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4102.0 - Australian Social Trends, 1998  
Previous ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 03/06/1998   
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Health


HEALTH STATUS

Life expectancy at birth

Country
Reference year
Infant mortality rate(a)
Reference year
Males
Females
no.
years
years

Australia
1994
5.9
1994
75.0
80.9
Canada
1994
6.2
1985-87
73.0
79.8
China
1990-95
44.5
1990-95
66.7
70.5
France
1995
4.9
1992
72.9
81.2
Greece
1995
7.9
1990-91
74.6
80.0
Hong Kong
1994
4.5
1994
75.8
81.2
Indonesia
1990-95
58.1
1990-95
61.0
64.5
Italy
1994
6.6
1992
73.8
80.4
Japan
1994
4.2
1994
76.6
83.0
Korea (Republic of)
1990-95
10.9
1991
67.7
75.7
Malaysia
1990-95
13.0
1990-95
68.7
73.0
New Zealand
1995
6.7
1990-92
72.9
78.7
Papua New Guinea
1990-95
68.3
1990-95
55.2
56.7
Singapore
1995
4.0
1994
74.2
78.5
Sweden
1995
3.7
1994
76.1
81.4
UK
1994
6.2
1994
74.2
79.4
USA
1994
7.9
1993
72.2
78.8
Viet Nam
1990-95
42.0
1979
63.7
67.9

(a) Per 1,000 live births.

Source: United Nations 1995 Demographic Yearbook.

STANDARDISED DEATH RATES(a) FOR SELECTED CAUSES OF DEATH

CountryReference year
Malignant neoplasms (cancer)
Ischaemic heart disease
Cerebrovascular disease (stroke)
Motor vehicle traffic
accidents
Suicide and self-inflicted injury(b)
All causes
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.

Australia1993
124.2
97.2
36.0
10.3
10.0
433.1
Canada1993
129.3
88.5
28.0
11.1
11.4
442.7
China (rural)1994
111.9
26.5
110.2
13.8
25.8
698.7
China (urban)1994
119.4
57.6
125.0
10.1
5.9
594.7
France1993
133.9
35.3
28.8
13.7
16.2
439.9
Greece1994
109.1
55.4
69.5
18.4
2.6
449.0
Hong Kong1994
125.9
40.0
39.8
4.5
10.3
392.9
Indonesia . .
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
Italy1992
134.8
55.3
49.2
14.2
5.7
459.1
Japan1994
106.2
21.7
44.5
8.9
12.2
364.0
Korea (Republic of)1992
117.4
13.5
91.1
29.7
7.6
570.6
Malaysia . .
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
New Zealand1993
142.2
119.7
44.0
16.8
11.7
509.9
Papua New Guinea . .
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
Singapore1993
128.7
101.5
59.4
9.2
9.3
517.0
Sweden1993
108.4
102.3
37.7
5.9
12.1
435.4
UK1993
141.7
126.2
45.5
6.0
6.4
517.2
USA1992
132.2
100.3
28.0
14.6
10.2
519.6
Viet Nam . .
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.

(a) Standardised death rates are the overall death rates per 100,000 population that would have prevailed in a standard population if it had experienced at each age the death rates of the population being studied. The standard population used in this table is the World Health Organisation world standard population. Standardised death rates for Australia presented in the Health chapter of this publication or elsewhere in ABS publications are not comparable due the use of a different standard population and different reference periods.
(b) It is generally acknowledged that suicides are under-reported as a cause of death. The degree of under-reporting varies from country to country, partly for social and cultural reasons, but also because of differences in legal requirements and administrative procedures in arriving at a verdict of suicide.

Source: World Health Organisation World Health Statistics Annual 1995.

HEALTH SERVICES AND EXPENDITURE

Country
Reference year
Health expenditure
as % of GDP
Health expenditure per capita at PPP(a)
Reference year
Doctors per 1,000 population
Reference year
Acute hospital beds per 1 000 population
%
$US '000
no.
no.

Australia
1996
8.4
1.8
1991
2.2
1993
4.3
Canada
1996
9.2
2.0
1995
2.2
1993
3.6
China
. .
n.a.
n.a.
. .
n.a.
. .
n.a.
France
1996
9.6
2.0
1995
2.9
1995
4.6
Greece
1996
5.9
0.7
1994
3.9
1992
3.9
Hong Kong
. .
n.a.
n.a.
. .
n.a.
. .
n.a.
Indonesia
. .
n.a.
n.a.
. .
n.a.
. .
n.a.
Italy
1996
7.6
1.5
1992
1.7
1994
5.3
Japan
1995
7.2
1.6
1994
1.8
. .
n.a.
Korea (Republic of)
1995
5.3
0.7
1995
1.1
1995
2.8
Malaysia
. .
n.a.
n.a.
. .
n.a.
. .
n.a.
New Zealand
1996
7.2
1.3
1995
2.1
1991
7.2
Papua New Guinea
. .
n.a.
n.a.
. .
n.a.
. .
n.a.
Singapore
. .
n.a.
n.a.
. .
n.a.
. .
n.a.
Sweden
1995
7.2
1.4
1996
3.1
1995
3.1
UK
1996
6.9
1.3
1994
1.6
1995
2.0
USA
1996
14.2
3.7
1994
2.5
1995
3.3
Viet Nam
. .
n.a.
n.a.
. .
n.a.
. .
n.a.

(a) PPP (purchasing power parities) are the rates of currency conversion which eliminate the differences in price levels between countries.

Source: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 1997, OECD Health Data 97: a software for the comparative analysis of 29 health systems, OECD, Paris.

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