4902.0 - Australian Culture and Leisure Classifications, 2001  
Previous ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 28/08/2001   
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Amusement arcade

An amusement arcade is a venue (often indoors) which typically offers a range of games, often coin or token operated, such as pinball machines.

Amusement park

An amusement park is a centre (often outdoors) which typically offers rides, games and shows for entertainment. See also Theme park.


An object of art or a furniture piece of a former period. This definition adopts the Australian rule that an object would generally be aged 50 years or more to qualify as an antique. Antique retailers also commonly deal in collectables. See also Collectables.

Art gallery

The Classifications distinguish between three types of organisations that are often called art galleries:

a) commercial art galleries: these organisations display and sell artworks either on consignment or by outright sale (and are sometimes called 'dealer galleries');

b) art museums: these organisations manage art collections and display artworks but the primary activity is not the sale of artworks; and

c) art spaces: these organisations provide an exhibition space (and sometimes a work space) for artists but do not sell artworks. See also Art spaces.

Art space

An art space provides an exhibition space (and sometimes a work space) for artists but does not sell artwork. The art space may be funded by government grants, through sponsorship or by groups of artists. The use of the art space is generally provided free of charge to the artist.


For the purposes of the ACLC, a book is defined as textual, graphical or pictorial material intended to be either printed on paper and bound, or otherwise published. Audio or electronic publishing (e.g., multimedia, interactive) are included. A book must be allocated an International Standard Book Number (ISBN) and offered for sale.


Broadcasting is the transmission of radio, television or similar programs which can be received by a wide audience with suitable equipment. Broadcasting is also a general term for the process of transmission of all radio and television programs. See also Narrowcasting.


According to The Macquarie Dictionary, collectables may be:

a) objects of no intrinsic value, such as matchboxes or beer cans, collected as a hobby or momento; or

b) objects of great antiquarian value, such as rare coins, often collected as an investment.

This definition describes the two extremes of a range of objects which may be regarded as collectables. Many collectables, such as stamps, porcelain figures, plates and dolls, may have significant monetary value although they are not antiques.

Commercial photography service

A commercial photography service usually includes fashion, studio, advertising, scientific and/or industrial photography.

Concession business

A concession business is one which is granted rights by a controlling authority to operate its business within the authority's jurisdiction.

Example: A sideshow may operate as a concession within a larger 'show' or event and pay a rent in the form of a fixed fee or percentage of returns.


The exclusive right, granted by law for a certain term, to make and dispose of copies of, or otherwise to control, a literary, musical, dramatic or artistic work. See also Royalties.

Dance music creator

Dance music creators re-mix music from other sources. Their creativity is acknowledged by their eligibility for copyright receipts.


According to the Television Broadcasting Services (Digital Conversion) Act 1998 (Cwlth), datacasting is a service (other than a broadcasting service) that delivers information (whether in the form of data, text, speeches, images or in any other form) to persons having equipment appropriate for receiving that information, where the delivery of the service uses the broadcasting services band.


Distribution may have a variety of meanings depending upon the forum in which it is used. Within the Industry Classification, distribution generally refers to the process of wholesaling and delivering of goods to be sold to the retailer.

Example: Film distributors usually sell and deliver the film to the theatre.

Distribution - music

Music distributors generate income mainly from wholesaling recorded music products. These may be sourced through either licensing or packaging and distribution deals, or may simply be purchased outright for resale.

Domestic photography service

A domestic photography service usually includes portrait and wedding photography.

Event presenter, event promoter

Event presenters and promoters plan and design an event by: negotiating with the participating company, artist, sporting team or individual; organising venues; hiring additional staff for the duration of the event; and undertaking administrative arrangements. A presenter or promoter deals with an already established 'product'.

Some business units undertake both event presentation or promotion, and event production (see Event producer).

Event producer

Event producers contribute artistically to the primary creation of the show or event, often creating a business entity for the duration of the event by employing all personnel required, including performers.

Some business units undertake both event presentation or promotion (see Event presenter, event promoter), and event production.

Fringe theatre

Fringe theatre refers to theatre companies or genres which 'push the boundaries' by performing unusual or experimental theatre. Also known as innovative theatre.


The term 'games' is mainly used in reference to board, card and strategy games where the activities will mainly involve mental dexterity, although limited physical activity or hand/eye coordination may also be involved. If significant physical activity or hand/eye coordination is involved then the activity is classified as a sport or physical recreation.

These games may be played on the Internet or by other electronic means as well as by traditional methods.

Harness racing

Harness racing describes the racing of horses in harness pulling a two-wheeled 'gig' or 'sulky'. The horse must be registered as a 'Standardbred'.

Hospitality clubs

Hospitality clubs are mainly engaged in providing gambling, sporting, meals and other entertainment services to members.

Innovative theatre

See Fringe theatre.

Installation art

An increasingly common form of artistic expression that is difficult to categorise. In essence, installation art is an extended form of sculpture. It may, however, use a variety of media, consist of a number of parts and require varying levels of interaction. Spatial considerations are also important, with installations often borrowing from and relating to the space in which they are exhibited.

Internet radio and/or television

Internet or Web radio and television stations transmit programmes which are only accessed by audiences via the Internet. Also known as web radio and/or television.


Manufacturing relates to the physical or chemical transformation of materials or components into new products.

Multipath films

Multipath or interactive films are usually accessed via a personal computer and allow the audience to choose from a number of options in the story line.


Transmission of radio, television or similar programmes which can be received only by a specific, 'narrow' audience. See also Broadcasting.

Examples of narrowcasting are pay television where there is a charge for service, and community television or radio stations where the signal reaches a specific area only.


To be on-line means to be connected to the Internet or 'world wide web' via a computer.

Originating a music recording

A record company originates a recording by arranging for the recording artist(s) to have access to a recording studio to record their work.

Park, reservation or reserve

The terms 'park', 'reservation' and 'reserve' may be used interchangeably and may describe an area set aside for recreation or for the protection of native flora or fauna. In addition, the terms may be used as part of a special description, for example 'zoological park'.

Examples: A 'national park' is an area where flora and fauna are protected and the public are allowed access, and is usually managed by a government entity and listed on a Heritage register. A 'flora reserve' is an area where plants are protected and allowed to grow in their natural environment.

Pay television

Television services for which a viewing charge is levied. See also Narrowcasting.


Printing is the transference of prepared textual, graphic and pictorial material to paper (usually) so as to create multiple copies of the prepared material.

Publishing - audio recordings

In releasing a recording for sale to the general public, a record company is in effect publishing that recording. In order to do this, the record company will have entered into a contractual arrangement with a recording artist and will have arranged for the manufacture, marketing and distribution of the finished product. The record company may also have arranged the recording sessions and/or sourced the material to be recorded.

Publishing - literature

The publishing of literature (e.g. books, periodicals, newspapers) involves the preparation of textual, graphical and pictorial material intended to be either printed and bound, or otherwise published (e.g. in electronic format). Publishing activities include: commissioning or accepting material from authors or other originators; reading and editing submitted or resubmitted material; design and preparation of layout; and arranging for the printing, marketing and distribution of the finished product.

Publishing - music

A music publisher is assigned the rights to (or owns outright) the copyright in musical works created by composers/songwriters with whom it has music publishing contracts. It is the function of the music publisher to promote and authorise the use of these musical works in order to make money for both parties. This may involve the works being used in recordings, radio, television, motion pictures, advertising, live performances, print and other media. The music publisher receives all royalties generated, retains a percentage and passes the greater portion on to the composer/songwriter.

Publishing - sheet music

The publication of sheet music is a similar process to the publication of literature. A music publisher makes copies of the sheet music available for sale or distribution to the public. These will usually be in a printed form but can also be in an electronic format.

Puppet theatre and puppet shows

Puppet theatre companies are normally employing units and are classified to Class 222 Drama in the Industry Classification. Puppet shows tend to be smaller operations, often freelance units, and are classified to Class 225 Other Performing Arts in the Industry Classification.

Releasing a music recording

See Publishing - audio recording.


The term retailing is usually defined as the sale or resale of new or used goods to the consumer for personal or household consumption. Retailing covers:

      • department stores and other shops;
      • motor vehicle retailers and service outlets;
      • stalls (e.g. in markets);
      • mail order services;
      • door to door sellers;
      • home delivery services (e.g. milk vendors);
      • vending machines;
      • consumer cooperatives;
      • selected repair activities such as repairs of household equipment or motor vehicles; and
      • selling on commission.


A royalty is an agreed portion of the revenue received from the sale or use of a creative work paid to its creator. See also Copyright.

Sales and/or selling

The terms 'sales' or 'selling' are used in the Industry Classification to refer to wholesaling, retailing, hiring and leasing of goods or services.


Specialisations are listed for many of the occupations in the Occupation Classification. These refer to a subset of jobs belonging to each occupation, which involve the performance of specialised tasks rather than the broader range of tasks usually performed in the occupation.

Example: 'Reference librarian' is a specialisation of the occupation 'Librarian'.

Stock footage

Stock footage is exposed film of scenes or past events that can be duplicated and incorporated into a new production. Examples of organisations that have stock footage libraries are Film World, the ABC and Film Australia.


The purchase and supply of articles, stories, programmes, etc. for simultaneous publication in a number of newspapers or periodicals, or for simultaneous transmission over a number of television or radio stations.


A machine that transfers images between film and video.

Theatre-in-education company, dance-in-education company

A theatre-in-education company or dance-in-education company aims to teach drama, acting or dance skills. In the Industry Classification, these companies are classified to Class 222 Drama or Class 223 Dance because they present public performances as an integral part of their programme. Units which teach drama, acting or dance skills but do not present performances as a major part of their programme are classified to Class 292 Arts Education.

Theme park

A theme park is similar to an amusement park, but provides a range of entertainments and/or displays organised around a specific theme, such as movies or pioneer life. A theme park may offer an educational component, in addition to entertainment. See also Amusement park.

Thoroughbred racing

Thoroughbred racing is the racing code which involves the racing of horses under saddle and includes both 'flat' racing (with no jumps) and racing over jumps. The horses must be registered 'Thoroughbred' horses.

Visual art and craft

Visual art and craft products include paintings, murals, drawings, cartoons, prints, digital works of art, installations, sculptures, ceramics, pottery, jewellery, woven or printed textile art, clothing and wearables, carvings, furniture, and glass, metal and leather craft. Also included is fine art photography, where the product is a one-off, or a limited series of photographs intended as an art work.


A volunteer is someone who willingly gives unpaid help, in the form of time, service or skills, for an organisation or group.

Web radio and/or television

See Internet radio and/or television.


Wholesaling includes the resale (by agents or principals) of new or used goods to businesses or to institutional (including government) users. Wholesaling covers:
      • wholesale merchants who take title to the goods they sell;
      • separate sales branches operated by manufacturing enterprises;
      • commission agents; and
      • import and export agents and purchasing agents.

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