12 Supplementary surveys are not always conducted on the full LFS sample. Since August 1994 the sample for supplementary surveys has been restricted to no more than seven-eighths of the LFS sample.
13 The initial sample for the November 2004 LFS consisted of 40,756 private dwelling households and special dwelling units. Of the 33,338 private dwelling households and special dwelling units that remained in the survey after sample loss (e.g. households selected in the survey which had no residents in scope for the LFS, vacant or derelict dwellings and dwellings under construction), approximately 31,312 or 93.9% were fully responding to the Labour Force Status and Other Characteristics of Migrants survey. The number of completed interviews obtained from these private dwellings and special dwelling units (after taking into account scope, coverage and subsampling exclusions) was 4,849.
RELIABILITY OF THE ESTIMATES
14 Estimates in this publication are subject to sampling and non-sampling errors:
- Sampling error is the difference between the published estimate and the value that would have been produced if all dwellings had been included in the survey. For more information see the Technical Note.
- Non-sampling errors are inaccuracies that occur because of imperfections in reporting by respondents and interviewers, and errors made in coding and processing data. These inaccuracies may occur in any enumeration, whether it be a full count or a sample. Every effort is made to reduce the non-sampling error to a minimum by careful design of questionnaires, intensive training and supervision of interviewers and efficient processing procedures.
15 The estimates are based on information collected in the survey month and, due to seasonal factors, may not be representative of other months of the year.
16 Country of birth data are classified according to the Standard Australian Classification of Countries (SACC), 1998 (cat. no. 1269.0).
17 Occupation data are classified according to the ASCO - Australian Standard of Classification of Occupations, Second Edition, 1997 (cat. no. 1220.0).
18 Industry data are classified according to the Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC), 1993 (cat. no. 1292.0).
19 Educational attainment data are classified according to the Australian Standard Classification of Education (ASCED) (cat. no. 1272.0). See Appendix 1 for more information.
NOTES ON ESTIMATES
20 There were 226,500 people who arrived after 1984, were aged 15 years and over on arrival, and were either born in New Zealand or were citizens of New Zealand before migrating to Australia to live. Of those New Zealanders who became citizens, 43,700 were born in other than main English-speaking countries.
COMPARABILITY OF TIME SERIES
21 Revisions are made to population benchmarks for the LFS after each five-yearly Census of Population and Housing. The last such revision was made in February 2004 to take account of the results of the 2001 Census of Population and Housing. Estimates from supplementary surveys conducted from and including February 2004 are therefore based on the revised population benchmarks.
22 Labour Force Status and Other Characteristics of Migrants Surveys conducted up to and including November 1996 were restricted to migrants who arrived in Australia after 1970, were aged 18 years or more on arrival, and had obtained permanent Australian resident status. For November 1999, the survey was restricted to migrants who arrived in Australia after 1980, were aged 18 years or more on arrival, and had obtained permanent Australian resident status. For November 2004, the survey included migrants who arrived in Australia after 1984 and people who were temporary residents of Australia for 12 months or more.
23 It is impracticable to obtain information relating to labour force status of people before migration according to the strict definitions used in the monthly LFS. It is for this reason that ‘Had a job’ and ‘Did not have a job’ are used to describe pre-migration labour force status, while 'Employed', 'Unemployed' and 'Not in the labour force' are used to describe labour force status at November 2004.
COMPARABILITY WITH MONTHLY LFS STATISTICS
24 Due to differences in the scope and sample size of this supplementary survey and that of the monthly LFS, the estimation procedure may lead to some small variations between labour force estimates from this survey and those from the LFS.
25 Results of previous surveys have been published in:
- Characteristics of Migrants Aged 18 Years and Over at the Time of Arrival and Who Arrived after 1960, Australia, March 1984 (cat. no. 6250.0)
- Labour Force Status and Other Characteristics of Migrants, Australia, March 1987 (cat. no. 6250.0)
- Labour Force Status and Other Characteristics of Migrants, Australia, September 1990 (cat. no. 6250.0)
- Labour Force Status and Other Characteristics of Migrants, Australia, September 1993 (cat. no. 6250.0)
- Labour Force Status and Other Characteristics of Migrants, Australia, November 1996 (cat. no. 6250.0)
- Labour Force Status and Other Characteristics of Migrants, Australia, November 1999 (cat. no. 6250.0).
26 The ABS plans to conduct this survey again in November 2007.
27 ABS publications draw extensively on information provided freely by individuals, businesses, governments and other organisations. Their continued cooperation is very much appreciated: without it, the wide range of statistics published by the ABS would not be available. Information received by the ABS is treated in strict confidence as required by the Census and Statistics Act 1905.
28 ABS publications which may be of interest include:
29 Current publications and other products released by the ABS are listed in the Catalogue of Publications and Products (cat. no. 1101.0). The Catalogue is available from any ABS office or the ABS web site, <http://www.abs.gov.au>. The ABS also issues a daily Release Advice on the web site which details products to be released in the week ahead.
- Australian Labour Market Statistics, cat. no. 6105.0
- Job Search Experience, Australia, cat. no. 6222.0
- Labour Force, Australia, cat. no. 6202.0
- Labour Force Experience, Australia cat. no. 6206.0.