Aboriginal health worker
See Female Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander health worker; Indigenous health worker; Male Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander health worker.
People who identify or are identified as being of Aboriginal origin. May also include people identified as being of both Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander origin.
See also Indigenous people; Torres Strait Islander people.
Aboriginal Primary Health Care Service
A community controlled health facility established to provide primary health care services and health care support to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians. The most comprehensive definition of Aboriginal community control is that used by the National Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Organisation (NACCHO), consistent with that adopted by the 1989 National Aboriginal Health Strategy (NAHS). It defines an Aboriginal community controlled health service as:
- an incorporated Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander organisation;
- initiated by an Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander community;
- based in a local Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander community;
- governed by an Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander body which is elected by the local Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander community; and
- delivering a holistic and culturally appropriate health service to the community that controls it.
A variety of governance structures exist and may be considered as stages along a process to develop full community control.
The staffing profile of these services varies with each service. Staff may include Aboriginal health workers, nurses, general practitioners, allied health professionals, counsellors etc.
The primary health care services provided by Aboriginal Primary Health Care Services will depend on the staffing of the particular service. These may include:
- Clinical care (such as treatment of acute illness, emergency care, provision of essential drugs and management of chronic disease)
- Population health/preventative care such as immunisation, ante natal care, screening and early intervention services
- Facilitation of access to secondary and tertiary health services and related community services such as aged care and disability services, providing transport and arranging appointments
- Client/community assistance and advocacy on health related matters within the health and non-health sectors.
See Permanent dwelling acquisitions.
Allied Health Professional Clinic
A clinic established to provide allied health professional services such as optometry, physiotherapy, podiatry, dietitian advice, audiology.
Australian Indigenous Geographical Classification (AIGC)
Aims to provide a geographical standard for the publication of statistics about the Indigenous population of Australia.
The first edition of this classification was produced for the 1996 Census. The classification comprises four levels of geographic units in a single hierarchy, the smallest unit being the Census Collection District (CD). CDs aggregate to form Indigenous Locations (ILOCs) which in turn aggregate to form Indigenous Areas (IAREs) which then aggregate to form Indigenous Regions (IREGs). At each level of the hierarchical structure, the component spatial units collectively cover the whole of geographic Australia without gaps or overlaps.
See also Collection District (CD); Indigenous Area (IARE); Indigenous Location (ILOC); Indigenous Region (IREG).
Average weekly rent
Calculated by dividing the total amount of rent received for the financial year prior to the survey, by the total number of permanent dwellings managed. This figure was then divided by 52 to provide an average weekly amount. Excluded from these calculations were any rents reported by IHOs which did not manage any permanent dwellings and any permanent dwellings managed by IHOs which did not report their total rent received.
Average maintenance expenditure
Calculated by dividing the total amount of maintenance expenditure reported for the financial year prior to the survey, by the total number of permanent dwellings managed. Excluded from these calculations were any permanent dwellings managed by IHOs which did not report their total maintenance expenditure.
Average time taken to allocate permanent dwellings to new tenants
Refers to the average number of working/ business days to allocate a permanent dwelling during the previous 12 months. It is the time period from when an IHO was notified of the requirement to allocate a dwelling up to the time the allocation is completed and the tenant notified the dwelling is available. The tenant does not need to have actually occupied the dwelling for the allocation process to be considered complete.
See IHO Board.
Collection District (CD)
The Census Collection District (CD) is the smallest geographic area defined in the Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC). The CD has been designed for use in the Census of Population and Housing as the smallest unit for collection and processing. For the 2006 Census, CDs will also be the basis of output for most data. For 2006, CDs also serve as the basic building block in the ASGC and are used for the aggregation of statistics to larger Census geographic areas.
For the 2006 Census, there is an average of about 225 dwellings in each CD. In rural areas, the number of dwellings per CD generally declines as population densities decrease.
CDs are defined for each Census and are current only at Census time. For the 2006 Census, there are about 38,200 CDs throughout Australia (this includes the other territories of Christmas and Cocos (Keeling) Islands and Jervis Bay).
For more detailed information, refer to 2006 Census Dictionary (cat.no.2901.0); Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC), 2006 (cat.no.1216.0).
Community Development Employment Projects (CDEP)
The Community Development Employment Projects (CDEP) scheme was developed in 1976 as a response to remote Aboriginal communities' requests for local employment to be created, with a particular focus on community development. The CDEP enables members of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander communities to exchange unemployment benefits for opportunities to undertake work and training in activities which are managed by a local Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander community organisation.
In 1985, CDEP was expanded to include Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities living in rural and urban areas. CDEP is funded and supported by the Department of Employment and Workplace Relations (DEWR).
Community health centre
See Other (state funded) community health centre.
A written plan created by community members which identifies and lists the community's priority needs such as housing, water upgrades, communication facilities, health care facilities, education facilities.
Transport services owned or funded by the community or community council and made available to transport community members.
Computer Assisted Interviewing (CAI)
Describes the use of a computer to aid the interview process in a survey. CAI involves the use of a notebook computer to record, store, manipulate and transmit the data collected during interviews. Responses are recorded directly onto electronic questionnaires on a notebook computer.
Facility providing dentistry services such as cleaning, repairing and removing teeth.
A health professional who diagnoses diseases, injuries, decay and malformations of teeth, gums, mouth tissue, jaw and other dento-facial structures, prescribes and administer restorative and preventative procedures, including surgery and other specialist techniques. The entry requirement for this profession is a bachelor degree or higher qualification.
A health professional who studies diet and how it can affect the health of individuals. Dietitians assist individuals, groups and communities by promoting healthy eating by providing diet plans and menus, instructing people on the requirements and importance of diet, and on the planning and preparation of food. The qualification levels of a Dietitian is a bachelor degree or higher qualification.
Discrete community IHO
An Indigenous Housing Organisation that manages housing in one or more discrete Indigenous communities. These IHOs may also manage housing in other locations.
Discrete Indigenous community
A geographic location, bounded by physical or cadastral (legal) boundaries, and inhabited or intended to be inhabited predominantly (i.e. greater than 50% of usual residents) by Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander peoples, with housing or infrastructure that is managed on a community basis. In some cases there was a degree of subjectivity in deciding whether a location met the definition of a discrete Indigenous community. In cases of doubt, locations were included as discrete communities. Locations which had no usual population at the time of the survey, and were not expected to be reoccupied within the 12 months following enumeration, were not included.
See Permanent dwelling disposals.
See General Medical Practitioner.
Domestic and personal hygiene
A community based activity to promote domestic and personal hygiene, with the aim of reducing transmission of communicable diseases. For example, advice and education on hand washing, food preparation and kitchen management. May also include assessment and improvement of 'health hardware' (functioning kitchens, bathrooms and laundries, including appliances).
Drug and alcohol worker
The worker's primary focus is on issues arising from the use of any drugs. This includes providing information on alcohol or other drugs, or assistance with these problems. The services may be delivered in a setting designated specifically as a drug service, such as methadone unit, or by identified drug workers in a more generalist setting such as a community health centre. The service may be residential or non-residential.
See Permanent dwelling acquisitions.
See Permanent dwelling condition.
See Permanent dwelling disposals.
A health program that provides advice and education on ear care, regarding various health concerns such as ear infections in children and their effects on hearing. The program may also include screening such as hearing tests.
Ear, nose, throat/respiratory specialist
A doctor who has had additional training, usually at least five years, in this particular area of specialisation.
Includes purchase of prepaid electricity cards and also situations where electricity is included in rent charges. This data item identifies whether individual households are charged for their electricity use.
Interruptions to the supply of electricity to an Indigenous community for a period of one hour or more. Excludes cases where the use of electrical appliances is restricted due to poor/low electricity supply.
The type of electricity supply used to service discrete Indigenous community dwellings and facilities. The main source of electricity refers to the electricity supply that serviced the greatest number of dwellings in the community.
Emotional and social well-being /mental health
A health program that promotes emotional and social well-being mental health through the use of culturally appropriate educational activities and materials (e.g. posters and videos), screening, counselling and other interventions at a community/group level.
Details the various housing cost components associated with running each IHO, such as salaries, staff training, repairs and maintenance, based on expenditure in the last financial year. The reference period reported as the financial year prior to the 2006 CHINS was July 2004 to June 2005.
A health program that provides advice and education on eye health care, regarding various health concerns, such as infection due to conjunctivitis, sun protection, cataracts, trachoma, diabetic retinopathy and screening of eye sight. Excludes Trachoma control which is a separate health promotion program.
Eye specialist (or Ophthalmologist)
A doctor who has had additional training, usually at least five years, in this particular area of specialisation.
Female Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander health worker
A female person identifying as Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander and working in the community as a health worker. This person may be required in some communities for cultural or sensitivity reasons.
Financial year has been taken as the period for which each IHO produces financial statements. The reference period reported as the financial year prior to the 2006 CHINS was July 2004 to June 2005.
Instances where water courses overflow and inundate either part or all of the community. This includes overflow and discharge water from natural swamps, lagoons or creeks intruding into residential, administration or recreational areas of the community. Floods which cut access roads to the community, but which did not flood the community itself, were excluded.
General Medical Practitioner (GP)
A health professional who diagnoses and treats physical and mental illnesses, disorders and injuries, recommends preventative action and refers patients to specialist medical practitioners. The entry requirement for this group of professionals is a bachelor degree or higher qualification and one year's hospital-based training. The type of work a GP would be involved in includes: conducting examinations and questioning patients to determine the nature of disorders or illnesses and recording patient medical information; ordering and performing laboratory tests, X-rays and other diagnostic images and procedures and analysing findings; providing overall care for patients; and prescribing treatments.
A privately established medical service staffed by one or a group of General Medical Practitioners (GPs) set up to provide services to the general population of the area. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians may access this service but it has not been established as an Aboriginal community controlled service.
Government owned and managed permanent dwellings
Permanent dwellings located in discrete Indigenous communities which are owned and managed by a State or Territory housing authority. Excludes State or Territory owned dwellings which are managed by an Indigenous Housing Organisation (IHO). State or Territory owned dwellings managed by IHOs are included in the IHO count of managed permanent dwellings. For further details, see IHO managed permanent dwellings.
Waste water from a household's bathroom, shower, laundry and kitchen. Water from the toilet, which is commonly called black water, is not included.
Health promotion program
A series of planned group activities conducted by a health professional within the community. They are designed to change knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, behaviours or susceptibility to disease through a combination of educational and environmental measures, screening or immunisation. A program might cover:
- displays of educational material, articles in the local media, or use of other communication channels
- small group educational activities
- community development
- environmental measures such as providing healthy food choices in the school canteen or providing safe areas for people to exercise
- early detection and intervention.
Health promotion activities conducted during individual consultations with health professionals were excluded.
For more detailed information on individual programs, see also Domestic and personal hygiene; Ear health; Emotional and social well-being/mental health; Eye health (excluding Trachoma control); Immunisation; Men's health; Nutrition; Sexual health; Stop smoking; Substance misuse; Trachoma control; Well babies; Women's health; Youth health.
See Dentist; Diabetes specialist; Dietitian; Doctor; Drug and alcohol worker; Ear, nose, throat/respiratory specialist; Eye specialist (Ophthalmologist); Female Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander health worker; Indigenous health worker; Male Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander health worker; Mental health professional; Obstetrician /Gynaecologist; Occupational therapist; Optometrist; Paediatrician; Physiotherapist; Podiatrist; Registered nurse; Speech pathologist; Surgeon.
An area of land with which Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander people have ancestral and/or cultural links. Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander people may or may not live there permanently. For the purposes of this survey, where Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander people permanently live on a homeland, these homelands have been grouped with outstations. See Outstation for further details.
A building in which health professionals provide medical assistance and where people can be admitted to stay overnight if necessary. It is for the treatment, care and cure of the sick and wounded, for the study of disease, and for the training of physicians, nurses, and allied health personnel. For the purpose of this survey, a hospital does not need to have surgical facilities to be included.
A board may have two or more people. In the context of Indigenous housing a board refers to either a group of persons elected by community members or representatives of relevant agencies. The board coordinates housing affairs and establishes policies within an organisation managing Indigenous housing for a region containing an Indigenous community or communities. Members of the board are responsible for collectively making decisions in regards to the management of housing activities within the community or region. Incorporated organisations are recognised as having their own legal identity and are usually required by law to have a board established under their constitution. Organisations may be incorporated under commonwealth, state or territory legislation or registered with the Commonwealth Registrar of Aboriginal Corporations. Such a board may be called by a different name, for example a committee, but if the organisation is incorporated then this body is a board under the law.
IHO managed permanent dwellings
Permanent dwellings located in discrete Indigenous communities, towns or other localities which are managed by an Indigenous organisation that provides housing to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. This includes permanent dwellings which are owned by State or Territory housing authorities, but managed by an Indigenous Housing Organisation (IHO). Excluded are dwellings in discrete Indigenous communities which are not managed by an IHO.
A program to vaccinate children (and adults) against harmful infections before they come into contact with them in the community. This program can cover diphtheria, tetanus, whooping cough, poliomyelitis, measles, mumps, tuberculosis, and rubella. Adult immunisation includes influenza and pneumococcal vaccination for those at risk. This could also include education about immunisation programs.
Details the various sources of funds received by each IHO in the last financial year, for the purpose of providing and maintaining housing. The reference period reported as the financial year prior to the 2006 CHINS was July 2004 to June 2005.
The sources of housing income collected in the 2006 CHINS were rent, grants, royalties, business enterprises, property sales, and 'other' sources.
Indigenous Area (IARE)
- Rent - money received from tenants of the properties managed by the IHO. Information was also collected on any additional charges included in the rent, such as water rates, electricity charges, malicious damage charges, rental arrears, garbage collection charges.
- Grants - an amount of money provided to the organisation for the purpose of purchasing, building or maintaining rental housing for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities. The grant does not need to be repaid but a set of conditions are established with the grant.
- Royalties - the sum paid to the organisation for the use of Aboriginal land.
- Business enterprises - commercial activities undertaken by the IHO such as renting office space, community vehicles, laundromats, repair and maintenance activity on behalf of another housing organisation, or rental income paid to an IHO who manages dwellings on behalf of another IHO.
- Property sales - all money received from sales of any housing property by the IHO, including those to former tenants.
- Other sources - includes service charges, donations that are not made as a specific grant, any bond money forfeited as a result of property damage, borrowed funds requiring repayment such as loans, interest, dividends and insurance claim payments.
Indigenous Areas (IAREs) are aggregates of Collection Districts (CDs) which represent a population of at least 300 Indigenous persons. IAREs aggregate to Indigenous Regions (IREGs), and cover the whole of Australia without gaps or overlaps.
Census statistics, including a range of Indigenous statistics, are available by IAREs.
Indigenous Profiles are also produced for IAREs.
See also Indigenous Location (ILOC); Indigenous Region (IREG).
Indigenous Coordination Centre (ICC) Region
Indigenous Coordination Centre (ICC) Regions have replaced the former Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission (ATSIC) Regions as the geographic basis for delivering Indigenous specific Commonwealth services. There are 30 ICC offices and the Torres Strait Regional Authority, giving a total of 31 ICC Regions.
Indigenous health worker
The role of the Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander health worker is viewed differently in most states and territories, with the role and functions of an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander health worker evolving according to the development of health services to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. The role and function is also dependent upon whether the Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander health worker is employed by the community controlled health services or within the government sector.
An Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander health worker can provide assistance and information on health issues affecting the community, such as:
Indigenous Housing Organisation (IHO)
- alcohol and mental health
- diabetes, ear and eye health
- sexual health
- hospital education and liaison officers.
Any Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander organisation which is responsible for managing housing for Indigenous people. This includes community organisations, such as Resource Agencies and Land Councils, that have a range of functions, provided that they manage housing for Indigenous people.
Indigenous Location (ILOC)
Indigenous Locations (ILOCs) are single Collection Districts (CDs) or aggregates of CDs which have a population of at least 80 Indigenous persons. ILOCs aggregate to Indigenous Areas (IAREs). ILOCs cover the whole of Australia without gaps or overlaps.
Summary Census statistics, including a range of Indigenous statistics, are available by ILOC.
Indigenous Summary Profiles are also produced for ILOCs.
See also Indigenous Area (IARE); Indigenous Region (IREG).
People who identify themselves, or are identified by another household member, as being of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander origin.
See also Aboriginal people; Torres Strait Islander people.
Indigenous Region (IREG)
The Commonwealth Government uses 30 Indigenous Coordination Centres (ICC) and the Torres Strait Regional Authority (TSRA) to manage the delivery of a range of services to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people around Australia.
For Census purposes, the ABS defines Indigenous Regions (IREGs) based on the ICC and TSRA areas that were in place at the time of Census collection. Some ICC Regions are split into two IREGs based on statistical differences with ICC Regions, and also to allow for the Australian Capital Territory to be a discrete IREG. IREGs are aggregations of Collection Districts which lie mostly or completely within an ICC or TSRA area.
IREGs cover in aggregate, the whole of Australia without gaps or overlaps. (Note: IREGs have replaced ATSIC Regions used to disseminate data from the 1996 and 2001 Censuses, as well as the 1999 CHINS and the 2001 CHINS.)
See also Indigenous Area (IARE); Indigenous Location (ILOC).
See Water isolation valve.
See Public internet access.
Male Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander health worker
A male person identifying as Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander and working in the community as a health worker. This person may be required in some communities for cultural or sensitivity reasons.
Management of housing
Refers to the performance of one or more of the following functions:
- administration of tenancy arrangements
- rent collection and/or receives rental income
- housing maintenance.
A health program that promotes and provides education of male health issues through prevention, early detection and intervention programs to improve usage and access to health services. For example, promotion of men's clinics and men's places and mentoring programs.
Mental health professional
A health professional who treats and cares for people with mental illnesses, disorders or dysfunctions, or those experiencing emotional difficulties, distress or crisis, in hospitals, nursing homes and the community. For the purpose of this survey, a mental health professional can include either a nurse or trained health worker in this field.
A health program to provide advice and education on healthy eating for children and adults. May include information on food sources (e.g. traditional foods), dietary intakes, food preparation, weaning and diet to promote normal growth in children and maintenance of normal weight in adults. May also involve food supply such as store policy or community gardens.
Obstetrician (or Gynaecologist)
A physician specialising in medical services related to disorders of the female genital, urinary, rectal and reproductive organs, and the care of women during pregnancy and childbirth.
A health professional who specialises in a method of therapy which uses self-care, work and play activities to increase development and independent function, and to prevent disability.
See Eye specialist.
A health professional who conducts eye and vision examinations, detects and diagnoses eye disease, recommends eye exercises and prescribes glasses and contact lenses. They also have the option of referring clients to Ophthalmologists. They complete a four year degree and must be registered to practise.
Other educational services
Educational services, other than primary or secondary schools, that are available within the Indigenous community. This includes services such as:
Other (state funded) community health centre
- pre-primary schooling
- homework centres
- Technical and Further Education (TAFE) courses
- University or other tertiary courses.
A type of health centre providing a number of services, such as nursing, medical, dental, nutritional services. The centres can also be active in preventative medicine, providing advice to people on issues such as sexually transmitted diseases, immunisation and family planning. They may include clinical care such as treatment of illness, management of chronic disease, population health/preventative care such as immunisation, ante natal care, screening and early intervention services.
A discrete Indigenous community that has a population of less than 50 AND is linked to a larger parent discrete Indigenous community or a Resource Agency for the provision and maintenance of services, such as housing, water, power supplies and sewerage. For the purpose of this survey, outstations may also include homelands.
A physician who specialises in the study and treatment of the diseases of children.
Palliative care facility
A facility, such as a hospice, providing specialised care for people with generally active progressive or advanced disease or illness with little or no prospect of cure. Such illness may not necessarily be terminal. These facilities are aimed at relieving symptoms and pain rather than effecting cure, thus achieving the best possible quality of life for both the person, their carers and family.
A building designed for people to live in, with fixed walls, roof and doors. Usually has kitchen and bathroom facilities, although this is not necessary provided that these facilities could be built into the dwelling. These dwellings are made from regular building materials and are intended for long term residential use. Dwellings were not considered as permanent unless they had internal walls dividing the living space into separate rooms.
Permanent dwelling acquisitions
For all IHOs, this provides data on the number of new permanent houses or flats that were actually constructed to the stage they were either occupied or ready to be occupied during the past 12 months. 'Ready to be occupied' may mean a certificate of occupancy has been issued if this is required by the appropriate authority.
For all IHOs that owned or managed housing stock in towns or 'other localities', data was also collected on the number of permanent dwellings purchased in the past 12 months. Purchase includes acquisition by normal buying process, newly leased, deeding or gifting of property. Leasing also includes those dwellings made available to the IHO through a government agency, such as FaCSIA, for the use of Indigenous housing but which the IHO does not own.
Permanent dwelling condition
The condition of permanent dwellings managed by an Indigenous Housing Organisation (IHO) at the time of enumeration. Permanent dwelling condition was categorised according to the extent of repairs required:
- minor or no repair was defined as repairs of less than $20,000 in low cost areas, less than $27,000 in medium cost areas, and less than $33,000 in high cost areas
- major repair was defined as repairs of $20,000 to less than $60,000 in low cost areas, $27,000 to less than $80,000 in medium cost areas, and $33,000 to less than $100,000 in high cost areas
- replacement was defined as repairs of $60,000 or more in low cost areas, $80,000 or more in medium cost areas, and $100,000 or more in high cost areas.
Each Indigenous Coordination Centre (ICC) region was defined as a low, medium or high cost area based on relative building costs provided in Rawlinson's Australian Construction Handbook, 1999
(Perth, Rawlhouse Publishing). These ranges were not changed between the 2001 and 2006 CHINS. The ranges will be reviewed for the 2011 CHINS.
Permanent dwelling disposals
For all IHOs, this provides data on the number of permanent houses or flats used by the IHO that were no longer available for housing IHO clients during the past 12 months due to being demolished or written-off. This includes permanent dwellings where the lease or right of occupancy expired and the dwelling was no longer available to the IHO. Expiry of leasing includes those dwellings that had been made available to the IHO through a government agency, such as FaCSIA, for the use of Indigenous housing but which have been returned to or withdrawn by the agency and are no longer available to the IHO. Also included are any houses that may have been gifted or deeded to any person or organisation outside of the IHO.
Note that for all IHOs that owned or managed housing stock in towns or 'other localities', data was also collected on the number of permanent dwellings sold during the previous year, as well as the number of permanent dwellings that were sold to former tenants.
Permanent dwellings affected by flooding
Permanent dwellings in which floodwaters entered living areas such as the lounge room, dining room, kitchen, bedrooms or hallways. Flooding confined to garage or storage areas was not considered to have affected permanent dwellings. Permanent dwellings which were affected by flooding were counted once, regardless of the number of times they were affected.
Permanent dwellings affected by sewage overflows or leakages
Permanent dwellings in which sewerage system overflows or leakages occurred either inside the dwelling or nearby, such as in the yard. Permanent dwellings which were affected by sewerage system overflows or leakages were counted once, regardless of the number of times they were affected.
A health professional who assesses and treats disorders of movement caused by injury or disease. Physiotherapists treat patients to reduce pain, cardiovascular and respiratory functions, restore joint mobility, improve balance and coordination. The educational qualification for this profession is a bachelor degree or higher qualification.
A health professional trained to deal with the prevention, diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation of medical and surgical conditions of the feet and lower limbs. They have skills in diagnosis and treatment of foot deformity and soft tissue disorders such as corns and calluses, are able to diagnose lower limb biomechanical problems, advise on choice of footwear, surgically treat soft tissue problems, and design, manufacture and prescribe orthotic devices. Podiatrists complete a three year degree, and must be registered to practise.
Pools of still water that remain stagnant for a period of one week or more and cover an area of at least ten square metres. The pool of stagnant water must occur within the boundary of the discrete Indigenous community. Naturally occurring swamps or lagoons were not considered to be ponding.
See Reported usual population.
See also Population increase.
Refers to the largest population increase in the community for a period of two weeks or more in the 12 months prior to the survey.
Transport owned by a private company or individual for personal use. For example, private cars and chartered flights where air service is for private use, not available to the general public, and routes are tailored to the needs of the client.
Public internet access
A place equipped with a computer connected to the Internet and available to all members of the community. Access may be for less than 24 hours. These points will usually be located in a library, administrative centre, cultural centre, or similar place.
The Internet is a world wide computer network via telephone lines and satellite links, allowing individual users to communicate with each other through e-mail and to gain access to information sites on the World Wide Web and to other electronic archives.
The types of Internet access technology collected in 2006 CHINS were:
- Satellite - Internet access using a combination of a satellite dish and standard data cabling. Information is beamed up and down to orbiting satellites.
- Dial-Up - A method of accessing the Internet through a modem over a standard phone line.
- XDSL - Internet access via the use of existing telephone lines characterised by fast transmission of data and an 'always on' connection. Includes all DSL connection types such as ADSL, SDSL and HDSL.
- Microwave - Any wireless Internet connection. High-speed and always-on. No telephone line is required.
- All other types of Internet connection types not covered in the above categories - including Cable (via the use of coaxial cables); IDSN (via digital telephone lines); Fibre Optic (via fibre optic cable connected to the household/ business).
Government funded or commercial transport services available for use by the general public, such as regular bus, ferry or air services.
A health professional who provides nursing care for patients in hospitals, nursing homes, extended care facilities or other health care facilities, and in the community. They usually have a formal qualification equivalent to a bachelor degree or higher qualification. Their role is to assess, plan, implement and evaluate nursing care for patients according to accepted nursing practice and standards, liaise with other health professionals and members of health teams and assist medical practitioners to examine patients, administer treatment and deliver babies.
Within the Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC), the Remoteness classification comprises five categories, each of which identifies a (non-contiguous) region in Australia being a grouping of Collection Districts (CDs) sharing a particular degree of remoteness. The degrees of remoteness range from 'highly accessible' (i.e. major cities) to 'very remote'. The degree of remoteness of each CD was determined using the Accessibility/Remoteness Index of Australia (ARIA). CDs have then been grouped into the appropriate category of Remoteness to form non-contiguous areas within each state.
For more information, refer to Statistical Geography Volume 1: Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC), 2006 (cat.no.1216.0) and Information Paper: ABS Views on Remoteness (cat.no.1244.0).
Reported usual population
The estimated resident population of a discrete Indigenous community as reported by an IHO or community representative. In this context a usual resident is a person who resides or intends to reside in a community for six months or more. This includes non-Indigenous residents who meet the above criteria.
Reported usual population differs from Usual Resident Population (URP) and Census population counts. The 2006 CHINS reported usual population was provided on behalf of each community by the person with the best knowledge of a particular topic in the community, for example the Chairperson, Housing Officer or Administrator, whereas the data for the 2006 Census of Population and Housing was collected through self-enumeration where householders were required to complete the Census form themselves. For more detailed information, refer to Appendix 2: Population Measures in this publication.
Resource Agency (or Resource Centre)
An Indigenous agency set up to provide a range of services for people living in small remote communities. These services will usually, but not always, include dealings with government agencies, funding applications, banking, housing and other essential services.
Refers to road access between a community and the nearest town with major services. Periods of inaccessibility of one or more days in the 12 months prior to the survey were included. Road access can be cut due to events such as floods or bushfires which prevent the usual community population from accessing the nearest town with major services.
An organised program for the collection and removal of rubbish by an agency rather than individual householders. This includes services which collect household rubbish from each dwelling or a group of dwellings on a regular basis.
A concave dish-shaped reflector designed to receive and focus electromagnetic energy forming radio, television and microwave signals. In the 2006 CHINS, this item identifies whether the community has a satellite dish as a community resource - i.e. it provides access to telecommunications for all members in the community. Satellites attached to individual dwellings for domestic use only were excluded from this data item.
A water based or dry system used for the disposal of human waste. The main sewerage system refers to the sewerage system that serviced the greatest number of permanent dwellings in an Indigenous community. In cases where two or more sewerage systems serviced a community with an equal number of permanent dwellings connected, the higher order system was determined to be the main system.
Connected to town system is a fully reticulated water-borne system (i.e. a water carrying system) with the typical domestic cistern, where water is used to flush and transport wastes away from the community for nearby treatment and disposal. This is an extension of a town system and is shared with a nearby town.
Community water-borne sewerage system is a fully reticulated water-borne system with the typical domestic cistern, where water is used to flush and transport wastes away from the community for nearby treatment and disposal. This is a complete system only serving the community, and is not connected to any other town or community.
A health program that promotes sexual health by providing education and early detection and management of sexually transmitted infections, different methods of protection from sexually transmitted infections, family planning, the sexual rights of individuals and the provision of condoms.
A health professional who assesses, diagnoses and manages disorders of speech and language in children and adults.
Purpose-built facilities that enable sport and physical activity participation within an Indigenous community.
A health program of community based activity to reduce smoking rates and reduce exposure to tobacco smoke. Includes smoking reduction or QUIT programs, group education and support sessions, smoke free areas, education and advice on reducing exposure of children to tobacco smoke (e.g. in houses and cars).
A health program which includes education on prescribed medication, alcohol, illegal drugs, petrol sniffing and other forms of addictive chemicals that can affect the health of the individual.
Substance use service
Service established to provide treatment, rehabilitation, preventative programs, counselling and/or support for people with substance use issues (such as alcohol, drugs, petrol).
A specialist doctor who has had additional training and studies in an area of medicine related to surgery. This includes generalist surgeons and specialist surgeons such as vascular surgeons, cardio-thoracic surgeons, paediatric surgeons. Usually, the specialist has obtained a bachelor degree or higher, and has undertaken an approved training program and obtained Fellowship of the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.
A structure used as a place of residence, which does not meet the building requirements to be considered a permanent dwelling. Types of structures included as temporary dwellings are:
Torres Strait Islander people
- tin shed without internal dividing walls
- other makeshift shelters.
People identified as being of Torres Strait Islander origin. May also include people identified as being of both Torres Strait Islander and Aboriginal origin.
See also Aboriginal people; Indigenous people.
Total maintenance expenditure
The total expenditure incurred by Indigenous Housing Organisations (IHOs) during the financial year prior to the survey for maintenance or repair conducted on managed permanent dwellings. Maintenance expenditure excludes costs associated with dwelling extensions, such as adding a pergola, verandah or garage. IHOs for which maintenance expenditure was not reported, were included in the total count of IHOs for this item with a note of the number of IHOs that had 'not stated' maintenance expenditure.
Total permanent dwellings in communities
Includes all permanent dwellings located in discrete Indigenous communities, comprising:
Total rental income
- permanent dwellings which are managed by an Indigenous Housing Organisation (IHO)
- permanent dwellings managed by a government agency
- privately owned permanent dwellings
- permanent dwellings managed by other organisations.
The total amount of rent collected by Indigenous Housing Organisations (IHOs) in the last financial year prior to the survey. IHOs which did not manage any permanent dwellings, or for which rental income was not reported, were excluded from this item.
Town with major services
This refers to a town to which members of a discrete Indigenous community usually travel to access banking and major shopping services.
A health program which undertakes regular screening in school aged children for trachoma (a contagious inflammation of the conjunctiva of the eyelids), treatment of cases (and sometimes household and community members), education on trachoma prevention and environmental measures to reduce transmission of trachoma.
May also include screening in adults for trichiasis (a state in which the eyelashes grow inwardly).
See Community transport; Private transport; Public transport.
Unoccupied permanent dwelling
A permanent dwelling managed by an Indigenous Housing Organisation, which did not have people living in it at the time of the 2006 CHINS enumeration, and had been unoccupied for a period of at least two weeks.
An Indigenous Housing Organisation that manages housing in towns or other localities only. An urban IHO does not manage any housing stock in discrete Indigenous communities.
See Reported usual population.
Refers to situations where water supply to a community or permanent dwelling is reduced or stops due to infrastructure related reasons, such as:
Water isolation valve
- equipment breakdown
- lack of power
- when water is turned off to undertake maintenance work.
A mechanism that can be used to turn off the water supply to a particular dwelling.
Water management plan
A document prepared by community representatives which outlines strategies, activities and guidelines for current and future water usage for that community.
Measures water consumption of a particular dwelling.
One or a combination of the following types of restrictions:
- the amount of water used
- the purpose for which water can be used
- the method of water usage (e.g. fixed sprinklers)
- the specified period when water can be used.
An organised supply or source of water that is used to supply the community with drinking water. The main source of drinking water refers to the water source used by the greatest number of dwellings in the community.
Water samples sent to a laboratory external to the community for chemical, physical, and microbiological analysis. Excluded are any water tests conducted on site.
Treatments to the community water supply to improve water quality. This may occur in a treatment plant, or involve boiling water or adding disinfection tablets to drinking water.
A health program that provides advice to mothers about their baby's diet (including breast feeding), progress with weight, immunisation, health concerns and general support.
A health program that covers education on women's health issues, family planning and communicable diseases, and provides regular screening and check-ups for women's health matters, such as sexually transmitted infections, blood pressure and sugar levels, cholesterol, weight, breast screening, pap smears.
A health program that promotes and provides education of good health practices generally through social activities, sport and recreation that is specifically targeted at youth aged between 8 - 24 years.