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1. This chapter provides classifications and definitions for the components of the three elements, that is: the CONSUMER, the PRODUCT and the SUPPLIER.
4. The 'CONSUMER' is, in all cases, a visitor. A 'visitor' is defined as: "any person travelling to a place other than that of his/her usual environment for less than twelve months and whose main purpose of trip is other than the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the place visited".
6. Criterion (1) introduces the concept of 'usual environment'. There is no international standard definition of this concept, due to the difficulty of arriving at a definition which would be appropriate for all countries. However, the UN/WTO standards suggest that two criteria be adopted by individual countries. They recommend that all travel falling within either or both of the following criteria be regarded as being within the usual environment, and should therefore be excluded:
7. In Australia, a distance criterion of 40 kilometres has been applied in the Domestic Tourism Monitor and other surveys. While the appropriateness of this particular distance may be debated, it would be difficult to arrive at a different distance measurement which would be more acceptable. On the grounds of accepted usage and continuity of time series, it is suggested that the 40 kilometres cut-off be retained. Consequently, persons travelling between home and place of work/education or travelling a distance of less than 40 kilometres should not be counted as 'visitors'.
8. Criterion (2) in paragraph 5 introduces a time restriction on the type of traveller considered to be a visitor. If a person stays, or intends to stay, at the place travelled to for longer than twelve months then s/he is considered to be a resident of, rather than a visitor to, that place. This criterion takes a destination, rather than an origin, perspective. The implication of this is that it is the length of time a traveller spends at a destination that qualifies him/her as a visitor, rather than the length of time that person is away from his/her place of residence. For example, a traveller can only stay in an area for less than one year to qualify as a visitor to that area, but s/he may be away from his/her place of residence for more than a year visiting a number of destinations.
9. In criterion (3), the term 'remuneration' refers to payments which cover the reward for labour, ie. wage and salary payments (including payment in kind) and not travel allowances or small participation fees. This criterion would exclude from the concept of tourism such travellers as seasonal or temporary workers, and lecturers, performing artists and consultants, who are remunerated from within the place visited. It would not exclude, however, business travellers, transport vehicle crews and students.
10. By convention there are certain other categories of traveller which are not considered to be classified as visitors. These are:
11. While statistics on visitors to local tourist attractions are often useful indicators of changes in the level of visitor activity, these should not be used as a measure of tourism activity in the area. Such statistics include visits by local residents and not just by genuine visitors. As tourism is defined in terms of the activity of visitors, it should also be measured in terms of their activity. A further problem in using tourist attraction activity statistics as a measure of tourism in the area is the question of which such 'attractions' would be included. Would visits to some restaurants be included? Would visits to cinemas, clubs, pubs, and other facilities frequented by tourists? This reflects the difficulty of measuring tourism from the supply side, and emphasises the need for demand side statistics to provide accurate measurement.
The components of CONSUMER
12. The characteristics of different types of visitors differ significantly. Consequently, it is necessary to have separate data according to whether:
13. To reflect these requirements the CONSUMER element is split into the following categories:
14. This section provides the definitions of the International Visitor components of CONSUMER listed above.
16. The definition does not include persons arriving in Australia for 'employment' purposes. However, a significant number of travellers visit for a combination of short term employment and pleasure purposes. As data are required on such travellers, they may be recorded in the statistics (assuming they are staying less than 12 months), but should be identified separately as visiting for 'employment/leisure' purposes. This will enable comparison with international statistics, which exclude such travellers from the definition of 'visitor'.
17. The following categories of travellers should not be included in international visitor statistics:
18. It should be noted that, because travellers in five categories above are not included in the statistics of international visitors when they arrive in Australia, for purposes of domestic tourism statistics they should be treated in effect as residents of this country, and thus as domestic visitors, when they take a trip within Australia.
19. The country in which a visitor has his/her usual residence is:
20. Thus, a person living in Australia but having the nationality of another country is a visitor to that country when travelling to that country. Similarly, an Australian citizen living overseas is a visitor to Australia when entering this country. The essential criterion is 'country of residence' rather than 'country of nationality'.
21. The definition of 'Same-day visitor' includes persons who arrive as cruise ship or yacht passengers and crew members on a cruise ship or warship who stay longer than one night but return to their ship each night.
22. For statistics at a local area level, an international visitor should be classified as an 'Overnight visitor' or a 'Same-day visitor' according to how long s/he stays in the local region, irrespective of how long s/he stays in the country. Thus, an International Visitor who stays in the country for more than one night, but takes a day trip to a local region, would be classed as an 'Overnight visitor' in the international arrival/departure statistics, but as a 'Same-day visitor' in statistics of visitors to the local region.
23. This section provides the definitions of the Domestic Visitor components of CONSUMER listed above.
25. However, there are exceptions to this definition.
26. The definition does not include persons travelling to another part of Australia for 'employment' purposes. However, as many of these travellers combine leisure purposes with employment and data are required on them, such travellers may be recorded in the statistics (assuming they are staying less than 12 months), but should be identified separately as visiting for 'employment/leisure' purposes. This will enable comparison with international statistics, which exclude such travellers from the definition of 'visitor'.
27. For purposes of statistics on domestic tourism a person is considered to be a resident of Australia (or a particular area) if s/he:
28. It should also be noted that those international travellers who are excluded from the international visitor statistics, as noted in paragraph 18, should in effect be treated as residents of this country in domestic visitor statistics when travelling within Australia.
29. Trips undertaken by foreign nationals residing in Australia should be treated in the same way as trips undertaken by Australian citizens residing in this country. The essential criterion in defining a domestic visitor is residency in Australia, as defined above, and not nationality.
30. Some discretion should be used in dealing with visits to second homes. Visits to holiday homes, beach houses, houseboats, etc. should clearly be included when they fall within the definition, and where they are clearly for temporary recreational purposes. Stays of relatively long duration or undertaken on a frequent basis in second homes, which are used primarily as alternative places of residence rather than primarily for recreation, should not be included.