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Population Composition: New Zealanders in Australia
AGE/SEX PROFILE OF THE NEW ZEALAND BORN POPULATION AND THE TOTAL AUSTRALIAN POPULATION - 2000
Source: ABS Estimated Resident Population, 2000(p).
A young population
New Zealanders in Australia are predominantly of working age. In 2000, 62% of New Zealand-born residents in Australia were aged from 20 to 49 years: among the total Australian population 45% were in that age range. There were proportionally few New Zealand-born children: 10% were aged under 15 years compared with 20% among all Australian residents. There were also comparatively few New Zealand-born adults aged 65 years and over: 6% compared with 12% among all Australian residents. Many of the differences observed between New Zealand-born residents and all Australian residents can be attributed to this young age structure.
Over half arrived in the last 20 years
The large number of settlers arriving from New Zealand over the past two decades means that a large proportion of New Zealand-born Australian residents are relatively recent arrivals. In 2001, an estimated 66% of New Zealand-born residents aged 15 years and over had arrived in Australia since 1981. Among all overseas-born Australian residents aged 15 years and over, 45% had arrived since 1981.
YEAR OF ARRIVAL(a) - 2001
Source: ABS Monthly Labour Force Survey, August 2001.
Mainly city dwellers
The 1996 Census found that New Zealand-born residents of Australia lived mainly in major cities, predominantly on the east coast. One-quarter lived in the Sydney/Newcastle/Wollongong region, 24% in Brisbane or the Gold Coast/Tweed region, 12% in Melbourne, 10% in Perth, and a further 6% in other major cities. The remaining 24% lived in areas other than major cities.
Settlers arriving in Australia are asked where they plan to live, though that does not necessarily mean they settle permanently there. Nevertheless, the State or Territory in which New Zealand-born settlers intended to live matched the patterns of residence portrayed by the census.
Recent New Zealand-born settlers continue to be drawn to the eastern States of Queensland and New South Wales. These two States shared equally 72% of arrivals in 1999-2000. A further 17% and 8% intended to live in Victoria and Western Australia respectively.
The attractiveness of particular States to New Zealand-born settlers has changed over time, probably reflecting the influence of State economies and associated job opportunities. Although alternating in their priority, the eastern States of New South Wales and Queensland have consistently been the main destinations of New Zealand-born settlers. These two States together attracted an average of 69% of New Zealand-born settlers each year over the past 20 years. Over the same period Victoria has been the intended destination of between 12% and 18% of New Zealand-born settlers, while Western Australia attracted between 8% and 14%. South Australia has consistently attracted a small proportion of New Zealand-born settlers each year, an average of 3% over the past 20 years.
The intended State of residence of New Zealand-born settlers varied with their age. In 1999–2000, younger New Zealand-born settlers were most likely to state New South Wales, followed by Queensland, as their intended address (44% and 31% respectively of 18-24 year olds). New Zealand-born settlers aged 25-54 years had similar patterns as those already described for all New Zealand-born settlers; that is, they were mainly drawn to both Queensland and New South Wales in similar proportions (36% and 35% respectively). Older New Zealand-born settlers were most likely to state Queensland as their intended address - 57% of those aged 55 years and over. However, this group represented only 7% (1,070) of all adult New Zealand-born settlers in 1999-2000.
MAIN LOCATION OF INTENDED RESIDENCE(a) OF ADULT(b) NEW ZEALAND-BORN PERMANENT ARRIVALS
(a) Overseas arrivals are asked their intended address. This does not necessarily mean they will have settled permanently in that State or Territory.
(b) Aged 18 years and over.
Source: ABS Overseas Arrivals and Departures (cat. no. 3401.0).
Like most Australians, New Zealanders were most likely to live in a family. In 2001, New Zealand-born men were slightly more likely to be living with a partner (65%) than New Zealand-born women (62%), though women were much more likely to be a lone parent, 12% compared with about 2% of men. Among all Australians, women were also more likely than men to be lone parents, 9% compared with 2%. About half the New Zealand-born with partners had dependent children, slightly more than all Australians. About 11% of New Zealand-born residents lived alone, similar to all Australians, while 9% and 7% of men and women respectively lived in group houses or as boarders - compared with 6% and 4% respectively of all Australians.
In 2000, the marriage rate for both New Zealand-born men (16 per 1,000 men) and women (14 per 1,000 women) was higher than that for those born in Australia (12 per 1,000 for both men and women). This difference in marriage rates is primarily a result of the predominance of young adults among the New Zealand-born population. When standardised by age, the difference almost disappears, with New Zealand-born men having only a slightly higher marriage rate than Australian-born men. Among women, the standardised marriage rate was lower for New Zealand-born women than Australian-born women.
RELATIONSHIP IN HOUSEHOLD - 2001
In 2000, New Zealand-born residents who married tended to be older than Australian-born residents who married. The median age at marriage was 32.1 years for grooms and 30.0 years for brides, compared with 29.7 years for Australian-born grooms and 27.8 years for brides. New Zealand-born residents were more likely to be remarrying than Australian-born residents. In 2000, 28% and 26% of New Zealand-born brides and grooms respectively were remarrying compared with 21% and 22% of Australian-born brides and grooms.
New Zealand-born residents marrying in 2000 were more likely to use a civil celebrant than a religious celebrant. Two-thirds of the brides and nearly two-thirds of the grooms were married by a civil celebrant. This is consistent with the relatively high proportion (28%) of New Zealand-born residents who stated they had no religion in the 1996 Census; which may also be related to their relatively young age profile. Just under half of Australian-born brides and grooms marrying in 2000 used a civil celebrant.
MARRIAGES AND DIVORCES - 2000
In 2000, New Zealand-born women had a similar total fertility rate (1.77) to all women in Australia (1.75). The total fertility rate indicates the average number of children born alive to a woman over her lifetime if she followed the pattern of births by age prevalent in that year, in this case 2000. The median age of New Zealand-born mothers in 2000 was the same as that for all Australian mothers, 30 years, but slightly younger than that for all overseas born mothers, 31 years.
The proportion of New Zealand-born mothers who were not married (44%) was considerably higher than for all mothers (29%) and all overseas-born women (20%). Although the majority of these unmarried women were probably in de facto relationships, the proportion of births in which paternity was not acknowledged in 2000 was 5% among New Zealand-born mothers, compared with 4% for all women and 3% for all overseas-born women.
FERTILITY - 2000
Source: Births, 2000 (ABS cat. no. 3301.0).
In 2000, New Zealand-born residents had a divorce rate of 7 per 1,000 for both men and women, higher than that for Australian-born residents, 5 per 1,000 for both men and women. This difference was mainly due to the relative youth of New Zealand-born residents since, when age standardised, the rates were similar - though slightly higher for New Zealand-born men compared with Australian-born men.
The divorce of a New Zealand-born resident was slightly less likely to involve children than the divorce of an Australian-born resident (52% and 56% of divorces respectively). The median age at divorce (decree made absolute) was slightly higher for New Zealand-born divorcees (42.7 years for men and 38.9 years for women) compared with Australian-born divorcees (40.8 years for men and 38.0 years for women). Since median duration of marriage was 12 years for both sexes in both groups, the difference in age at divorce probably reflects the difference in age at marriage.
Skills and employment
The predominance of working age New Zealand-born residents and the relationship between Trans-Tasman immigration and economic conditions1 suggests a group of migrants with strong links to the labour force. Their high rates of labour force participation confirm this relationship (to participate in the labour force an individual must be working or actively seeking and available to work).
In November 1999, 90% of male and 67% of female New Zealand-born residents who had arrived in Australia after 1980 aged 18 years and over were participating in the labour force. Among all overseas-born people who arrived after 1980 aged 18 years and over, the rates were lower, 82% for men and 57% for women. In November 1999, the overall level of labour force participation in Australia for people aged 15 years and over was 72% for men and 54% for women.
MIGRANTS WHO ARRIVED AFTER 1980(a): LABOUR FORCE AND EDUCATION - 1999
Source: Labour Force Status and other Characteristics of Migrants, 1999 (ABS cat. no. 6250.0).
The unemployment rate among New Zealand-born residents who arrived after 1980 aged 18 years and over was 4%, a lower rate than recorded for all overseas-born residents (5%). For comparison, the unemployment rate for all people aged 15 years and over in the Australian labour force in November 1999 was 6%.
Male New Zealand-born residents who arrived after 1980 were more likely to have tertiary qualifications than female New Zealand-born residents (73% of men and 47% of women). However, New Zealand-born residents who arrived after 1980 were less likely overall to possess tertiary qualifications than all migrants who had arrived after 1980 (79% of men and 62% of women). Most New Zealand-born men and women with tertiary qualifications had arrived with their qualification (82% of men and 76% of women).
EMPLOYED PEOPLE: SELECTED INDUSTRIES(a) - 2001
Source: ABS Monthly Labour Force Survey, August 2001.
In August 2001, the ranking of industries in which employed New Zealand-born residents worked was different to that observed among all employed people. The six industries in which New Zealand-born workers were most likely to work were, in descending order: Property and business services, Manufacturing, Retail trade, Construction, Health and community services, and Accommodation, cafes and restaurants. Among all Australian workers, Retail trade was the most common industry, followed in descending order by Manufacturing, Property and business services, Health and community services, Construction, and Education.
In August 2001, the proportion of New Zealand-born employed men working in the Construction industry was notably greater than the proportion of all employed men working in that industry: 17% compared with 12%; as was the proportion of employed women in the Property and business services industry, 18% compared with 12% among all employed women. Employed New Zealand-born women were less likely to work in the Retail trade industry than all employed women, 13% compared with 18% of all employed women.
EMPLOYED PEOPLE: OCCUPATIONS - 2001
Although the occupation mix of employed New Zealand-born residents was similar to that of all Australians, the mix was slightly skewed towards lower skilled occupations. In August 2001, employed New Zealand-born residents were slightly under-represented among male Managers and administrators (7% compared with 10% of all employed men); male Professionals (14% compared with 17% of all employed men) and female Elementary clerical, sales and service workers (12% compared with 14% for all employed women).
Employed New Zealand-born residents were slightly over-represented among male Tradespersons and related workers (23% compared with 21% of all employed men), male Intermediate production and transport workers (16% compared with 14% of all employed men), and male Labourers and related workers (13% compared with 10% of all employed men).
1 Carmichael, G. 1996, Trans-Tasman Migration in Population Shift, Mobility and Change in Australia, Edited by Newton, P. W., and Bell, M., Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
2 Department of Immigration and Multicultural Affairs, 2001. New Zealanders in Australia, 2001, Fact Sheet 6, Department of Immigration and Multicultural Affairs, Canberra.