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3 The unit for which statistics were reported in the survey was the management unit. The management unit is the highest level producing unit within a business, having regard for industry homogeneity, for which detailed accounts are maintained.
4 Data contained in the tables in this publication relate to manufacturing and mining businesses within the survey scope (see paragraph 2), which operated in Australia at any time during the year ended June 2001. Counts of businesses, numbers of employees and information relating to environment plans include only those businesses that were operating at 30 June 2001.
BUSINESSES CEASED DURING THE YEAR
5 A very small number of businesses ceased operations during the 2000-01 reference period. As is normal ABS procedure, the contributions of these establishments are included in the survey output.
RELIABILITY OF DATA
6 The estimates in this publication are subject to sampling and non-sampling errors.
7 Since the estimates in this publication are based on information obtained from a sample drawn from units in the survey population, the estimates are subject to sampling variability. That is, they may differ from figures that would have been obtained if all units had been included in the survey. One measure of the likely difference is given by the standard error (SE), which indicates the extent to which an estimate might have varied by chance because only a sample of units was included. There are about two chances in three that a sample estimate will differ by less than one SE from the figure that would have been obtained if a census had been conducted, and approximately 19 chances in 20 that the difference will be less than two SEs.
8 Sampling variability can be measured by the relative standard error (RSE) which is obtained by expressing the standard error as a percentage of the estimate to which it refers. The RSE is a useful measure in that it provides an immediate indication of the percentage errors likely to have occurred due to sampling, and this avoids the need to refer also to the size of the estimate.
9 The following table contains estimates of RSEs for a selection of the statistics presented in this publication.
RELATIVE STANDARD ERRORS FOR TABLE 2.3 CURRENT ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION EXPENDITURE, By domain-Mining
- nil or rounded to zero (including null cell)
Source: Environment Protection, Mining & Manufacturing Industries, Australia 2000-01 (Cat. no. 4603.0)
Copyright © Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2002
10 As an example of the above, an estimate of current environment protection expenditure for air emissions is $40.5m and the RSE is 2.84% giving a standard error of $1.15m. Therefore, there would be 2 chances in 3 that, if all units had been included in the survey, a figure within the range of $39.35m to $41.65m would have been obtained and 19 chances in 20 that the figure would have been within the range of $38.2m to $42.8m (a confidence interval of 95%).
11 Where the RSE of an estimate included in this publication exceeds 25%, it has been annotated with an asterisk (*) as a warning to users. Where the RSE of an estimate exceeds 50%, it has been annotated with a double asterisk (**).
12 Errors other than those due to sampling may occur because of deficiencies in the list of units from which the sample was selected, non-response, and imperfections in reporting by providers. Inaccuracies of this kind are referred to as non-sampling error, which may occur in any collection, whether it be a census or a sample. Every effort has been made to reduce non-sampling error to a minimum by careful design and testing of questionnaires, operating procedures and systems used to compile the statistics.
ABS' environment protection and management statistics draw on the Classification of Environment Protection Activities (CEPA) developed by the European Statistical Office (EuroStat). This classification covers a range of broad guidelines on classifying environment protection activities. The CEPA is modified to suit Australian conditions such as the addition of minesite rehabilitation as it is a major component of environment protection expenditure. Additions to previous surveys include physical questions such as: land use and rehabilitation; water intake and discharge; and, generation of waste types and recycling.
RELEASE OF ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
14 As well as the statistics included in this publication, other unpublished data from the environment management survey are also available on request. For information on the provision of additional data please contact Bob Harrison on 02 6252 7369.
15 ABS publications draw extensively on information provided freely by individuals, businesses, governments and other organisations. Their continued cooperation is very much appreciated; without it, the wide range of statistics published by the ABS would not be available. Information received by the ABS is treated in strict confidence, as required by the Census and Statistics Act 1905.
(Mining industry only) This domain refers to an act of restoring or rehabilitating a site or part of a site to a reasonable approximation of its pre-mining condition. Rehabilitation activities include landscaping and re-vegetation measures, as well as removal of buildings, fixtures and equipment from sites where exploration, prospecting, mining or quarrying operations have occurred. Removal of overburden is not counted as part of minesite rehabilitation but the management of overburden is included.
Solid waste management
This domain refers to the storage, handling, treatment, transport, re-use, recycling and/or disposal of hazardous and non-hazardous solid wastes. These are wastes which are of no further immediate value for the purpose for which they were used or produced because of the quality, quantity or timing of their occurrence in manufacturing processes. Solid waste includes solid waste recyclables and by-products.
Waste water and Liquid waste and waste water management
This domain refers to the storage, handling, treatment, transport, re-use, recycling and/or disposal of hazardous and non-hazardous liquid wastes and waste water. These are wastes which are of no further immediate value for the purpose for which they were used or produced because of the quality, quantity or timing of their occurrence in manufacturing processes. Liquid waste and waste water includes liquid recyclables and by-products.
Management of air emissions
This domain refers to the construction, maintenance or operation of facilities aimed at the reduction or control of emissions (including odours) into the ambient air. Included are measures to control the emissions of greenhouse gases e.g. carbon dioxide, methane and oxides of nitrogen and sulphur, and gases that adversely affect the atmospheric ozone layer e.g. CFC's and halons. This excludes measures undertaken for employee health and safety.
Other environment protection
Includes protection of soil resources, protection of biodiversity and habitat, noise and vibration abatement.
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