This chapter contains detailed definitions for all ANZSIC 2006 divisions.
DIVISION A: AGRICULTURE, FORESTRY AND FISHING
The Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing Division includes units mainly engaged in growing crops, raising animals, growing and harvesting timber, and harvesting fish and other animals from farms or their natural habitats. The division makes a distinction between two basic activities: production and support services to production. Included as production activities are horticulture, livestock production, aquaculture, forestry and logging, and fishing, hunting and trapping.
The term 'agriculture' is used broadly to refer to both the growing and cultivation of horticultural and other crops (excluding forestry), and the controlled breeding, raising or farming of animals (excluding aquaculture).
Aquacultural activities include the controlled breeding, raising or farming of fish, molluscs and crustaceans.
Forestry and logging activities include growing, maintaining and harvesting forests, as well as gathering forest products.
Fishing, hunting and trapping includes gathering or catching marine life such as fish or shellfish, or other animals, from their uncontrolled natural environments in water or on land.
Also included in the division are units engaged in providing support services to the units engaged in production activities.
DIVISION B: MINING
The Mining Division includes units that mainly extract naturally occurring mineral solids, such as coal and ores; liquid minerals, such as crude petroleum; and gases, such as natural gas. The term mining is used in the broad sense to include underground or open cut mining; dredging; quarrying; well operations or evaporation pans; recovery from ore dumps or tailings as well as beneficiation activities (i.e. preparing, including crushing, screening, washing and flotation) and other preparation work customarily performed at the mine site, or as a part of mining activity.
The Mining Division distinguishes two basic activities: mine operation and mining support activities.
Mine operation includes units operating mines, quarries, or oil and gas wells on their own account, or for others on a contract or fee basis, as well as mining sites under development.
Mining support activities include units that perform mining services on a contract or fee basis, and exploration (except geophysical surveying).
Units in the Mining Division are grouped and classified according to the natural resource mined or to be mined. Industries include units that extract natural resources, and/or those that beneficiate the mineral mined. Beneficiation is the process whereby the extracted material is reduced to particles that can be separated into mineral and waste, the former suitable for further processing or direct use. The operations that take place in beneficiation are primarily mechanical, such as grinding, washing, magnetic separation, and centrifugal separation. In contrast, manufacturing operations primarily use chemical and electro-chemical processes, such as electrolysis and distillation.
DIVISION C: MANUFACTURING
The Manufacturing Division includes units mainly engaged in the physical or chemical transformation of materials, substances or components into new products (except agriculture and construction). The materials, substances or components transformed by units in this division are raw materials that are products of agriculture, forestry, fishing and mining, or products of other manufacturing units.
Units in the Manufacturing Division are often described as plants, factories or mills and characteristically use power-driven machines and other materials-handling equipment. However, units that transform materials, substances or components into new products by hand, or in the unit's home, are also included. Activities undertaken by units incidental to their manufacturing activity, such as selling directly to the consumer products manufactured on the same premises from which they are sold, such as bakeries and custom tailors, are also included in the division. If, in addition to self-produced products, other products that are not manufactured by the same unit are also sold, the rules for the treatment of mixed activities have to be applied and units classified according to their predominant activity.
Assembly of the component parts of manufactured products, either self-produced or purchased from other units, is considered manufacturing. For example, assembly of self-manufactured prefabricated components at a construction site is considered manufacturing, as the assembly is incidental to the manufacturing activity. Conversely, when undertaken as a primary activity, the on-site assembly of components manufactured by others is considered to be construction.
The boundaries between the Manufacturing Division and other divisions in ANZSIC can sometimes be unclear. The units in the Manufacturing Division are engaged in the transformation of materials into new products. Their output is a new product. However, the definition of what constitutes a 'new product' can be somewhat subjective. As clarification, the following activities are examples of manufacturing activities included in the Manufacturing Division in ANZSIC 2006:
There are some other activities that are often considered 'manufacturing', but for ANZSIC, these are classified in another division. These activities include:
- Milk bottling and pasteurising;
- Both processing and canning or bottling;
- Fresh fish packaging (including oyster shucking, fish filleting);
- Printing and related support activities;
- Ready-mixed concrete production;
- Leather tanning and dressing;
- Grinding of lenses to prescription;
- Wood preserving and treatment;
- Electroplating, plating, metal heat treating, and polishing;
- Fabricating signs and advertising displays;
- Tyre retreading;
- Ship, boat, railway rolling stock and aircraft repair and maintenance; and
- Substantial alteration, renovation or reconstruction of goods such as transport equipment.
The subdivisions in the Manufacturing Division generally reflect distinct production processes related to material inputs, production equipment and employee skills.
- Logging and production of crops or livestock (included in the Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing Division);
- Construction of structures and fabricating operations performed at the site of construction by contractors (included in the Construction Division);
- Publishing and the combined activity of publishing and printing (included in the Information Media and Communications Division); and
- Beneficiation (included in the Mining Division).
DIVISION D: ELECTRICITY, GAS, WATER AND WASTE SERVICES
The Electricity, Gas, Water and Waste Services Division comprises units engaged in the provision of electricity; gas through mains systems; water; drainage; and sewage services. This division also includes units mainly engaged in the collection, treatment and disposal of waste materials; remediation of contaminated materials (including land); and materials recovery activities.
Electricity supply activities include the generation, transmission and distribution of electricity and the on-selling of electricity via power distribution systems operated by others.
Gas supply includes the distribution of gas, such as natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas, through mains systems.
Water supply includes the storage, treatment and distribution of water; drainage services include the operation of drainage systems; and sewage services include the collection, treatment and disposal of waste through sewer systems and sewage treatment facilities.
DIVISION E: CONSTRUCTION
The Construction Division includes units mainly engaged in the construction of buildings and other structures, additions, alterations, reconstruction, installation, and maintenance and repairs of buildings and other structures.
Units engaged in demolition or wrecking of buildings and other structures, and clearing of building sites are included in Division E Construction. It also includes units engaged in blasting, test drilling, landfill, levelling, earthmoving, excavating, land drainage and other land preparation.
DIVISION F: WHOLESALE TRADE
The Wholesale Trade Division includes units mainly engaged in the purchase and onselling, the commission-based buying, and the commission-based selling of goods, without significant transformation, to businesses. Units are classified to the Wholesale Trade Division in the first instance if they buy goods and then onsell them (including on a commission basis) to businesses.
Wholesalers' premises are usually a warehouse or office with little or no display of their goods, large storage facilities, and are not generally located or designed to attract a high proportion of walk-in customers. Wholesaling is often characterised by high value and/or bulk volume transactions, and customers are generally reached through trade-specific contacts.
The Wholesale Trade Division distinguishes two types of wholesalers:
A unit which sells to both businesses and the general public will be classified to the Wholesale Trade Division if it operates from premises such as warehouses or offices with little or no display of goods, has large storage facilities, and is not generally located or designed to attract a high proportion of walk-in customers.
- merchant wholesalers who take title to the goods they sell, including import/export merchants; and
- units whose main activity is the commission-based buying and/or the commission-based selling of goods, acting as wholesale agents or brokers, or business to business electronic markets, both of whom arrange the sale of goods on behalf of others for a commission or fee without taking title to the goods.
For units that have goods manufactured for them on commission and then sell those goods, the following treatment guidelines are to be followed:
As a result, units that have goods manufactured for them on commission will be included in the Wholesale Trade Division where they do not own the material inputs to the manufacturing process, but take title to the outputs and sell them in the manner prescribed above for typical wholesaling units.
- units that own the material inputs and own the final outputs, but have the production done by others will be included in the Manufacturing Division;
- units that do not own the material inputs but own the final outputs and have the production done by others will not be included in the Manufacturing Division (these may be included in Wholesale Trade or other divisions); and
- units that do not own the material inputs, do not own the final outputs but undertake the production for others will be included in the Manufacturing Division.
DIVISION G: RETAIL TRADE
The Retail Trade Division includes units mainly engaged in the purchase and/or onselling, the commission-based buying, and the commission-based selling of goods, without significant transformation, to the general public. The Retail Trade Division also includes units that purchase and onsell goods to the general public using non-traditional means, including the internet. Units are classified to the Retail Trade Division in the first instance if they buy finished goods and then onsell them (including on a commission basis) to the general public.
Retail units generally operate from premises located and designed to attract a high volume of walk-in customers, have an extensive display of goods, and/or use mass media advertising designed to attract customers. The display and advertising of goods may be physical or electronic.
Physical display and advertising includes shops, printed catalogues, billboards and print advertisements. Electronic display and advertising includes catalogues, internet websites, television and radio advertisements and infomercials. While non-store retailers, by definition, do not posses the physical characteristics of traditional retail units with a physical shop-front location, these units share the requisite function of the purchasing and onselling of goods to the general public, and are therefore included in this division.
A unit which sells to both businesses and the general public will be classified to the Retail Trade Division if it operates from shop-front premises, arranges and displays stock to attract a high proportion of walk-in customers and utilises mass media advertising to attract customers.
DIVISION H: ACCOMMODATION AND FOOD SERVICES
The Accommodation and Food Services Division includes units mainly engaged in providing short-term accommodation for visitors. Also included are units mainly engaged in providing food and beverage services, such as the preparation and serving of meals and the serving of alcoholic beverages for consumption by customers, both on and off-site.
DIVISION I: TRANSPORT, POSTAL AND WAREHOUSING
The Transport, Postal and Warehousing Division includes units mainly engaged in providing transportation of passengers and freight by road, rail, water or air. Other transportation activities such as postal services, pipeline transport and scenic and sightseeing transport are included in this division.
Units mainly engaged in providing goods warehousing and storage activities are also included.
The division also includes units mainly engaged in providing support services for the transportation of passengers and freight. These activities include stevedoring services, harbour services, navigation services, airport operations and customs agency services.
DIVISION J: INFORMATION MEDIA AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS
The Information Media and Telecommunications Division includes units mainly engaged in:
Information products are defined as those which are not necessarily tangible, and, unlike traditional goods, are not associated with a particular form. The value of the information products is embedded in their content rather than in the format in which they are distributed. For example, a movie can be screened at a cinema, telecast on television or copied to video for sale or rental. The division includes some activities that primarily create, enhance and disseminate information products, subject to copyright.
- creating, enhancing and storing information products in media that allows for their dissemination;
- transmitting information products using analogue and digital signals (via electronic, wireless, optical and other means); and
- providing transmission services and/or operating the infrastructure to enable the transmission and storage of information and information products.
It is the intangible nature of the information products which determines their unique dissemination process, which may include via a broadcast, electronic means, or physical form. They do not usually require direct contact between the supplier/producer and the consumer, which distinguishes them from distribution activities included in the Wholesale Trade and Retail Trade Divisions.
Excluded from the division are units mainly engaged in:
- the mass storage or duplication of information products such as printing newspapers, CDs, DVDs, etc. (Manufacturing Division);
- purchasing and on-selling information products in their tangible form (Wholesale Trade and Retail Trade Divisions);
- providing specialised computer services such as programming and systems design services, graphic design services and advertising services, as well as gathering, tabulating and presenting marketing and opinion data (Professional, Scientific and Technical Services Division);
- providing a range of creative artistic activities such as the creation of an artistic original (e.g. a painting), or the provision of a live musical performance by a group or artist (Arts and Recreation Services Division); and
- units undertaking a range of activities such as directing, acting, writing and performing (Arts and Recreation Services Division).
DIVISION K: FINANCIAL AND INSURANCE SERVICES
The Financial and Insurance Services Division includes units mainly engaged in financial transactions involving the creation, liquidation, or change in ownership of financial assets, and/or in facilitating financial transactions.
The range of activities include raising funds by taking deposits and/or issuing securities and, in the process, incurring liabilities; units investing their own funds in a range of financial assets; pooling risk by underwriting insurance and annuities; separately constituted funds engaged in the provision of retirement incomes; and specialised services facilitating or supporting financial intermediation, insurance and employee benefit programs.
Also included in this division are central banking, monetary control and the regulation of financial activities.
DIVISION L: RENTAL, HIRING AND REAL ESTATE SERVICES
The Rental, Hiring and Real Estate Services Division includes units mainly engaged in renting, hiring, or otherwise allowing the use of tangible or intangible assets (except copyrights), and units providing related services.
The assets may be tangible, as in the case of real estate and equipment, or intangible, as in the case with patents and trademarks.
The division also includes units engaged in providing real estate services such as selling, renting and/or buying real estate for others, managing real estate for others and appraising real estate.
DIVISION M: PROFESSIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL SERVICES
The Professional, Scientific and Technical Services Division includes units mainly engaged in providing professional, scientific and technical services. Units engaged in providing these services apply common processes where labour inputs are integral to the production or service delivery. Units in this division specialise and sell their expertise. In most cases, equipment and materials are not major inputs. The activities undertaken generally require a high level of expertise and training and formal (usually tertiary level) qualifications.
These services include scientific research, architecture, engineering, computer systems design, law, accountancy, advertising, market research, management and other consultancy, veterinary science and professional photography.
Excluded are units mainly engaged in providing health care and social assistance services, which are included in Division Q Health Care and Social Assistance.
DIVISION N: ADMINISTRATIVE AND SUPPORT SERVICES
The Administrative and Support Services Division includes units mainly engaged in performing routine support activities for the day-to-day operations of other businesses or organisations.
Units providing administrative support services are mainly engaged in activities such as office administration; hiring and placing personnel for others; preparing documents; taking orders for clients by telephone; providing credit reporting or collecting services; and arranging travel and travel tours.
Units providing other types of support services are mainly engaged in activities such as building and other cleaning services; pest control services; gardening services; and packaging products for others.
The activities undertaken by units in this division are often integral parts of the activities of units found in all sectors of the economy. Recent trends have moved more towards the outsourcing of such non-core activities. The units classified in this division specialise in one or more of these activities and can, therefore, provide services to a variety of clients.
DIVISION O: PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND SAFETY
The Public Administration and Safety Division includes units mainly engaged in Central, State or Local Government legislative, executive and judicial activities; in providing physical, social, economic and general public safety and security services; and in enforcing regulations. Also included are units of military defence, government representation and international government organisations.
Central, State or Local Government legislative, executive and judicial activities include the setting of policy; the oversight of government programs; collecting revenue to fund government programs; creating statute laws and by-laws; creating case law through the judicial processes of civil, criminal and other courts; and distributing public funds.
The provision of physical, social, economic and general public safety and security services, and enforcing regulations, includes units that provide police services; investigation and security services; fire protection and other emergency services; correctional and detention services; regulatory services; border control; and other public order and safety services.
Also included are units of military defence, government representation and international government organisations.
Government ownership is not a criterion for classification to this industry division. Government units producing 'private sector like' goods and services are classified to the same industry as private sector units engaged in similar activities. Private sector units engaged in public administration or military defence are classified to the Public Administration and Safety Division. Units that engage in a combination of public administration and service delivery activities are to be classified to this division.
DIVISION P: EDUCATION AND TRAINING
The Education and Training Division includes units mainly engaged in the provision and support of education and training, except those engaged in the training of animals e.g. dog obedience training, horse training.
Education may be provided in a range of settings, such as educational institutions, the workplace, or the home. Generally, instruction is delivered through face-to-face interaction between teachers/instructors and students, although other means and mediums of delivery, such as by correspondence, radio, television or the internet, may be used.
Education and training is delivered by teachers or instructors who explain, tell or demonstrate a wide variety of subjects. The commonality of processes involved, such as the labour inputs of teachers and instructors, and their subject matter knowledge and teaching expertise, uniquely distinguishes this industry from other industries.
Education support services include a range of support services which assist in the provision of education, such as curriculum setting and examination marking.
DIVISION Q: HEALTH CARE AND SOCIAL ASSISTANCE
The Health Care and Social Assistance Division includes units mainly engaged in providing human health care and social assistance. Units engaged in providing these services apply common processes, where the labour inputs of practitioners with the requisite expertise and qualifications are integral to production or service delivery.
DIVISION R: ARTS AND RECREATION SERVICES
The Arts and Recreation Services Division includes units mainly engaged in the preservation and exhibition of objects and sites of historical, cultural or educational interest; the production of original artistic works and/or participation in live performances, events, or exhibits intended for public viewing; and the operation of facilities or the provision of services that enable patrons to participate in sporting or recreational activities, or to pursue amusement interests.
This division excludes units that are involved in the production, or production and distribution of motion pictures, videos, television programs or television and video commercials. These units are included in the Information Media and Telecommunications Division.
DIVISION S: OTHER SERVICES
The Other Services Division includes a broad range of personal services; religious, civic, professional and other interest group services; selected repair and maintenance activities; and private households employing staff. Units in this division are mainly engaged in providing a range of personal care services, such as hair, beauty and diet and weight management services; providing death care services; promoting or administering religious events or activities; or promoting and defending the interests of their members.
Also included are units mainly engaged in repairing and/or maintaining equipment and machinery (except ships, boats, aircraft, or railway rolling stock) or other items (except buildings); as well as units of private households that engage in employing workers on or about the premises in activities primarily concerned with the operation of households.
The Other Services Division excludes units mainly engaged in providing buildings or dwellings repair and maintenance services (included in the Construction or Administrative and Support Services Divisions as appropriate), and units mainly engaged in providing repair and maintenance services of books, ships, boats, aircraft or railway rolling stock (included in the Manufacturing Division).