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4106.1 - Population Ageing in New South Wales, 2008, Dec 2008 Quality Declaration 
Latest ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 17/12/2008  First Issue
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GLOSSARY


AB-CD-EFG-HI-KLM-NOP-QRST-UV-Y

Access to motor vehicle(s) to drive

Access that a person has to any motor vehicle to drive. Such motor vehicles include vehicle(s) which they wholly or jointly own, vehicle(s) belonging to another member of the household, and company or government vehicle(s) which they have access to for personal use.

Reference: General Social Survey: Summary Results. Australia, 2006 (ABS cat. no. 4159.0).

Accommodation for the retired or aged (self-contained)

Refers to accommodation for retired or aged people where the occupants are not regarded as being sufficient and do not provide their own meals.

Reference: Census Dictionary, 2006 (ABS cat. no. 2901.0).

Age Pension age (Centrelink)

For males, the Age Pension age is 65 years and over. However it varies for females. Qualifying ages for females to receive Age Pension are:

If you were born
You qualify for Age Pension at

before 30 June 1944
63 years
between 1 July 1944 and 31 December 1945
63.5 years
between 1 January 1946 and 30 June 1947
64 years
between 1 July 1947 and 31 December 1948
64.5 years
after 1 January 1949
65 years



Reference: Centrelink, 2008, Payments: Age Pension, viewed 21 November 2008, http://www.centrelink.gov.au/internet/internet.nsf/payments/age_eligible.htm

Age Pension age (Department of Veterans' Affairs)

The pension age for male veteran who has qualifying service and the qualifying age for a male partner is 60 years.

Pension age for a female veteran who has qualifying service and qualifying age for a female is as follows:

If you were born
You qualify for Age Pension at

before 1 July 1949
Eligible
between 1 July 1949 and 31 December 1950
58.5 years
between 1 January 1951 and 30 June 1952
59 years
between 1 July 1952 and 31 December 1953
59.5 years
between 1 January 1954 and later
60 years



Reference: Department of Veterans' Affairs, IS44 Age and Invalidity Service Pension, 2008.

Alcohol risk level

Derived from the average daily consumption of alcohol during the week prior to interview and grouped into relative risk levels based on recommendations of the National Health and Medical Research Council. One standard drink contained about 8-10 g or 10-12 ml of absolute alcohol. The risk categories were as follows:

CONSUMPTION OF ABSOLUTE ALCOHOL PER DAY

Males
Females
Relative risk
ml
ml

Low
Less than 50
Less than 25
Moderate
50-75
25-50
High
Greater than 75
Greater than 50



Reference: National Health Survey: Summary of Results, 2004-05 (ABS cat. no. 4364.0).

Average day

Monday to Sunday. To calculate total annual estimates, multiply figures for an average day by 365.

Reference: Transport Data Centre, NSW Ministry of Transport, 2005, Household Travel Survey Summary Report.

Average travel time

Travel time in minutes calculated as door-to-door travel time, including trips to change mode and any wait time.

Reference: Transport Data Centre, NSW Ministry of Transport, 2005, Household Travel Survey Summary Report.
Body mass index

Based on height and weight as reported by the respondent. Persons were categorised into four groups according to their body mass, derived using the formula weight (kg) divided by the square of height (m2). The groups used, as shown below, were consistent with recommendations of the National Health and Medical Research Council.

Body Mass Index
kg/m2

Underweight
Less than 20
Acceptable weight
20-25
Overweight
Greater than 25-30
Obese
Greater than 30



Reference: National Health Survey: Summary of Results, 2004-05 (ABS cat. no. 4364.0).

Cared accommodation

Cared accommodation includes hospitals, homes for the aged such as nursing homes and aged-care hostels, cared components of retirement villages, and other 'homes', such as children's homes.

Reference: Disability, Ageing and Carers, Australia: Summary of Findings, 2003 (ABS cat. no. 4430.0).

Carer

A person of any age who provides any informal assistance, in terms of help or supervision, to persons with disabilities or long-term conditions, or older persons (i.e. aged 60 years and over). This assistance has to be ongoing, or likely to be ongoing, for at least six months. Assistance to a person in a different household related to 'everyday types of activities', without specific information on the activities. Where the care recipient lives in the same household, the assistance is for one or more of the following activities:
  • cognition or emotion
  • communication
  • health care
  • housework
  • meal preparation
  • mobility
  • paperwork
  • property maintenance
  • self care
  • transport.

Reference: Disability, Ageing and Carers, Australia: Summary of Findings, 2003 (ABS cat. no. 4430.0).

Civilian population aged 15 years and over

All usual residents of Australia aged 15 years and over except members of the permanent defence forces, certain diplomatic personnel of overseas governments customarily excluded from census and estimated population counts, overseas residents in Australia, and members of non-Australian defence forces (and their dependants) stationed in Australia.

Reference: Labour Force, Australia, Detailed-Electronic Delivery, Oct 2008 (ABS cat. no. 6291.0.55.001).

Commonwealth Rental Assistance (CRA)

CRA is a non-taxable income supplement paid through Centrelink to individuals and families who rent in the private rental market. It aims to address basic living costs by reducing the proportion of an income unit’s budget that has to be spent on housing.

Reference: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) 2004, Commonwealth Rent Assistance, June 2002: a profile of recipients (AIHW cat. no. AUS 45).

Community Aged Care Packages (CACP)

A Commonwealth-funded program designed to provide assistance to enable frail or disabled older people with complex care needs to continue living in the community.

Reference: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW), 2006, Residential Aged Care in Australia, 2004-05 (AIHW cat. no. AGE 45).

Core activity limitation

A person's overall level of core activity limitation is determined by their highest level of limitation in any of the core activities (communication, mobility or self care). There are four levels:
  • profound: the person is unable to do, or always needs help with, a core-activity task
  • severe: the person sometimes needs help with a core-activity task; or has difficulty understanding or being understood by family or friends; or can communicate more easily using non-spoken forms of communication
  • moderate: the person needs no help but has difficulty with a core activity task
  • mild: the person needs no help and has no difficulty with any of the core activity tasks, but uses aids and equipment; or cannot easily walk 200 metres or up and down stairs without a handrail or easily bend to pick up an object from the floor or has difficulty using public transport.

Reference: Disability, Ageing and Carers, Australia: Summary of Findings, 2003 (ABS cat. no. 4430.0).

Couple family

A couple family is identified by the existence of a couple relationship. A couple relationship is defined as two people usually residing in the same household who share a social, economic and emotional bond usually associated with marriage and who consider their relationship to be a marriage or marriage-like union. This relationship is identified by the presence of a registered marriage or de facto marriage. A couple family can be with or without children, and may or may not include other related individuals. A couple family with children present can be expanded to elaborate on the characteristics of those children, such as their number, age and dependency status.

Reference: Census Dictionary, 2006 (ABS cat. no. 2901.0).

Credit or bank card fraud

Credit or bank card fraud involved the use of credit or bank card details to make purchases or withdraw cash without the owner's permission. Also includes fraudulent use of other cards such as 'keycards' and debit cards.

Reference: Personal Fraud, 2007 (ABS cat. no. 4528.0).

Death rate

Three forms of death rate are shown in the general deaths section in this publication. These are standardised death rates, age-specific death rates and infant death rates, as defined below:
  • Standardised death rates enable the comparison of death rates between populations with different age structures by relating them to a standard population. They are expressed per 100,000 persons. The standardised death rate is the overall death rate that would have prevailed in the standard population if it had experienced at each age the death rates of the population under study. The standardised death rates in this publication are calculated using both the direct method and indirect method.
      • The direct method - this is used when the populations under study are large and the age-specific death rates are reliable. It is the overall death rate that would have prevailed in the standard population if it had experienced at each age the death rates of the population under study.
      • The indirect method - this is used when the populations under study are small and the age-specific death rates are unreliable or not known. It is an adjustment to the crude death rate of the standard population to account for the variation between the actual number of deaths in the population under study and the number of deaths which would have occurred if the population under study had experienced the age-specific death rates of the standard population.
  • Age-specific death rates relate to deaths for age groups other than under one year and are the number of deaths per 100,000 of the mid-year estimated resident population as at 30 June of that year in a particular age/sex group.
  • Infant death rates relate to deaths of children under one year of age and are the number of deaths per 1,000 live births in the year.

Reference: Causes of Death, Australia, 2006 (ABS cat. no. 3303.0).

Disability

In the context of health experience, the World Health Organisation (WHO) defines disability as any restriction or lack (resulting from an impairment) of ability to perform an action in the manner or within the range considered normal for a human being. A person is defined as having a disability if he/she had a limitation, restriction or impairment, which had lasted, or was likely to last, for at least six months and restricted everyday activities. Please refer to source for further detail.

Reference: Disability, Ageing and Carers, Australia: Summary of Findings, 2003 (ABS cat. no. 4430.0).

Employed

Persons aged 15 years and over who worked during the reference week for pay, profit, commission, payment in-kind or without pay in a family business, or who had a job but were not at work. Workers may be classified as either:
  • full-time - employed persons who usually worked 35 hours or more a week and others who, although usually working less than 35 hours a week, worked 35 hours or more during the reference week; or
  • part-time - employed persons who usually worked less than 35 hours a week.

Reference: Labour Force, Australia, Detailed-Electronic Delivery, Oct 2008 (ABS cat. no. 6291.0.55.001).

Estimated Resident Population (ERP)

The official measure of the population of Australia is based on the concept of usual residence. It refers to all people, regardless of nationality or citizenship, who usually live in Australia, with the exception of foreign diplomatic personnel and their families. It includes usual residents who are overseas for less than 12 months. It excludes overseas visitors who are in Australia for less than 12 months.

Reference: Australian Demographic Statistics, Mar 2008 (ABS cat. no. 3101.0).

Equivalised disposable household income

Disposable household income adjusted using an equivalence scale. For a lone person household it is equal to disposable household income. For a household comprising more than one person, it is an indicator of the disposable household income that would need to be received by a lone person household to enjoy the same level of economic wellbeing as the household in question. For further information see Appendix 3 of source.

Reference: Household Income and Income Distribution, Australia, 2005-06 (ABS cat. no. 6523.0).

Exercise level

Based on frequency, intensity (i.e. walking, moderate exercise and vigorous exercise) and duration of exercise (for recreation, sport or fitness) in the two weeks prior to the interview. From these components, an exercise score was derived using factors to represent the intensity of the exercise. Scores were grouped into the following four categories:

Exercise Level

Sedentary
Less than 100 mins (includes no exercise)
Low
100 mins to less than 1600 mins
Moderate
1600-3200 mins, or more than 3200 mins but less than 2 hours of vigorous exercise
High
More than 3200 mins and 2 hours or more of vigorous exercise



Reference: National Health Survey: Summary of Results, 2004-05 (ABS cat. no. 4364.0).

Extended Aged Care at Home (EACH)

The Extended Aged Care at Home (EACH) program delivers care at home that is equivalent to high level residential care. This program began as a pilot in 2000, but is now established as an ongoing program.

Reference: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW), Subject areas: Ageing and aged care: National aged care programs, viewed 5 December 2008, http://www.aihw.gov.au/agedcare/nationalprogs/each.cfm

Extended labour force underutilisation rate

The unemployed, plus the underemployed, plus two groups of marginally attached to the labour force:
      i. persons actively looking for work, not available to start work in the reference week, but available to start work within four weeks and
      ii. discouraged jobseekers

as a percentage of the labour force augmented by (i) and (ii).

Reference: Australian Labour Market Statistics, Oct 2008 (ABS cat. no. 6105.0).
Family

Two or more persons, one of whom is at least 15 years of age, who were related by blood, marriage (registered or de facto), adoption, step or fostering, and who were usually resident in the same household. The basis of a family is formed by identifying the presence of a couple relationship, lone parent-child relationship or other blood relationship. Some households will, therefore, contain more than one family.

Two or more persons, one of whom is at least 15 years of age, who are related by blood, marriage (registered or de facto), adoption, step or fostering, and who are usually resident in the same household.

Each separately identified couple relationship, lone parent-child relationship or other blood relationships forms the basis of family. Some households contain more than one family.

Reference: Census Dictionary, 2006 (ABS cat. no. 2901.0).

Formal care/assistance

Help provided to persons with one or more disabilities by:
  • organisations or individuals representing organisations (whether profit making or non-profit making, government or private); or
  • other persons (excluding family, friends or neighbours as described in informal help) who provide assistance on a regular, paid basis and who were not associated with any organisation.

Reference: Disability, Ageing and Carers, Australia: Summary of Findings, 2003 (ABS cat. no. 4430.0).

Full-time workers

Full-time workers are employed persons who worked 35 hours or more during the reference week.

Reference: Labour Force, Australia, Detailed-Electronic Delivery, Oct 2008 (ABS cat. no. 6291.0.55.001).
Government pension/allowance

Income support payments from the government to persons under social security and related government programs. Included are pensions and allowances received by aged, disabled, unemployed and sick persons, families and children, veterans or their survivors, and study allowances for students. All overseas pensions and benefits are included here, although some may not be paid by overseas governments. The one-off payment to seniors paid in 2000-01, the one-off payment to families paid in 2003-04 and the one-off payments to carers paid in 2003-04, 2004-05 and 2005-06 are included. Family tax benefit is also regarded as income. However prior to 2005-06 family tax benefit paid through the tax system or as a lump sum by Centrelink was only included in disposable income, and not gross income.

Reference: Household Income and Income Distribution, Australia 2005-06 (ABS cat. no. 6523.0).

Greater Metropolitan Region

The Greater Metropolitan region comprises Sydney Statistical Division, Illawarra Statistical Subdivision and Newcastle Statistical Subdivision.

Reference: Transport Data Centre, NSW Ministry of Transport, 2005, Household Travel Survey Summary Report.

Gross income

Regular cash receipts (including salary sacrificed income) before income tax or the Medicare levy are deducted. Excludes family tax benefit paid through the tax system or as a lump sum by Centrelink.

Reference: Household Income and Income Distribution, Australia 2005-06 (ABS cat. no. 6523.0).

Healthy Adjusted Life Expectancy (HALE)

A common measure used to summarise this is 'health adjusted life expectancy' (HALE). This is an estimate of the number of healthy years (free from disability or disease) that a person born in a particular year can expect to live based on current trends in deaths and disease patterns. The average number of years spent in unhealthy states is subtracted from the overall life expectancy, taking into account the relative severity of such states.

Reference: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW), Subject areas: Mortality: Life expectancy, viewed 5 December 2008, <http://www.aihw.gov.au/mortality/life_expectancy/hale.cfm>

High-level care accommodation

High-level care is for people who need 24-hour nursing care. This may be because they are physically unable to move around and care for themselves, or because they have a severe dementia-type illness or other behavioural problems.

Reference: Commonwealth Department of Health and Ageing, Help with aged care homes: Types of care and services, viewed 8 December 2008, <http://www.agedcareaustralia.gov.au/internet/agedcare/publishing.nsf/Content/Types+of+care+and+services>

Home and Community Care (HACC) Program

The Home and Community Care (HACC) program is a joint initiative of the Australian, state and territory governments.The HACC program aims to provide a comprehensive, coordinated and integrated range of maintenance and support services for frail aged people, people with a disability and their carers. It helps people to be more independent at home and in the community. This enhances their quality of life and may prevent inappropriate admission to long-term residential care. The HACC program funds care services, including nursing, personal care, domestic assistance, delivered meals, day care, transport, home modification and maintenance, and respite care.

Reference: Department of Ageing, Disability and Home Care, Doing business with us: Home and Community Care Program, viewed 5 December 2008, <http://www.dadhc.nsw.gov.au/dadhc/Doing+business+with+us/hacc.htm>

Household

A group of two or more related or unrelated people who usually resided in the same dwelling and who made common provision for food or other essentials for living; or a person living in a dwelling who made provision for his or her own food and other essentials for living without combining with any other person.

Reference: Family Characteristics, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4442.0).

Housing costs

Housing costs comprise of the following:
  • rent payments
  • rates payments (general and water)
  • mortgage or unsecured loan payments (if the initial purpose was primarily to buy or add to or alter the dwelling).

Reference: Housing Occupancy and Costs, Australia, 2005-06 (ABS cat. no. 4130.0.55.001).

Identity theft

The use of someone's personal details without permission, or otherwise illegally appropriating another's identity (for example, using a drivers licence or Tax File Number in stolen, fraudulent or forged documents; conducting business; opening accounts or taking out loans illegally in another person's name).

Reference: Personal Fraud, 2007 (ABS cat. no. 4528.0).

Income

Regular and recurring cash receipts including money received from:
  • wages and salaries (whether from an employer or own incorporated enterprise), including income provided as part of a salary sacrifice arrangement
  • profit/loss from own unincorporated business (including partnerships)
  • investment income (interest, rent, dividends, royalties)
  • government pensions and allowances
  • private cash transfers (e.g. superannuation, regular workers' compensation, income from annuities, child support, and other transfers from other households).

Note that child support and other transfers from other households are not deducted from the incomes of the households making the transfers.

Reference: Household Income and Income Distribution, Australia, 2005-06 (ABS cat. no. 6523.0).

Income Support Supplement (ISS)

ISS provides a regular income in addition to war widow's or widower's pension for Australian war widows and widowers with limited means. This includes wholly dependent partners under the Military Rehabilitation and Compensation Act 2004 (MRCA) with limited means. The payment is subject to an income and assets test.

Reference: Department of Veterans' Affairs, Income Support Supplement Overview, 2008.

Income unit

One person or a group of related persons within a household, whose command over income is assumed to be shared. Income sharing is assumed to take place within married (registered or de facto) couples, and between parents and dependent children.

Reference: Household Expenditure Survey and Survey of Income and Housing: User Guide, 2003-04 (ABS cat. no. 6503.0).

Income unit reference person

The male partner in a couple income unit, the parent in a one parent income unit and the person in a one person income unit.

Reference: Household Expenditure Survey and Survey of Income and Housing: User Guide, 2003-04 (ABS cat. no. 6503.0).

Indigenous Region

The Australian Government uses 30 Indigenous Coordination Centres (ICC) and the Torres Strait Regional Authority (TSRA) to manage the delivery of a range of services to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples across Australia. For census purposes, the ABS defines Indigenous Regions based on ICC and TSRA areas. In aggregate, IREGs cover the whole of Australia without gaps or overlaps.

Reference: Census Dictionary, 2006 (ABS cat. no. 2901.0).

Informal care/assistance

Informal assistance was unpaid help or supervision that was provided to persons with one or more disabilities or persons aged 60 years and over living in households. It included only assistance that is provided for one or more of the specified tasks comprising an activity, because of a person's disability or because they were older. Informal assistance may have been provided by family, friends or neighbours. For this survey, any assistance received from family or friends living in the same household was considered to be informal assistance regardless of whether or not the provider was paid. It did not include providers whose care is privately organised for profit.

Reference: Disability, Ageing and Carers, Australia: Summary of Findings, 2003 (ABS cat. no. 4430.0).
Labour force

The civilian population aged 15 years and over who are employed or unemployed, as defined.

Reference: Labour Force, Australia, Detailed-Electronic Delivery, Oct 2008 (ABS cat. no. 6291.0.55.001).

Labour force participation rate

For any group, the labour force expressed as a percentage of the civilian population aged 15 and over in the same group.

Reference: Labour Force, Australia, Detailed-Electronic Delivery, Oct 2008 (ABS cat. no. 6291.0.55.001).

Labour force underutilisation rate

The unemployed plus the underemployed, as a percentage of the labour force.

Reference: Australian Labour Market Statistics, Oct 2008 (ABS cat. no. 6105.0).

Labour force status

A classification of the civilian population aged 15 years and over into employed, unemployed or not in the labour force, as defined.

Reference: Labour Force, Australia, Detailed-Electronic Delivery, Oct 2008 (ABS cat. no. 6291.0.55.001).

Landlord type

For renters, the type of entity to whom rent is paid or with whom the tenure contract or arrangement is made. Renters belong to one of the following categories:
  • state/territory housing authority - where the household pays rent to a state or territory housing authority or trust
  • private landlords - where the household pays rent to a real estate agent, a parent or other relative not in the same household, or another person not in the same household
  • other - where the household pays rent to the owner/manager of a caravan park, an employer (including a government authority), a housing cooperative, a community or church group, or any other body not included elsewhere.

Reference: Housing Occupancy and Costs, Australia 2005-06 (ABS cat. no. 4130.0.55.001).

Life expectancy

Life expectancy refers to the average number of additional years a person of a given age and sex might expect to live if the age-specific death rates of the given period continued throughout his or her lifetime.

Reference: Deaths, Australia (ABS cat. no. 3302.0).

Linked Trips

A linked trip is a journey from one activity to another, excluding change of mode. A linked trip comprises one or more unlinked trip legs. For example, a person who lives in Parramatta may travel to work in the Sydney CBD by train with a walk trip at either end of the train trip. This would be counted as one linked trip from home to work.

Reference: Transport Data Centre, NSW Ministry of Transport, 2005, Household Travel Survey Summary Report.

Local Government Area (LGA)

LGA is a spatial unit which represents the whole geographical area of responsibility of an incorporated Local Government Council. LGAs aggregate directly to form the incorporated areas of states/territories. The creation and delimitation of LGAs is the responsibility of the state and territory Governments. The number of LGAs, their names and their boundaries vary over time. Further information concerning LGAs is contained in Statistical Geography: Volume 1 - Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC) (cat. no. 1216.0).

Reference: Census Dictionary, 2006 (ABS cat. no. 2901.0).

Low-level care accommodation

Low-level care places are for people who need some help. Mostly, people in low-level care can walk or move about on their own. Low-level care focuses on personal care services (help with dressing, eating, bathing etc.), accommodation, support services (cleaning, laundry and meals) and some allied health services such as physiotherapy. Nursing care can be given when required.

Reference: Commonwealth Department of Health and Ageing, Help with aged care homes: Types of care and services, viewed 8 December 2008, <http://www.agedcareaustralia.gov.au/internet/agedcare/publishing.nsf/Content/Types+of+care+and+services>

Living with others

Includes lone parents, non-dependant children, other related individuals, unrelated individuals living in family households and group household members. Based on individuals relationship to the family reference person or when the person is not part of a family, that persons relationship to the household reference person.

Reference: Census Dictionary, 2006 (ABS cat. no. 2901.0).

Living with partner

Includes husband, wife or partner in a registered, de facto or same sex de facto marriage. Based on individuals relationship to the family reference person or when the person is not part of a family, that persons relationship to the household reference person. Children aged 25 years and over with a child or partner of his/her own are classified according to that relationship. Others present within the family or household are included in living with others.

Reference: Census Dictionary, 2006 (ABS cat. no. 2901.0).

Lone person

A person who made provision for his or her food and other essentials for living, without combining with any other person to form part of a multi-person household. He or she may have lived in a dwelling on their own or shared a dwelling with another individual or family.

Reference: Family Characteristics, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4442.0).

Long-term conditions

Medical conditions (illness, injury or disability) which lasted at least six months, or which the respondent expected to last for six months or more including:
  • long-term conditions from which the respondent experienced infrequent or spasmodic attacks e.g. asthma;
  • long-term conditions which may have been under control through use of medications or other treatment e.g. diabetes, epilepsy;
  • conditions which, although present, may not have generally been considered illness because they were not necessarily debilitating e.g. reduced eyesight;
  • long-term and permanent impairments or disabilities.

Reference: National Health Survey: Summary of Results, 2004-05 (ABS cat. no. 4364.0).

Long-term unemployed

Persons unemployed for 12 months or more, where duration of unemployment is based on the last job. See Duration of unemployment for details of the calculation of duration of unemployed.

Reference: Australian Labour Market Statistics (ABS cat. no. 6105.0).
Main activity

The person's description of an activity in the first diary column is designated as their main activity. In many countries, only one activity is collected for a time slot. Thus main activity tables are required for some comparability between countries. For many time periods, only one (the main) activity is described by respondents.

Reference: Time Use Survey: User Guide, 2006 (ABS cat. no. 4150.0).

Marginal attachment to the labour force

Persons who were not in the labour force in the reference week, wanted to work, and:
  • were actively looking for work but did not meet the availability criteria to be classified as unemployed or
  • were not actively looking for work but were available to start work within four weeks or could start work within four weeks if child care was available.

The criteria for determining those in the labour force are based on activity (i.e. working or looking for work) and availability to start work during the reference week. The criteria associated with marginal attachment to the labour force, in particular the concepts of wanting to work and reasons for not actively looking for work, are more subjective. Hence, the measurement against these criteria is affected by the respondent's own interpretation of the concepts used. An individual respondent's interpretation may be affected by their work aspirations, as well as family, economic and other commitments.

Reference: Persons Not in the Labour Force, Australia, Sep 2007 (ABS cat. no. 6220.0).

Marital status

Two separate concepts of marital status are measured by the Australian Bureau of Statistics. There are registered marital status and social marital status.

Registered marital status refers to formally registered marriages and divorces. Registered marital status is a person's relationship status in terms of whether he or she has, or has had, a registered marriage with another person. Accordingly, people are classified as either 'never married', 'married', 'widowed' or 'divorced'.

Social marital status is the relationship status of an individual with reference to another person who is usually resident in the household. A marriage exists when two people live together as husband and wife, or partners, regardless of whether the marriage is formalised through registration. Individuals are, therefore, regarded as married if they are in a de facto marriage, or if they are living with the person to whom they are registered as married. Under social marital status, a person is classified as their 'married' or 'not married' with further disaggregation of 'married' to distinguish 'registered married' from 'de facto married' person.

Reference: Births, Australia, 2007 (ABS cat. no. 3301.0).

Mature age person

A person aged 45-64 years.

Reference: Mature Aged Persons Statistical Profile (ABS cat. no. 4905.0.55.001).

Mean

The mean is a summary number that measure one type of midpoint in a range of numbers. In statistical terms determining the midpoint in a range of numbers is called the Measure of Central Tendency.

To find the mean of a set of numbers, or observations, we take the total value of all the members of the set and divide it by the number of items in the set. It is also known as the arithmetic average.

Reference: Statistical Language!, 2008 (ABS cat. no. 1332.0.55.002).

Mean housing cost

The total weekly housing cost paid by a group of households (e.g. couple only households) divided by the number of households in the group.

Reference: Housing Occupancy and Costs, Australia, 2005-06 (ABS cat. no. 4130.0.55.001).

Median age

For any distribution the median value is that which divides the relevant population into two equal parts, half falling below the value, and half exceeding it. Thus, the median age is the age at which half the population is older and half is younger.

Reference: Australian Demographic Statistics, Mar 2008 (ABS cat. no. 3101.0).

Mobility

Mobility comprised the following tasks:
  • getting into or out of a bed or chair;
  • moving about the usual place of residence;
  • going to or getting around a place away from the usual residence
  • walking 200 metres
  • walking up and down stairs without a handrail
  • bending and picking up an object from the floor
  • using public transport.

The first three tasks contribute to the definitions of profound and severe core-activity limitation.

Reference: Disability, Ageing and Carers, Australia: Summary of Findings, 2003 (ABS cat. no. 4430.0).

Multi-family households

Households which consisted of more than one family. For the 1996 Census, up to three families were able to be coded in one household.

Reference: Census Dictionary, 2006 (ABS cat. no. 2901.0).
Older person

A person aged 65 years and over.

Reference: Older People NSW, 2004 (ABS cat. no. 4108.1)

Other health professionals

Comprises: Aboriginal health worker (n.e.c.), Accredited counsellor, Acupuncturists, Alcohol and drug worker (n.e.c.), Audiologists/audiometrists, Chemist (for advice), Chiropodists/podiatrists, Chiropractor, Dieticians/nutritionists, Herbalists, Hypnotherapists, Naturopaths, Nurses, Occupational therapist, Opticians/optometrists, Osteopaths, Physiotherapists/hydrotheropist, Psychologists, Social workers/welfare officers, Speech therapists/pathologists.

Reference: National Health Survey: Summary of Results, 2004-05 (ABS cat. no. 4364.0).
Part-time rate

For any group, the number of part-time workers expressed as a percentage of the labour force in the same group.

Reference: Labour Force, Australia, Detailed-Electronic Delivery, Oct 2008 (ABS cat. no. 6291.0.55.001).

Part-time workers

Employed persons who usually work less than 35 hours a week and who did so during the reference week.

Reference: Labour Force, Australia, Detailed-Electronic Delivery, Oct 2008 (ABS cat. no. 6291.0.55.001).

Personal care activities

A major activity classification group which includes activities such as sleeping, personal hygiene, health care and eating and drinking.

Reference: How Australians Use Their Time, 2006 (ABS cat. no. 4153.0).

Pedal cycle

Any two or three-wheeled device operated soley by pedals and propelled by human power except toy vehicles or other pedestrian conveyances. Includes bicycles with side-car, trailer or training wheels attached. Reference: NSW Roads and Traffic Authority, Road Traffic Accidents in NSW - 2001, viewed 1 December 2008, http://www.rta.nsw.gov.au/roadsafety/downloads/accidentstats2001.pdf

Population projections

The ABS uses the cohort-component method for producing population projections of Australia, the states, territories, capital cities and balances of state. This method begins with a base population for each sex by single year of age and advances it year by year, for each year in the projection period, by applying assumptions regarding future fertility, mortality and migration. The assumptions are based on demographic trends over the past decade and longer, both in Australia and overseas. The projections are not predictions or forecasts, but are simply illustrations of the change in population which would occur if the assumptions were to prevail over the projection period. A number of projections are produced by the ABS to show a range of possible future outcomes.

Population projections are not predictions or forecasts. They are an assessment of what would happen, in future years, to Australia's population given a set of assumptions about future trends in fertility, mortality and migration.

Reference: Population Projections, Australia (ABS cat. no. 3222.0).

Primary carer

A primary carer was a person of any age who provided the most informal assistance, in terms of help or supervision, to a person with one or more disabilities. The assistance has to be ongoing, or likely to be ongoing, for at least six months and be provided for one or more of the core activities of communication, mobility and self care.

Reference: Disability, Ageing and Carers, Australia: Summary of Findings, 2003 (ABS cat. no. 4430.0).

Private dwelling

Normally a house, flat or even a room. It can also be a caravan, houseboat, tent, or a house attached to an office or rooms above a shop.

Reference: Census Dictionary, 2006 (ABS cat. no. 2901.0).

Public transport - Household Travel Survey (HTS)

Includes train, bus (government and private) and ferry (government and private).

Reference: Transport Data Centre, NSW Ministry of Transport, 2006, Household Travel Survey Summary Report.

Purpose of travel (priority)

Priority purpose Transport Data Centre (TDC) collects data on a detailed list of trip purposes, including the purpose ‘return to home’. This category makes up about 34% of unlinked trips on an average weekday (Figure A.2). To give a better picture of trip generation and because the category of return home is so large, TDC recodes return to home trips according to the main previous purpose, based on a priority hierarchy. For example if a person is returning home from work and stopped off at the shops quickly on the way, this incidental trip to the shop is not considered as the main purpose of that return trip home, rather, the main previous purpose before returning home is work. Trips to return home with multiple previous purposes as in this example are allocated a priority purpose, based on the following hierarchy (where the first item has the highest priority):
  • Work
  • Work related business
  • Education
  • Purpose with the longest activity time
  • Serve passenger

Reference: Transport Data Centre, NSW Ministry of Transport, 2006, Household Travel Survey Summary Report.

Purpose of journey

Include the following:
  • Go to main job - The first trip to work of the day, usually from home, excluding trips to return to work. This also includes the first trip to a second job if any.
  • Work related business - Work related trips away from respondent’s usual work address. Also for respondents without a fixed work address eg. a plumber, household interviewers, etc. who work at various locations.
  • Home - Trips to return home (see Purpose of travel (priority)).
  • Personal business/service - Purpose is to transact personal business where no “goods” are involved eg. bank, library, doctor.
  • Shopping - Trips to/from a shop, defined as premises that sell “goods”.

Reference: Transport Data Centre, NSW Ministry of Transport, 2006, Household Travel Survey Summary Report.
Reference person

The reference person for each household is chosen by applying, to all household members aged 15 years and over, the selection criteria below, in the order listed, until a single appropriate reference person is identified:
  • one of the partners in a registered or de facto marriage, with dependent children
  • one of the partners in a registered or de facto marriage, without dependent children
  • a lone parent with dependent children
  • the person with the highest income
  • the eldest person.

Reference: Housing Occupancy and Costs, Australia 2005-06 (ABS cat. no. 4130.0.55.001).

Renter

A household which pays rent to reside in the dwelling. See further classification by Landlord type.

Reference: Housing Occupancy and Costs, Australia 2005-06 (ABS cat. no. 4130.0.55.001).

Retired from labour force

Persons who had retired from work or looking for work of more than 10 hours per week, and did not intend to work at any time in the future. These persons are considered fully retired. Persons who have never worked more than 10 hours per week were also treated as fully retired.

Reference: Retirement and Retirement Intentions, Australia, Jul 2006 to Jun 2007 (ABS cat. no. 6238.0).

Retirement village (self-contained)

This is a category of the classification Dwelling Location (DLOD) which is applicable to private dwellings. It is used to code accommodation for retired or aged people who care for themselves.

Reference: Census Dictionary, 2006 (ABS cat. no. 2901.0).
Scam

A scam is a fraudulent invitation, request notification or offer, designed to obtain personal information or money or otherwise obtain a financial benefit by deceptive means.

Reference: Personal Fraud, 2007 (ABS cat. no. 4528.0).

Self assessed health status

A person's general assessment of their own health against a five point scale from excellent through to poor.

Reference: National Health Survey: Summary of Results, 2004-05 (ABS cat. no. 4364.0).

Service Pension

A service pension provides a regular income for people with limited means. A service pension can be paid to veterans on the grounds of age or invalidity, and to eligible partners, widows and widowers. It is subject to income and assets tests.

Reference: Department of Veterans' Affairs, IS44 Age and Invalidity Service Pension, 2008.

Sex Ratio

The sex ratio relates to the number of males per 100 females. The sex ratio is defined for the total population, at birth, at death and among age groups by appropriately selecting the numerator and the denominator of the ratio.

Reference: Population by Age and Sex, Australian State and Territories, Jun 2002 to Jun 2007 (cat. no. 3201.0).

Social Security Age Pension

An age pension provides a regular income for people with limited means. An age pension is paid by the Department of Veterans' Affairs to a person who has reached pension age, and is subject to income and assets tests.

Reference: Department of Veterans' Affairs, IS44 Age and Invalidity Service Pension, 2008.

Smoker status

Refers to regular smoking of tobacco, including manufactured (packet) cigarettes, roll-your-own cigarettes, cigars and pipes, but excludes chewing tobacco and smoking of non-tobacco products. Categorised as:
  • Current daily smoker - an adult who reported at the time of interview that they regularly smoked one or more cigarettes, cigars or pipes per day;
  • Current smoker - other - an adult who reported at the time of interview that they smoked cigarettes, cigars or pipes at least once a week, but not daily;
  • Ex-smoker - an adult who reported they did not currently smoke, but had regularly smoked daily, or had smoked at least 100 cigarettes, or smoked pipes, cigars, etc at least 20 times in their lifetime; and
  • Never smoked - an adult who reported they had never regularly smoked daily, and had smoked less than 100 cigarettes in their lifetime and had smoked pipes, cigars, etc less than 20 times.
  • Reference: National Health Survey: Summary of Results, 2004-05 (ABS cat. no. 4364.0).
  • Statistical Division
  • Statistical Divisions (SD) consist of one or more Statistical Subdivisions (SSD). These are designed to be relatively homogeneous regions characterised by identifiable social and economic units within the region, under the unifying influence of one or more major towns or cities.

Reference: Statistical Geography: Volume 1 - Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC) (ABS cat. no. 1216.0).

Statistical Subdivision (SSD)

Statistical Subdivisions (SSD) are of intermediate size, between Statistical Local Areas (SLA) and Statistical Divisions (SD). In aggregate, they cover the whole of Australia without gaps or overlaps. They are defined as socially and economically homogeneous regions characterised by identifiable links between the inhabitants. In the non-urban areas an SSD is characterised by identifiable links between the economic units within the region, under the unifying influence of one or more major towns or cities.

Reference: Statistical Geography: Volume 1 - Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC) (ABS cat. no. 1216.0).

Superannuation

A long-term savings arrangement which operates primarily with a superannuation fund in order to support future retirement.

Reference: Employment Arrangements, Retirement and Superannuation, Australia, Apr to Jul 2007 (ABS cat. no. 6361.0).

Superannuation balance

The total amount of superannuation a person has accrued in their superannuation funds which are in the accumulation phase. In the Survey of Employment Arrangements, Retirement and Superannuation (SEARS), 2007, the total superannuation balance was obtained by adding the total account balance of accumulation account/s and total withdrawal or resignation benefit of defined benefit account/s or hybrid account/s for three main superannuation accounts.

Reference: Employment Arrangements, Retirement and Superannuation, Australia, Apr to Jul 2007 (ABS cat. no. 6361.0).

Superannuation coverage

A person is considered to have superannuation coverage if:
  • they have superannuation accounts in the accumulation phase;
  • they have superannuation accounts from which they are currently drawing benefits, such as receiving a pension or annuity; or
  • they have received a superannuation lump sum within the past 4 years.

Reference: Employment Arrangements, Retirement and Superannuation, Australia, Apr to Jul 2007 (ABS cat. no. 6361.0).

Superannuation lump sum payment

A superannuation benefit taken fully or partly as a single payment, rather than in the form of pension or annuity on retirement. It does not include any annual leave payments, sick leave or other payments due to termination of employment.

Reference: Employment Arrangements, Retirement and Superannuation, Australia, Apr to Jul 2007 (ABS cat. no. 6361.0).

Superannuation pension or annuity

A pension or annuity payable from a superannuation account or retirement saving account (RSA) and eligible for tax concessions. The payment must be made at least annually and must be within limits set by legislation.

Reference: Employment Arrangements, Retirement and Superannuation, Australia, Apr to Jul 2007 (ABS cat. no. 6361.0).

Supported Accommodation Assistance Program (SAAP)

A joint Commonwealth and State program to assist homeless people and those at risk of homelessness.

Reference: Australian Census Analytic Program: Counting the Homeless (ABS cat. no. 2050.0).
Tenure type

The nature of a household's legal right to occupy the dwelling in which the household members usually reside. Tenure is determined according to whether the household owns the dwelling outright, owns the dwelling but has a mortgage or loan secured against it, is paying rent to live in the dwelling, or has some other arrangement to occupy the dwelling.

Reference: Housing Occupancy and Costs, Australia 2005-06 (ABS cat. no. 4130.0.55.001).

Total fertility rate

The sum of age-specific fertility rates (live births at each age of mother per female population of that age). It represents the number of children a female would bear during her lifetime if she experienced current age-specific fertility rates at each age of her reproductive life.

Reference: Births, Australia (ABS cat. no. 3301.0).

Transport difficulties

The person's assessment of how difficult it is for them to travel to places they may need to go to in normal circumstances. Four options were provided:
  • can easily get to the places needed
  • sometimes have difficulty getting to the places needed
  • often have difficulty getting to the places needed
  • can't get to the places needed.

If they indicated that they never go out or are housebound this response was recorded. Difficulties which may have been taken into account are traffic problems, parking and distances, as well as those difficulties not directly related to transport such as poor health or lack of finances.

Reference: General Social Survey: Summary Results. Australia, 2006 (ABS cat. no. 4159.0).

Underemployed workers

Underemployed workers are employed persons who want, and are available for, more hours of work than they currently have. They comprise:
  • persons employed part-time who want to work more hours and are available to start work with more hours, either in the reference week or in the four wheels subsequent to the survey
  • persons employed full-time who worked part-time hours in the reference week for economic reasons (such as being stood down or insufficient work being available). It is assumed that these people wanted to work full-time in the reference week and would have been available to do so.

Reference: Australian Labour Market Statistics, Oct 2008 (ABS cat. no. 6105.0).

Underemployment rate

The number of underemployed workers expressed as a percentage of the labour force.

Reference: Australian Labour Market Statistics, Oct 2008 (ABS cat. no. 6105.0).

Unemployed

Persons aged 15 years and over who were not employed during the reference week, and:
  • had actively looked for full-time or part-time work at any time in the four weeks up to the end of the reference week and were available for work in the reference week;

or
  • were waiting to start a new job within four weeks from the end of the reference week and could have started in the reference week if the job had been available then.

Reference: Labour Force, Australia, Detailed-Electronic Delivery, Oct 2008 (ABS cat. no. 6291.0.55.001).

Unemployment rate

For any group, the number of unemployed persons expressed as a percentage of the labour force in the same group.

Reference: Labour Force, Australia, Detailed-Electronic Delivery, Oct 2008 (ABS cat. no. 6291.0.55.001).

Unincorporated enterprise

A business entity in which the owner and the business are legally inseparable, so that the owner is liable for any business debts that are incurred.

Reference: Forms of Employment, Australia (ABS cat. no. 6359.0).

Unlinked trip

An unlinked trip is each component of a linked trip, including each mode used. For example: A person living in Parramatta and working in the Sydney CBD travels by train with a walk trip at either end of the train trip. This would be three unlinked trips.

Reference: Transport Data Centre, NSW Ministry of Transport, 2005, Household Travel Survey Summary Report.

Victimisation rate

The number of victims of an offence in a given population expressed as a percentage of that population.

Reference: Crime and Safety, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4509.0).

Voluntary work

Voluntary work the provision of unpaid help willingly undertaken in the form of time, service or skills, to an organisation or group, excluding work done overseas.

Reference: General Social Survey: Summary Results. Australia, 2006 (ABS cat. no. 4159.0).

Walk only

Trips where the main mode of travel is walking, excluding walking trips to and from other forms of transport.

Reference: Transport Data Centre, NSW Ministry of Transport, 2005, Household Travel Survey Summary Report.


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