Australian Bureau of Statistics
9502.0.55.001 - Framework for Australian Tourism Statistics, 1999
Previous ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 02/12/1999
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6. This topic elaborates on the 'Typical Measures' for the CONSUMER element of the event and provides definitions and classifications where relevant.
Number of visitors
7. This is the basic unit of measurement of the various types of visitors to a destination region or country.
Purpose of visit
8. Data on purpose of visit are essential to identify the various types of visitors. Each type has its own behavioural, product consumption and expenditure patterns.
15. The Purpose of visit classification recognises a distinction between 'training' and 'education'. Category '3.3 Training and research' is included as a sub-set of '3. Business and professional' as it comprises persons who are in the workforce in their place of residence and who are undertaking some form of training or research relating to their job. Category '4. Education' comprises persons who are not in the workforce in their place of residence and who are undertaking longer term education, eg. students.
Date of arrival
16. The month of arrival of a visitor at a destination should be recorded to provide seasonal data on visitor movements. In some surveys, however, such as household surveys of domestic visitors, for practical collection reasons, it may be more appropriate to classify visitors according to the month they returned to their place of usual residence.
Duration of visit (stay or trip)
17. For classifying tourism trips in general and, even more so, leisure and holiday trips in particular, the duration of the visit is an important statistical variable.
23. The place or country of usual residence is important as it is one of the key criteria for determining whether a traveller is a visitor or not. In the case of international travellers, country of residence is one of the criteria for identifying visitors from other types of travellers (ie. residents of Australia). For many research and policy purposes it is important to identify the source regions for domestic visitors and the source countries for international visitors to a destination area.
Place of residence for international visitors
24. The country of residence of an international visitor is defined as the country in which the visitor:
25. There are a number of available classifications of countries and territories developed for specific purposes. One such system is the Standard Australian Classification of Countries 1998 (Cat. no. 1269.0). This system has been developed by the ABS following consultation with interested potential users, including tourism organisations, and is recommended for adoption by tourism statistics collectors and users. This system is used as a standard classification for ABS collections, such as the Population Census and labour force statistics. It is also being adopted by the Department of Immigration and other government departments.
26. The classification is a three level hierarchical system, in which the levels are represented by a 1-digit, 2-digit and 4-digit code, respectively. The following summary list shows the 1-digit level of detail. For the full list of countries see Standard Australian Classification of Countries 1998 (Cat. no. 1269.0).
2. Europe and the former USSR
3. The Middle East and North Africa
4. Southeast Asia
5. Northeast Asia
6. Southern Asia
7. Northern America
8. South America, Central America and the Caribbean
9. Africa (excluding North Africa)
Place of residence for domestic visitors
27. The ABS has developed the Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC) for use in the collection and publication of its own statistics, and encourages other organisations to use this classification in their own statistical work. It is recommended that this be adopted as the classification for identifying place of residence of domestic visitors. This will allow comparisons between tourism statistical collections and other ABS collections which may or may not be directly related to tourism, eg. the Population Census and labour force surveys. The ASGC incorporates a number of types of geographical areas, or 'spatial units'. For tourism statistics, the adoption of a hierarchical system comprising, in ascending order, Statistical Local Areas (SLAs), Statistical Sub-divisions (SSDs), Statistical Divisions (SDs), and States and Territories (S/Ts), is recommended.
30. The recommended ASGC classification listed below provides detail down to the Statistical Division level. For detail down to Statistical Local Area level refer to the ABS publication Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC), (Cat. no. 1216.0).
31. For International visitors, it may be of interest to have data on country of citizenship in addition to country of residence. Citizenship data are often of value for market research purposes in identifying particular communities within a country which may be a potential, or actual, target market.
34. It is important that a classification system of destination regions is available for tourism statistics collections. Much of the tourism data are only of importance, or of particular interest at the small area level. The Australian Standard Geographic Classification (ASGC), as outlined in the topic 'Place of residence' in Chapter 3, should be used to define the boundaries of destination regions. Regions can be defined in terms of groups of Statistical Local Areas (SLAs). This enables comparison or linkage of tourism data with other collections, such as the population census, labour force statistics, etc.
36. Each tourism trip can have only one main destination, even though several destinations may be visited. The main destination is defined as: "the place or country where more time was spent than in any other during the trip". In the case of overnight visits, the main destination should be considered the place in which most nights were spent. If the number of nights spent in two or more places is the same, the main destination should be considered to be the place furthest from the visitor's place of residence.
37. This should be recorded in all collections as an essential variable to identify types of visitors.
38. Age data on visitors should be classified according to the age (in years) of visitors as at their last birthday. Months should be ignored. A visitor who is 14 years and 10 months of age should be classified as age 14. This is consistent with other data series, such as the Population Census, and also with the system of price discounting for age groups used by many organisations, such as airlines.
40. Data on marital status should be collected for visitors 15 years and over. It is recommended that the following classification be adopted:
Level of education
42. The level of education should be identified as the highest level completed. The following classification is recommended:
44. 'Completed primary education' includes children who have completed primary school and who are currently either not attending school or are now attending secondary school.
45. 'Completed secondary education' includes children who have completed secondary school and who are currently either not attending school or are now attending a post-secondary institution.
46. 'Completed post-secondary vocational or technical training' should only include qualifications which require at least one year full time study (or part time equivalent). Completion of short-term courses should not be included.
Economic activity status
47. The economic activity status of a visitor relates to his/her normal daily economic activity, or lack of such activity. The classification below is based on International Labour Organisation (ILO) standards.
49. 'Unemployed' comprises persons who, immediately prior to the trip, did not have a job but were actively looking for full-time or part-time work and were available to start work.
50. 'Not in labour force - Others' includes persons in institutions or otherwise unable to work.
51. The Australian Standard Classification of Occupations (ASCO), Second Edition (1997), provides a classification which can be used to categorise visitors, and which allows for comparison with other statistical collections.
54. For data on income of visitors, it is recommended that the following classification, which is based on the standard income ranges used in the 1996 Population Census, be adopted.
56. Income recorded should be gross income, ie. before tax and other deductions, for the 12 months prior to undertaking the trip. It should include, as much as possible, wages, salaries, overtime, dividends, interest, family allowance, pensions, rents received, business or farm income (less operating expenses), and superannuation and workers' compensation received.
57. Income data for international visitors should be collected in the currency of their country of residence and converted to $A using the exchange rate in effect at the time of the survey.
Number of persons in party
58. A visitor might travel as part of a 'party' and/or a 'group'. A 'party' comprises a number of visitors travelling together and whose expenditure is from a common pool. A typical example is a family on holiday together. A 'group' comprises a number of visitors travelling together but who are each responsible for their own expenditure. A typical example would be people travelling on the same bus tour. A 'group' could comprise a number of 'parties' and individual travellers.
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