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1360.0 - Measuring Australia's Economy, 2003  
Latest ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 03/02/2003   
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Input-output tables describe the supply and disposition of the products of an entire economic system for a particular period. Tables may be compiled for industries or commodities. The ABS publishes industry by industry tables. A row in the table shows the disposition of the output of an industry and a column shows the origin of the inputs into an industry. Since the output of an industry must be equal to the sum of its inputs (including gross operating surplus and gross mixed income), the row total for an industry must be equal to the corresponding column total. They are two sides of an accounting statement. This is illustrated in the table and the diagram below, which show the flows of goods and services in respect of 1996-97.

The links between the table and the diagram are explained by working through the following formulae:

Total intermediate use ($482,483m) in the diagram is derived by summing from column 8 of the table: Intermediate use ($412,134m); Taxes on products, net ($13,378m); competing imports ($56,890m); and complementary imports ($81m).

Domestic final use ($530,600m) in the diagram is derived from the table by subtracting total exports ($105,160m) column 12, from total final uses ($635,760m), column 13.

Imports ($103,590m) is derived by summing from column 14 of the table: competing imports ($103,257m); and complementary imports ($333m). In the diagram it is dissected into imports for intermediate uses ($56,971m); and imports for final uses ($46,619m).

Exports ($105,160m) in the diagram is total exports, column 12 in the table.

Total use ($1,118,243m) which equals total supply, is the sum of domestic final use ($530,600m); total intermediate use ($482,483m); and exports ($105,160m).

Gross value added ($493,377m) in the diagram is derived by summing from column 14 of the table: compensation of employees ($257,193m); gross operating surplus and mixed income ($213,534m); and other taxes on production (net) ($22,650m).

Gross Domestic Product (income measure) ($532,170m) in the diagram is derived by summing from column 14 of the table: compensation of employees ($257,193m); gross operating surplus and mixed income ($213,534m); taxes on products (net) ($38,793m); and other taxes on production (net) ($22,650m).

Gross domestic product (Expenditure measure) ($532,170m) in the diagram is derived by summing domestic final use ($530,600m); and exports ($105,160m); and subtracting imports ($103,590m).


29.21 INDUSTRY BY INDUSTRY FLOW TABLE, Basic values - 1996-97

1
2
3
4
5
6
7







Agriculture
Mining
Manufacturing
Construction
Trade and
transport
Service
industries
Government admin.
and defence
Supply
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m

Agriculture
4,071
16
13,710
123
283
1,304
52
Mining
42
3,851
9,719
651
238
2,897
96
Manufacturing
4,369
4,043
49,326
16,658
16,182
20,627
3,497
Construction
177
224
48
70
439
1,948
675
Trade and transportation
2,819
3,020
21,356
4,084
18,559
15,873
1,818
Service industries
3,192
4,991
22,429
7,994
45,697
91,487
7,637
Government admin. and defence
53
226
578
120
1,260
1,100
2,505
Intermediate use
14,722
16,371
117,166
29,699
82,658
135,237
16,280
Compensation of employees
3,967
5,887
36,147
13,812
51,263
127,132
18,985
Gross operating surplus and gross mixed income
12,699
16,788
27,262
15,351
19,715
118,860
2,859
Taxes on products (net)
464
207
1,752
715
4,347
5,643
250
Other taxes on production (net)
588
499
2,505
700
4,053
11,054
29
Competing imports
1,641
2,015
28,646
3,406
5,793
13,548
1,842
Complementary imports
-
-
81
-
-
-
-
Australian production
34,081
41,767
213,558
63,683
167,829
411,474
40,245

8
9
10
11
12
13
14







Intermediate usage = Sum (1 to 7)
Final consumption expenditure
Gross fixed capital formation
Changes in inventories
Exports
Final uses = Sum
(9 to 12)
Total supply = Sum (8+13)
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m

Agriculture
19,560
4,719
1,024
369
8,409
14,522
34,081
Mining
17,493
598
2,268
-2,428
23,835
24,274
41,767
Manufacturing
114,702
47,087
14,046
-495
38,219
98,856
213,558
Construction
3,581
2,964
57,048
-5
96
60,102
63,683
Trade and transportation
67,530
70,463
11,901
40
17,896
100,299
167,829
Service industries
183,427
207,096
9,399
67
11,484
228,047
411,474
Government admin. and defence
5,842
33,847
405
-
151
34,403
40,245
Intermediate use
412,134
366,774
96,091
-2,452
100,090
560,503
972,637
Compensation of employees
257,193
-
-
-
-
-
257,193
Gross operating surplus and gross mixed income
213,534
-
-
-
-
-
213,534
Taxes on products (net)
13,378
20,262
3,352
158
1,643
25,415
38,793
Other taxes on production (net)
19,428
-
3,222
-
-
3,222
22,650
Competing imports
56,890
24,314
17,303
1,323
3,427
46,367
103,257
Complementary imports
81
111
151
-9
-
252
333
Australian production
972,637
411,461
120,119
-980
105,160
635,760
1,608,397
Gross value added
490,155
-
3,222
-
-
3,222
493,377
Gross domestic product
. .
. .
. .
. .
. .
. .
532,170

Source: Derived from Australian National Accounts: Input-Output Tables, 1996-97 (5209.0).



29.22 THE AUSTRALIAN ECONOMY, Flow of goods and services - 1996-97



Explanatory Notes

Input-output tables show the structure of a country's entire production system for a particular period, usually one year. They show which goods and services are produced by each industry and how they are used (e.g. some goods, such as cars, are sold to final consumers while others, such as steel, are used as inputs by other industries in producing more goods and services). The tables are based on the principle that the value of the output of each industry can be expressed as the sum of the values of all the inputs to that industry plus any profits made from production plus any taxes on production paid less any subsidies received. All the goods and services produced in a period are identified as being used as inputs by industries in their production process, being sold to final users of the goods and services (either in Australia, or overseas as exports), or contributing to the changes in inventories (an increase in inventories if more goods are produced than purchased or a run-down in inventories if purchases exceed production). For the production system as a whole, the sum of all outputs must equal the sum of all inputs and, for the economy as a whole, total supply must equal total use (inventories provide the mechanism which balances supply and use).

Input-output tables are directly related to the gross domestic product account. The income side of the gross domestic product account shows the amount of income generated in the economy accruing to labour (in the form of compensation of employees) and to capital (as profits, or in national accounting terms, gross operating surplus and gross mixed income - the latter including some return to owners of businesses for their labour). The expenditure side shows the value of goods and services entering into the various categories of final uses.

The I-O tables provide a much more detailed disaggregation of the gross domestic product account than is available in the national income, expenditure and product accounts. The latter only shows details of the end results of economic activity, whereas the input-output tables show the flows of goods and services through the production process. The extra detail provided by the input-output tables is essential for many analyses.

A form of input-output tables called supply and use tables are used to benchmark the gross domestic product account in the national accounts. They have been produced by the ABS since 1994-95, but are not published separately.

Input-output tables are used by analysts who require a detailed understanding of the economy and/or an understanding of the relationships between the various parts of the economy. They are used extensively in economic modelling.

Further Reading

Australian National Accounts: Concepts, Sources and Methods (5216.0)
Contains a detailed explanation of the system of Australian national accounts outlining major concepts and definitions.

Australian National Accounts: Input-Output Tables (5209.0)
Contains detailed input-output statistics, including industry by industry flow matrices, requirement coefficient matrices, and multipliers.

Australian National Accounts: Input-Output Tables (Product Details) (5215.0)
Shows the value of Australian production, imports and exports for over 1,000 commodities classified to the industry from which each originates, such as agriculture, manufacturing, business services and personal services.

Information Paper: Australian National Accounts: Introduction to Input-Output Multipliers (5246.0)
Contains information about the compilation and interpretation of input-output multipliers.

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