Assets are a store of value over which ownership rights are enforced by institutional units, individually or collectively, and from which economic benefits may be derived by their owners by holding them, or using them, over a period of time (the economic benefits consist of primary incomes derived from the use of the asset and the value, including possible holding gains/losses, that could be realised by disposing of the asset or terminating it).
A balance sheet is a statement, drawn up in respect to a particular point in time, of the values of assets owned and of the liabilities owed by an institutional unit or group of units. A balance sheet may be drawn up for institutional units, institutional sectors and the total economy.
The basic price is the amount receivable by the producer from the purchaser for a unit of a good or service produced as output minus any tax payable, and plus any subsidy receivable, on that unit as a consequence of its production or sale. It excludes any transport charges invoiced separately by the producer. Output sold at prices that are not economically significant (see also Economically significant prices) is not valued at these prices. Rather, such output is valued at its cost of production.
Compensation of employees
Compensation of employees is the total remuneration, in cash or in kind, payable by an enterprise to an employee in return for work done by the employee during the accounting period. It is further classified into two sub-components: wages and salaries; and employers’ social contributions. Compensation of employees is not payable in respect of unpaid work undertaken voluntarily, including the work done by members of a household within an unincorporated enterprise owned by the same household. Compensation of employees excludes any taxes payable by the employer on the wage and salary bill (e.g. e.g. payroll tax).
Consumption of fixed capital
Consumption of fixed capital is the value of the reproducible fixed assets used up during a period of account as a result of normal wear and tear, foreseen obsolescence and the normal rate of accidental damage. Unforeseen obsolescence, major catastrophes and the depletion of natural resources are not taken into account.
Economically significant prices
Economically significant prices are prices which have a significant influence on both the amounts producers are willing to supply and the amounts purchasers wish to buy.
Employers’ social contributions
Employers’ social contributions are payments by employers which are intended to secure for their employees the entitlement to social benefits should certain events occur, or certain circumstances exist, that may adversely affect their employees’ income or welfare—namely work-related accidents and retirement.
Exports of goods and services
The value of goods exported and amounts receivable from non-residents for the provision of services by residents.
Financial intermediation services indirectly measured (FISIM)
Banks and some other financial intermediaries are able to provide services for which they do not charge explicitly, by paying or charging different rates of interest to borrowers and lenders (and to different categories of borrowers and lenders). For example, they may pay lower rates of interest than would otherwise be the case to those who lend them money and charge higher rates of interest to those who borrow from them. The resulting net receipts of interest are used to defray their expenses and provide an operating surplus. This scheme of interest rates avoids the need to charge their customers individually for services provided and leads to the pattern of interest rates observed in practice. However, in this situation, the national accounts must use an indirect measure, namely FISIM, of the value of the services for which the intermediaries do not charge explicitly. Whenever the production of output is recorded in the national accounts, the use of that output must be explicitly accounted for elsewhere in the accounts. Hence, FISIM must be recorded as being disposed of in one or more of the following ways: as intermediate consumption by enterprises; as final consumption by households or general government; or as exports to non-residents.
Gross domestic product
Gross domestic product is the total market value of goods and services produced in Australia within a given period after deducting the cost of goods and services used up in the process of production, but before deducting allowances for the consumption of fixed capital. Thus gross domestic product, as here defined, is 'at market prices'. It is equivalent to gross national expenditure plus exports of goods and services less imports of goods and services.
Gross mixed income of unincorporated enterprises
Gross mixed income of unincorporated enterprises is the term reserved for the surplus accruing to owners of unincorporated enterprises from processes of production (as defined for gross operating surplus) before deducting any explicit or implicit interest, rents or other property incomes payable on the financial assets, non-produced non-financial natural resource assets (such as land) required to carry on the production and before deducting consumption of fixed capital. However, GMI is measured after the deduction of FISIM and the insurance service charge. The owners, or other members of their households, may work without receiving any wage or salary. Mixed income therefore includes both gross operating surplus for unincorporated enterprises and returns for the proprietors' own labour (akin to wages and salaries). In practice, all unincorporated enterprises owned by households that are not quasi-corporations are deemed to fall into this category, except owner-occupiers in their capacity as producers of housing services for own final consumption, and households employing paid domestic staff (an activity which is deemed to generate zero surplus).
Gross national expenditure (GNE)
Gross national expenditure (GNE) is the total expenditure within a given period by Australian residents on final goods and services (i.e. before allowances for capital goods and services used up during the period in the process of production). It is equivalent to gross domestic product plus imports of goods and services less exports of goods and services.
Gross operating surplus (GOS)
Gross operating surplus is a measure of the surplus accruing to owners from processes of production before deducting any explicit or implicit interest charges, rents or other property incomes payable on the financial assets, non-produced non-financial natural resource assets (such as land) required to carry on the production and before deducting consumption of fixed capital. However, GOS is measured after the deduction of FISIM and the insurance service charge. It excludes gross mixed income which is the surplus accruing to owners of unincorporated enterprises. Gross operating surplus is also calculated for general government, where it equals general government's consumption of fixed capital.
Gross State Product (GSP)
Gross State Product (GSP) is defined equivalently to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) but refers to production within a state or territory rather than to the nation as a whole. See Gross Domestic Product (GDP).
Gross value added (GVA)
Gross value added is defined as the value of output at basic prices minus the value of intermediate consumption at purchasers' prices. The term is used to describe gross product by industry and by sector. Basic prices valuation of output removes the distortion caused by variations in the incidence of commodity taxes and subsidies across the output of individual industries.
Imports of goods and services
The value of goods imported and amounts payable to non-residents for the provision of services to residents.
An industry consists of a group of establishments engaged in the same, or similar kinds, of activity.
Input-Output Industry Group (IOIG)
IOIGs are based on the Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC) and the I-O tables are published at this level of industry.
Input-Output Product Classification (IOPC)
The IOPC is the detailed level product classification, organised according to the industry to which each product is primary. I-O tables are compiled at this level of product classification.
Input and output tables are a means of presenting a detailed analysis of the process of production and the use of goods and services (products) and the income generated in the production process; they can be either in the form of (a) supply and use tables or (b) symmetric input and output tables.
An institutional unit is an economic entity that is capable, in its own right, of owning assets, incurring liabilities, and engaging in economic activities and in transactions with other entities. There are two main types of institutional units, namely persons or groups of persons in the form of households, and legal or social entities whose existence is recognised by law or society independently of the persons, or other entities, that may own or control them. The individual members of multi-person households are not treated as separate institutional units. Legal or social entities that engage in economic activities in their own right, such as corporations, NPIs or government units, are considered institutional units as they are responsible and accountable for the economic decisions or actions they take.
Consists of the value of the goods and services used as inputs by a process of production, excluding the consumption of fixed capital.
A liability is an obligation which requires one unit (the debtor) to make a payment or a series of payments to the other unit (the creditor) in certain circumstances specified in a contract between them.
If the transactions are valued at basic prices, the margins are recorded as intermediate Consumption (e.g. transport, wholesale trade) of the intermediate users or final buyers. If transactions are valued at purchasers’ prices the value of margins in included, along with taxes less subsidies on products with the purchasers’ price of the good to which the margin relates.
Output that is sold at prices that are economically significant or otherwise disposed of on the market, or intended for sale or disposal on the market.
Goods and services produced by any institutional unit that are supplied free or at prices that are not economically significant.
Non market output of market producers
Is an imputation to measure the output of NPIs engaged in market production that is not measured when output is valued through sales. It is calculated as the difference between output for market units when calculated by the prescribed valuation method for non-market units of cost summation, and output as calculated by the prescribed method for market units of valuation by sales. Where output on a cost valuation basis exceeds output on a sales valuation basis, the difference is taken to be the non-market output of market producers. Where output on a sales basis exceeds output on a cost basis, non-market output of market producers is assumed to equal zero.
Non-profit institutions are legal or social entities created for the purpose of producing goods or services whose status does not permit them to be a source of income, profit or other financial gain for the units that establish, control or finance them.
Other subsidies on production
Other subsidies on production consist of all subsidies, except subsidies on products, which resident enterprises may receive as a consequence of engaging in production. Other subsidies on production include: subsidies related to the payroll or workforce numbers (including subsidies payable on the total wage or salary bill), on numbers employed, or on the employment of particular types of persons, e.g. persons with disabilities or persons who have been unemployed for a long period.
Other taxes on production
Other taxes on production consist of all taxes that enterprises incur as a result of engaging in production, except taxes on products. Other taxes on production include: taxes related to the payroll or workforce numbers excluding compulsory social security contributions paid by employers and any taxes paid by the employees themselves out of their wages or salaries; recurrent taxes on land, buildings or other structures; some business and professional licences where no service is provided by the Government in return; taxes on the use of fixed assets or other activities; stamp duties; taxes on pollution; and taxes on international transactions.
Output consists of those goods and services that are produced within an establishment that become available for use outside that establishment, plus any goods and services produced for own final use.
Primary inputs include compensation of employees, gross operating surplus and gross mixed income, taxes less subsidies on products, other taxes less subsidies on production and imports.
The producers’ price is the amount receivable by the producer from the purchaser for a unit of a good or service.
An activity carried out under the responsibility, control and management of an institutional unit that uses inputs of labour, capital and goods and services to produce output of goods and services.
The national accounts production boundary includes:
- the production of all individual or collective goods and services that are supplied to units other than the producers, or intended to be supplied, including the production of goods and services used up in the process of producing such goods and services;
- the own-account production of all goods that are retained by their producers for their own final consumption or gross capital formation; and
- the own-account production of housing services by owner-occupiers.
The purchaser's price is the amount paid by the purchaser, excluding any deductible tax, in order to take delivery of a unit of a good or service at the time and place required by the purchaser. The purchaser’s price of a good includes any transport charges paid separately by the purchaser to take delivery at the required time and place.
Research and development
Research and development (R&D) is creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society, and to enable this stock of knowledge to be used to devise new applications. It is included in intellectual property products as a produced fixed asset.
Subsidies on products
A subsidy on a product is a subsidy payable per unit of a good or service. The subsidy may be a specific amount of money per unit of quantity of a good or service, or it may be calculated ad valorem as a specified percentage of the price per unit. A subsidy may also be calculated as the difference between a specified target price and the market price actually paid by a purchaser. A subsidy on a product usually becomes payable when the product is produced, sold or imported, but it may also become payable in other circumstances, such as when a product is exported, leased, transferred, delivered or used for own consumption or own capital formation.
Supply and use tables
Supply and use tables are in the form of matrices that record how supplies of different kinds of goods and services originate from domestic industries and imports, and how those supplies are allocated between various intermediate or final uses, including exports.
Taxes on production and imports
Taxes on production and imports consist of ‘taxes on products’ and ‘other taxes on production’. These taxes do not include any taxes on the profits or other income received by an enterprise. They are payable irrespective of the profitability of the production process. They may be payable on the land, fixed assets or labour employed in the production process, or on certain activities or transactions.
Taxes on products
A tax on a product is a tax that is payable per unit of some good or service. The tax may be a specific amount of money per unit of quantity of a good or service (quantity being measured either in terms of discrete units or continuous physical variables such as volume, weight, strength, distance, time, etc.), or it may be calculated ad valorem as a specified percentage of the price per unit or value of the goods or services transacted. A tax on a product usually becomes payable when it is produced, sold or imported, but it may also become payable in other circumstances, such as when a good is exported, leased, transferred, delivered, or used for own consumption or own capital formation.
Total factor income
Total factor income is that part of the cost of producing the gross domestic product which consists of gross payments to factors of production (labour and capital). It represents the value added by these factors in the process of production, and is equivalent to gross domestic product less taxes plus subsidies on production and imports.
A visitor is defined as any person ‘taking a trip to a main destination outside his/her usual environment, for less than a year, for any main purpose (business, leisure or other personal purpose) other than to be employed by a resident entity in the country or place visited’.
Volunteers are people who willingly give unpaid help, in the form of time, service or skills, to an organisation or group. Included in this category are the volunteer component of boards of management, fundraising committee members and auxiliary members.
Wages and salaries
Wages and salaries payable in cash include the value of any social contributions, income taxes, etc., payable by the employee even if they are actually withheld by the employer for administrative convenience or other reasons, and paid directly to social insurance schemes, tax authorities, etc., on behalf of the employee. Wages and salaries may be paid as remuneration in kind instead of, or in addition to, remuneration in cash. Separation, termination and redundancy payments are also included in wages and salaries.