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8 Apart from the exclusions mentioned above, businesses which export goods or services in a particular year are counted as exporters regardless of the value or frequency of their exports. Tables 1 and 2 in this publication present the number of exporters by a range of export values. In addition, table 2 presents counts of goods exporters by the frequency of export transactions. This information may be analysed when considering issues such as the identification of businesses with an export focus.
9 This issue introduces estimates for the value of services exports on a balance of payments basis compiled according to the revised international standards, the Balance of Payments and International Investment Position Manual, Sixth Edition (BPM6). However, the item 'Manufacturing services on physical inputs owned by others' has been excluded to prevent double counting, as exports of goods include goods after they have been processed. In previous publications the value of services exports was published in accordance with the Balance of Payments Manual, Fifth Edition. For further information on the revised standards see Information Paper: Implementation of new international statistical standards in ABS National Accounts and International Accounts, September 2009 (cat. no 5310.0.55.002).
CHARACTERISTICS OBTAINED FROM THE ABR
10 The Australian Business Number (ABN) is used to obtain selected information on businesses characteristics from the ABR.
11 The information obtained from the ABR includes:
12 The ABS also receives information on the number of payees and GST turnover range from the ATO. These indicators are used in determining the size of the business. The characteristics listed above can not be obtained for exporting businesses without an ABN.
13 The following issues should be considered when interpreting information from the ABR about exporters:
14 The ABS has developed a business longitudinal database that provides various characteristics about Australian businesses, including ANZSIC, business size (based on employment), and number of locations. For more information, see the Business Longitudinal Database, CURF, Australia, 2004-05, 2005-06 and 2006-07 (cat. no. 8168.0.55.001). In addition, the January 2010 issue of the Australian Economic Indicators monthly publication (cat. no. 1350.0) contains two feature articles on small and medium businesses in Australia.
CHARACTERISTICS OBTAINED FROM CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION SERVICE
15 The following information can be obtained or derived from export documentation for all goods exporters including those without an ABN:
16 The State of origin of the commodity recorded on export documentation can be used to identify the State from which the exported goods were sourced. State of origin is the State in which the final stage of production or manufacture occurs. Determining a single State of origin is difficult when there may be several stages in the manufacturing process, each of which may take place in a different State. For example, fruit may be grown in one State, canned in another, and exported from another.
17 The industry of origin of the commodity is derived by linking each statistical code in the Australian Harmonised Export Commodity Classification (AHECC) to an ANZSIC industry based on the primary activities of the industries with which they are most commonly associated. These are the industries most likely to have produced the exported goods. Industry of origin of the commodity is a different concept from the industry of business recorded on the ABR. While each AHECC statistical code is allocated to one primary industry of origin, commodities can be produced and/or exported by businesses classified to a number of industries.
18 Two different concepts are used to measure the State distribution of goods exporters in this article.
19 The first measure is a count of the number of businesses which export goods produced in a given State based on information supplied to Customs and Border Protection with export documentation. The second measure is a count of the number of businesses engaged in exporting activities within a given State, based on State of business location as supplied to the ATO at the time the business initially registered with the ABR, or subsequently went through a change in business structure.
20 An exporter is defined as having locations within the State of origin of the exported commodity if
21 Table 6 shows the comparison of the two different concepts, 'State of origin of commodities' and 'State of business location on the ABR'. The State of business location is then broken down by 'main location in State' and 'location in State not main location'. The sum of the location numbers in this table exceeds the number of goods exporters because an exporter may export goods which originate from more than one State.
22 Table 8 shows the distribution of goods exporting businesses, by industry of exporter and the exporter's main State of business location as listed on the ABR (see Explanatory Notes paragraphs 10-14).
23 In addition to the industry of origin of the commodity, a number of tables show the industry of the exporter. This is based on the ANZSIC 2006 industry of the exporting business as registered on the ABR. The exporting business as defined in this analysis is the owner of the good at the time of export and not necessarily the producer of the exported commodity.
24 As announced in the previous issue of this publication, industry data in this issue are based on the Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC) 2006. ANZSIC 2006 provides a more contemporary and internationally comparable industrial classification system than its predecessor (ANZSIC 1993). One of the impacts of the redevelopment of ANZSIC is an increase in the number of industries at each level of the classification. ANZSIC 2006 separately identifies 19 divisions compared with 17 in ANZSIC 1993. ANZSIC 2006 was introduced to International Trade in Goods data with the release of July 2009 data. For more information about ANZSIC 2006, see Information paper: Changes to International Trade in Goods Industry Statistics, July 2009 (cat. no. 5368.0.55.011).
25 Exporter counts are presented by business size. The ABS discussed the size classification to be used for counts of businesses in Information paper: A Statistical View of Counts of Businesses in Australia, Jun 2005 (cat. no. 8162.0). The size classification recommended in that information paper only used the number of payees. Despite this, additional criteria have been added for the purpose of this article, to cover businesses with large value domestic and/or export sales, but relatively few employees. This non-standard definition has been retained to maintain consistency with previous issues of this article and because it caters for exporters that do not have an ABN or have more complex structures; e.g. the ABN reported on the export documentation may not be the same as the ABN used for employment purposes.
26 For the purposes of this analysis, the size of the business has been determined in terms of three variables - its employment, estimated annual turnover (both from ATO information) and the value of exports (reported to Customs and Border Protection).
27 The criteria are:
28 Data cube 11 shows country data by the number of goods exporters, number of transactions, and the value of exports. All countries with total exports under $1 million have 'less than $1m' recorded in the value of exports cell. This diverges from the usual ABS practice of 'rounding' values of $500,000 or more up to $1 million and 'rounding' values of $499,999 or less down to zero. Total exports for all countries includes the actual value of exports for Australia's less significant export partners.
29 Serbia and Serbia and Montenegro contain only 6 months' data, due to a change in country classification in the middle of the financial year during which the exports were recorded. The value for Serbia and Montenegro covers the period July 2008 to December 2008, and the value for Serbia is for the period January 2009 to June 2009.
30 The value of exports for some commodities is suppressed to preserve exporter confidentiality, but total exports by country can be released for the majority of countries. Exporter counts are suppressed for those countries with fewer than five exporters to preserve exporter confidentiality. In these instances the number of exporters cell is annotated 'fewer than 5' and the corresponding number of export transactions cell is not available and is annotated np (not available for publication).
31 For some countries, exports of alumina comprise almost all of the confidential item and it is necessary to apply a secondary embargo on the country of final export destination, in addition to the commodity restriction. The countries affected by this secondary embargo are Bahrain, Egypt, and Iceland. As a consequence, the number of exporters, number of export transactions, and the total value of exports for all alumina for these countries are excluded from each of these countries and combined in 'Country confidential'.
32 Where figures have been rounded, discrepancies may occur between sums of the component items and totals. Percentage movements are calculated from data at the level of precision presented in this publication (i.e. $m).
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