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1301.0 - Year Book Australia, 2005  
Previous ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 21/01/2005   
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Working arrangements

The Working Arrangements Survey provides a range of information about the working time arrangements of employees, including patterns of work and the flexibility of hours worked. The working arrangements of employees are important because they impact on the social and economic well-being of employees and their families. Changes in the working patterns of employees are monitored to gauge the extent to which employment arrangements are moving away from the traditional 9 am to 5 pm, Monday to Friday employment arrangement. Access to flexible working hours is of particular interest because of its potential to assist employees in balancing work and family responsibilities.

Information on patterns of work includes regular overtime, days of the week usually worked and shift work. Flexible working hours are reflected in measures such as whether an employee is able to work extra hours to take time off, and whether they have a say in their start and finish times.

Days usually worked

The dominant pattern of days usually worked continues to be Monday to Friday, with 58% of employees working on this basis. Men were more likely to work Monday to Friday (64%) than women (52%). However, reflecting the high proportion of women working part-time (44%), women were more likely to have a working arrangement of four or less weekdays (19%), than men (5%) (graph 6.23).

Graph 6.23: EMPLOYEES IN MAIN JOB, Days usually worked - November 2003



Overtime

In November 2003, 37% of employees worked overtime in their main job on a regular basis, up from 33% in November 2000. The majority (90%) of those working regular overtime were employed full-time. Men were more likely to work overtime than women (44% and 29% respectively), in part reflecting the high proportion of women working part-time. Of those working full-time, 49% of men and 41% of women worked regular overtime.

A third of those working regular overtime were not paid for their most recent period of overtime worked, while 38% were paid. The remainder had overtime included in their salary package (21%), took time off in lieu of overtime (6%), or had some other arrangement (1%).

Nearly two-thirds (63%) of managers and administrators worked overtime on a regular basis, a higher proportion than any other occupation group. Managers and administrators who worked overtime were most likely to have overtime included in their salary package (45%). Another 40% were not paid for their most recent period of overtime.

Working extra hours for time off

In November 2003, 41% of employees were able to work extra time in order to take time off. Full-time employees were more likely to be able to work extra hours to take time off (44%) than part-time employees (34%).

Employees working in the government administration and defence industry (65%), and the agriculture, forestry and fishing (52%) industry were most likely to be able to work extra hours to take time off. Employees were least likely to be able to work extra hours to take time off in the education (26%), and accommodation, cafes and restaurants (29%) industries (graph 6.24).

Graph 6.24: EMPLOYEES IN MAIN JOB, Proportion able to work extra hours in order to take time off - November 2003



Flexible start and finish times

In November 2003, 50% of employees had set start and finish times that were not negotiated with their employer. A further 16% had set start and finish times that they were able to negotiate with their employer. Part-time employees were more likely to work set hours negotiated with their employer (21%) than full-time employees (15%) (table 6.25).

One in five employees (22%) did not have set start and finish times and were able to choose their times on a day-to-day basis. A higher proportion of full-time employees were able to choose their times (24%) than part-time employees (19%).


6.25 FLEXIBLE START AND FINISH TIMES OF EMPLOYEES - November 2003

Full-time
Part-time
Total



Units
Males
Females
Persons
Males
Females
Persons
Males
Females
Persons

Start and finish times are not set
Able to choose times day-to-day
%
25.7
20.1
23.7
20.7
17.8
18.5
25.1
19.1
22.3
Not able to choose times
%
11.6
9.0
10.7
16.8
12.5
13.6
12.2
10.5
11.5
Start and finish times are set
Negotiated with employer
%
13.9
16.1
14.7
14.9
23.6
21.4
14.0
19.4
16.5
Not negotiated with employer
%
48.8
54.7
50.9
47.6
46.1
46.5
48.7
50.9
49.7
Total
%
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
Employees
'000
3,754.7
2,047.1
5,801.9
544.8
1,595.0
2,139.8
4,299.4
3,642.2
7,941.6

Source: Working Arrangements, Australia, November 2003 (6342.0).


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