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3415.0 - Migrant Data Matrices, 2007  
Previous ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 22/11/2007  First Issue
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GLOSSARY


This glossary contains general definitions for migrant related data items in the ABS collections referred to in the matrices. While a general definition is provided in this glossary, this may vary slightly between collections. It is therefore recommended that you also refer to the Glossary for the individual collection.


AgeAge is defined as the measure of time elapsed from date of live birth to a specific point in time (e.g. date of a particular survey or collection), measured in complete years.

Age on arrival in AustraliaAge on arrival in Australia is defined as the age of a person, who was born overseas, when they first arrived in Australia from another country, with the intention of staying in Australia for one year or more. Measured in complete years.

AncestryAncestry describes the ethnic or cultural heritage of a person, that is, the ethnic or cultural groups to which a person's forebears are or were attached.

Ancestry is defined as the ethnic or cultural groups which a person identifies as being his or her ancestry. Ancestry therefore involves measures of self-identification of ethnic or cultural group affiliation or nationality as well as of descent from one or more particular groups.

Australian citizenshipAustralian citizenship is a person's status in relation to Australia and carries with it certain responsibilities and privileges. The Australian Citizenship Act 1948 determines who holds Australian citizenship. A person may acquire Australian citizenship in a number of ways, for example, by birth, adoption, descent, resumption or grant of Australian citizenship (naturalisation).

Business skills streamThe business skills stream comprises successful business people with a business skills visa who have established skills in business and a genuine commitment to owning and managing a business in Australia.

Business skills visas are specific visas designed for:
  • a short term purpose such as a business conference, site inspection, negotiation or exploratory visit; or
  • longer term executive or specialist assignment in Australia; or
  • establishing a business and settling in Australia permanently.

Since 1 March 2003, the majority of business skills entrants enter Australia initially on a business skills (provisional) temporary visa for four years and, after satisfactory evidence of a specified level of business or investment activity, may apply for permanent residence.


Country of birth of fatherCountry of birth of father is defined as the country in which a person's father was born. Classified according to the Standard Australian Classification of Countries (SACC), 1998 (cat. no. 1269.0).

Country of birth of motherCountry of birth of mother is defined as the country in which a person's mother was born. Classified according to the Standard Australian Classification of Countries (SACC), 1998 (cat. no. 1269.0)

Country of birth of personCountry of birth of person is defined as the country in which a person was born. Classified according to the Standard Australian Classification of Countries (SACC), 1998 (cat. no. 1269.0).

Country of last residenceCountry of last residence is defined as the country in which the person last lived before coming to Australia to live. Classified according to the Standard Australian Classification of Countries (SACC), 1998 (cat. no. 1269.0).


Family streamThe family stream allows for the migration of immediate family members (such as spouses or fiancés and dependent children) of Australian citizens, permanent residents or eligible New Zealand citizens. Places are also available for other family members including parents, orphan relatives, aged dependent relatives, special need relatives and last remaining relatives.

Australian citizens or residents can sponsor their partners, parents, brothers, sisters, nephews, nieces and non-dependent children. Family members living outside of Australia can be sponsored by a relative or family member living in Australia under the following categories:
  • spouse;
  • prospective marriage;
  • child;
  • adoption;
  • parent (meeting the balance of family test);
  • aged dependent relative;
  • last remaining relative;
  • orphan dependent relative;
  • special need relative; and
  • interdependency

First language spokenFirst language spoken is defined as the first language an individual masters during the language acquisition phase of intellectual development. This would generally be the language spoken in the home by the people who have raised the individual from infancy.

Humanitarian programThe Humanitarian program is designed for refugees and others in special humanitarian need. It comprises 'offshore resettlement' for people overseas, and 'onshore protection' for those people already in Australia who arrived on temporary visas or in an unauthorised manner, and who have been given Australia's protection.

There are two permanent humanitarian streams:
  • refugee stream, which provides resettlement to Australia for people outside their home country subject to persecution in their home country; and
  • special humanitarian stream. The Special Humanitarian Programs (SHP) comprise the In-country Special Humanitarian Program for people suffering persecution within their own country and the Global Special Humanitarian Program for people who have left their country because of substantial discrimination amounting to a gross violation of human rights.

Language spoken
at home
Language spoken at home is defined as the language or languages spoken by a person in his/her home, on a regular basis, to communicate with other residents of the home and regular visitors to the home. Classified according to the Australian Standard Classification of Languages (ASCL) (cat. no. 1267.0). Usually only one language is coded for each person.

Main applicantThe person on whose application the grant of a visa is decided for that person and his/her dependants.

When a family unit migrates to Australia as part of the same migration event, they are all listed on the same visa application. The type of visa held by all the family members is therefore the same as that held by the main applicant. For example, if the mother obtained a Skilled visa and was sponsored by an employer then all other family members on that visa application would be classified as holding a Skilled visa and being sponsored by an employer. This also covers instances where the respondent was listed on the visa with other people but did not arrive in Australia at the same time as them (e.g. stayed back in their home country to settle affairs while the others moved out here and then rejoined them here a few months later).


Main English-speaking countriesMain English-speaking countries comprise the United Kingdom, Ireland, New Zealand, Canada, United States of America and South Africa.

Main language other than English spoken at homeMain language other than English spoken at home is the main language, other than English, spoken by a person in his/her home, on a regular basis, to communicate with other residents of the home and regular visitors to the home.

Main language spoken at homeMain language spoken at home is defined as the main language spoken by a person in his/her home, on a regular basis, to communicate with other residents of the home and regular visitors to the home.

MigrantMigrant is defined as a person who was born overseas and has obtained permanent Australian resident status prior to or after their arrival. The scope of several ABS surveys restricts the definition of migrants to include only migrants who arrived in Australia during a particular time period (for example, in the last 20 years) and who were aged 15 years or more on arrival.

Non-main English-speaking countriesNon-main English-speaking countries comprise all countries except Australia, United Kingdom, Ireland, New Zealand, Canada, United States of America and South Africa.

Permanent resident of AustraliaPermanent resident is defined as a person who was born overseas and has obtained permanent Australian resident status prior to or after their arrival.

Permanent visaA permanent visa is the permission or authority granted by Australia for foreign nationals to live in Australia permanently. There are two programs for people wanting to come to Australia permanently.

One is the migration program, which is made up of:
  • a skilled migration stream, which has a number of categories for people who have particular occupation skills, outstanding talents or business skills;
  • a family migration stream, where people can be sponsored by a relative who is an Australian citizen or permanent resident; and
  • special eligibility migrants, who are former citizens or residents wanting to return to Australia, or certain New Zealanders.

The second program is the Humanitarian program, which is designed for refugees and others in special humanitarian need.

Proficiency in spoken EnglishProficiency in spoken English is defined as the ability to speak English in every day situations. Generally classified as: very well, well, not well or not at all.

Prospective marriage
visa
Applicants for a prospective marriage [fiancé(e)] visa must be engaged to marry their sponsor. The marriage must take place after the applicant's first entry to Australia and before the visa expires. The sponsor must be an Australian citizen, Australian permanent resident or eligible New Zealand citizen. The applicant must be able to prove that they genuinely intend to marry their fiancé(e) within nine months from the date they are granted a visa, and intend to then live with their partner as their spouse; and that the applicant and fiancé(e) have met and are personally known to each other. Generally the applicant and fiance must be aged 18 or over.

People applying under the prospective marriage [fiancé(e)] category go through a three-stage process. The process involves applying for a prospective marriage temporary visa (stage 1), a spouse temporary visa (stage 2) and a spouse permanent visa (stage 3). For a spouse temporary visa, evidence is required that the marriage has taken place and is genuine and continuing. The applicant and spouse may be asked to attend an interview. Successful applicants are granted a temporary visa which will be in effect until a decision is made on the application for a permanent visa.

Note: Most spouses/fiances successfully obtain a permanent visa after initially obtaining a temporary visa. Because of this, temporary spouse and fiance(e) visas are counted as permanent visas.

Refugee A refugee is a person who is subject to persecution in their home country and who is in need of resettlement. The majority of applicants who are considered under this category are identified by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and referred by UNHCR to Australia.

Religious affiliationReligious affiliation is defined as the religious beliefs and practices to which a person adheres or the religious group to which a person belongs. Classified according to the Australian Standard Classification of Religious Groups (cat. no. 1266.0)


Residency status
(on most recent arrival to live in Australia)
Refers to people who either came to Australia as migrants (permanent residents) or temporary residents. It should be noted that some temporary residents later become permanent residents.

Skilled migration stream Migrants who are selected on the basis of their occupation skills, outstanding talents or business skills, age, English-language ability and family relationships.

There are a number of categories under the skilled migration stream, including:
  • skilled independent;
  • skilled Australian sponsored, which includes designated area sponsored;
  • business skills; and
  • skilled employer (or state) sponsored, which includes employer nominated scheme, regional sponsored migration scheme, state or territory specific migration.

Skilled Australian sponsored visaMigrants who are selected on the basis of their skills, age, English-language ability and family relationship. They must be sponsored by a relative already living in Australia.

Skilled employer sponsoredEmployers may nominate (or 'sponsor') overseas born people, on a permanent basis, to fill vacancies which the employers:
  • have been unable to fill from the Australian labour market; or
  • have been unable to fill through their own training programs; or
  • are responding to identified or emerging labour market (or skill) shortages.

The Employer Nominated Scheme allows direct recruitment of highly skilled workers by Australian employers who have tried unsuccessfully to fill the positions from within Australia either by recruitment or training. Applicants must satisfy a points test. This includes the Labour Agreement category for people who are nominated by an employer or organisation under a Labour Agreement, Regional Headquarters Agreement or the Regional Sponsored Migration 41 Scheme and who have the skills, qualifications, and experience required.

For an employer to have sponsored the person, that person should have taken up employment with that employer on arrival in Australia. The offer of employment must have been made before any migration application papers were filled out.

Student visa (temporary)The Australian Government operates an overseas student program (OSP) that allows people who are not Australian citizens or Australian permanent residents to undertake formal or non-formal study in Australia for a specific period. Student visas can only be granted if a registered course or part of a registered course is undertaken on a full-time basis.

An exception to this is Chinese nationals in Australia at the time of the Tiananmen Square uprising (1 November 1993). They were initially given temporary student visas but these were then converted to permanent visas.

Temporary resident of AustraliaA temporary resident of Australia is a person who was born overseas and who plans to stay in Australia for 12 months or more and had not obtained permanent Australian resident status.


Temporary visa A temporary visa is the permission or authority granted by Australia for foreign nationals to travel to Australia and stay up to a specified period of time. The main categories of temporary visas are:

Visitors - persons approved for entry into Australia for a temporary stay as tourists, business visitors, for the purpose of visiting relatives or obtaining medical treatment. Visitors are not normally permitted to engage in employment in Australia.

Students - persons approved for entry into Australia for a specific period for the purpose of undertaking formal or non-formal study. An exception to this is Chinese nationals in Australia at the time of the Tiananmen Square uprising (1 November 1993). They were initially given temporary student visas but these were then converted to permanent visas.

Short-stay business visas - persons approved for entry into Australia on the basis that their principal purpose of journey is a short stay (up to 3 months) business visit. Their visit must be consistent with their business background and relate to their existing activities.

Long-stay business visas - allows for skilled overseas workers to enter Australia to engage in employment or business for up to four years. This visa is for Australian businesses that wish to sponsor qualified people from overseas, overseas businesses seeking to engage in business in Australia, or for people who want to establish a business in Australia. The position being filled must meet minimum skill and salary thresholds.

Temporary residents - persons approved for non-permanent entry into Australia of economic, social, cultural and sporting benefit. For example, people with specialist skills such as managers, executives, academics, medical practitioners, specialists and technical workers; people who contribute to the development of international relations, such as diplomats and other personnel of foreign governments; and people who make a social or cultural contribution to the community, such as entertainers, media and film staff, sports people, religious workers, visiting academics and public lecturers.

Temporary residents (including long-stay business visa holders) are generally sponsored by an Australian business or organisation to work in Australia as a skilled paid employee. Their initial stay in Australia is generally for more than 3 months but not more than 4 years.

VisaA visa (or travel authority) is permission or authority granted by Australia for foreign nationals to travel to Australia. A visa is a stamp or label in a passport; a travel authority is an electronically-stored record for a short-term tourist or business entry which fills the same role as a visa but through a simplified administrative process. In most ABS surveys, the use of the word 'visa' refers to both of these types of travel authorisations. Immigration law requires all travellers who are not Australian citizens (except New Zealand citizens) to obtain authority, in the form of a visa or travel authority, to travel to, and stay in Australia.

Visa category on arrivalPeople can come to Australia with either a permanent or temporary visa.

A permanent visa is the permission or authority granted by Australia for foreign nationals to live in Australia permanently. There are two programs for people wanting to come to Australia permanently: the Migration program (made up of a skilled migration stream, a family migration stream, and a special eligibility migrants stream) and the Humanitarian program (designed for refugees and others in special humanitarian need).

A temporary visa is the permission or authority granted by Australia for foreign nationals to travel to Australia and stay up to a specified period of time. The main categories of temporary visas are: visitors, students, short-stay business visas, long-stay business visas, and temporary residents.

When a family unit migrates to Australia as part of the same migration event, they are all listed on the same visa application. The type of visa held by all the family members is therefore the same as that held by the main applicant. For example, if the mother obtained a Skilled visa and was sponsored by an employer then all other family members on that visa application would be classified as holding a Skilled visa and being sponsored by an employer. This also covers instances where the respondent was listed on the visa with other people but did not arrive in Australia at the same time as them (e.g. stayed back in their home country to settle affairs while the others moved out here and then rejoined them here a few months later).

Year of arrival in AustraliaYear of arrival in Australia is the year a person who was born overseas first arrived in Australia from another country, with the intention of staying in Australia for one year or more.


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