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Gross operating surplus and gross mixed income

Australian System of National Accounts: Concepts, Sources and Methods
Reference period
2020-21 financial year

21.60    Gross operating surplus (GOS) is the surplus accruing from the production of enterprises, and from the ownership of dwellings. For the general government sector, GOS is equal to the consumption of fixed capital.

21.61    Gross mixed income (GMI) is the surplus accruing from the production of unincorporated enterprises. State level GOS and GMI estimates are then published by industry in an aggregated form as gross operating surplus and mixed income (GOSMI).

21.62    State by industry estimates of GOS and GMI are only calculated annually. There are no quarterly estimates for GOS or GMI by state

Gross operating surplus

21.63    Annual state by industry splits of GOS are produced using a top-down approach. National industry estimates of GOS by sector are apportioned across states and territories using relevant indicators. The state by industry indicators used to split the national benchmarks differ by industry and are determined by sector.

21.64    State by sector splits of GOS are calculated for each industry division and then aggregated to produce total state GOS by industry.

Annual state by industry private non-financial corporations GOS

21.65    Indicators of private sector GOS are predominantly based on state by industry division sales data from the Economic Activity Survey (EAS). Other data are used as indicators where they are more relevant or where EAS is not available.

21.66    The following tables provide additional detail on the method and data sources used to estimate private sector state GOS by industry:

Table 21.7 Private non-functional corporations gross operating surplus – Manufacturing (Division C), Electricity, gas, water and waste services (Division D), Wholesale trade (Division F), Accommodation and food services (Division H), Transport, postal and warehousing (Division I), Information media and telecommunications (Division J), Rental, hiring and real estate services (Division L), Professional, scientific and technical services (Division M), Administrative and support services (Division N), Arts and recreation services (Division R), and Other services (Division S)
ItemComment
Method

 

 

National private non-financial corporation GOS is apportioned across states and territories by industry using relevant output indicators:

\(\large{ \text {state GOS} = \text{national GOS} \times \left(\frac{\text{state output indicator}}{\text{national output indicator}}\right)} \)

Output indicator
 Current year
  

Sales data from the Quarterly Business Indicators Survey (QBIS) is used to extrapolate forward EAS sales estimates. Those extrapolated values are used to apportion national GOS across states and territories by industry.

 2006-07 to reference year  

 

 

Sales data from the Economic Activity Survey (EAS) is used to apportion national GOS across states and territories by industry.

 Prior to 2006-07

     

 

For values prior to 2006-07, output indicators were estimated consistent with the source data and methods outlined in the 2015 version of this Concepts, Source and Methods publication. Those output indicators are used to backcast EAS data from 2006-07. Those backcasted values are then used to apportion national GOS across states and territories.

Table 21.8 Private non-financial corporations gross operating surplus by industry for Agriculture, forestry and fishing (Division a)
ItemComment
Method

 

 

National Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing GOS is apportioned across states and territories using relevant output indicators:

 \(\large{ \text {state GOS} = \text{national GOS} \times \left(\frac{\text{state output indicator}}{\text{national output indicator}}\right)} \)

Output indicator
 Current year
  Industry output data (see calculation of Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing gross value added by state) is used to extrapolate forward EAS sales data and derive state output indicators which are used to apportion national GOS across states and territories.
 2006-07 to previous year 

 

 

Sales data from the Economic Activity Survey (EAS) is used to apportion national GOS across states and territories.

 Prior to 2006-07

 

 

For values prior to 2006-07, output indicators were estimated consistent with the source data and methods outlined in the 2015 version of this Concepts, Source and Methods publication. Those output indicators are used to backcast EAS data from 2006-07. Those backcasted values are used to apportion national GOS across states and territories.

Table 21.9 Private non-financial corporations gross operating surplus by industry for Mining (Division b)
ItemComment
Method

 

 

National Mining GOS is apportioned across states and territories using relevant output indicators:

\(\large{ \text {state GOS} = \text{national GOS} \times \left(\frac{\text{state output indicator}}{\text{national output indicator}}\right)} \)

Output indicator
 All years
  Industry output data (see the calculation of Mining gross value added by state) is used to apportion national GOS across states and territories.
Table 21.10 Private non-financial corporations gross operating surplus by industry for Construction (Division e)
ItemComment
Method

 

 

National Construction GOS is apportioned across states and territories using relevant output indicators:

\(\large{ \text {state GOS} = \text{national GOS} \times \left(\frac{\text{state output indicator}}{\text{national output indicator}}\right)} \)

Output indicator
 2006-07 to current year
  Estimates of the value of work done (see the calculation of construction related gross fixed capital formation) are used to apportion national GOS across states and territories.
 Prior to 2006-07

 

 

For values prior to 2006-07, output indicators were estimated consistent with the source data and methods outlined in the 2015 version of this Concepts, Source and Methods publication. Those output indicators are used to backcast value of construction work done from 2006-07. Those backcasted values are then used to apportion national GOS across states and territories.

Table 21.11 Private non-financial corporations gross operating surplus by industry for Retail trade (Division g)
ItemComment
Method

 

 

Retail Trade estimates of private non-financial corporations GOS are apportioned across states and territories using relevant output indicators:

\(\large{ \text {state GOS} = \text{national GOS} \times \left(\frac{\text{state output indicator}}{\text{national output indicator}}\right)} \)

Output indicator
 All years
  Turnover data from the Retail Trade Survey is used to apportion national GOS across states and territories
Table 21.12 Private non-financial corporations gross operating surplus by industry – Public administration and safety (Division O), Education and training (Division P), and Health care and social assistance (Division Q)
ItemComment
Method

 

 

National GOS by industry are apportioned across states and territories using relevant output indicators:

\(\large{ \text {state GOS} = \text{national GOS} \times \left(\frac{\text{state output indicator}}{\text{national output indicator}}\right)} \)

Output indicator
 Current year
  Population estimates are used to extrapolate forward EAS sales data. Those extrapolated values are used to apportion national GOS across states and territories.
   2006-07 to previous year 
  Sales data from the Economic Activity Survey (EAS) is used to apportion national GOS across states and territories.
 Prior to 2006-07
  For values prior to 2006-07, output indicators were estimated consistent with the source data and methods outlined in the 2015 version of this Concepts, Source and Methods publication. Those output indicators are used to backcast EAS data backwards from 2006-07. Those backcasted values are then used to apportion national GOS across states and territories.

Annual state by industry public non-financial corporation GOS

21.67    Public non-financial corporations (PNFC) GOS is estimated based on GOS data collected in Government Finance Statistics.

21.68    The following table provides additional detail on the method and data sources used to estimate public non-financial corporations GOS by state:

Table 21.13 Public non-financial corporations gross operating surplus
ItemComment
Method

 

 

Public non-financial corporations GOS estimates by industry division are apportioned across states and territories using GOS indicators:

\(\large{ \text {state GOS} = \text{national GOS} \times \left(\frac{\text{state GOS indicator}}{\text{national GOS indicator}}\right)} \)

GOS indicator
 State and local PNFC

 

 

State and local public non-financial corporations GOS data is sourced from Government Finance Statistics (GFS).

 Commonwealth PNFC
  Commonwealth public non-financial corporations GOS data is apportioned across states and territories using estimates of resident population.
 Total PNFC
  The PNFC GOS indicators for each level of government are aggregated to produce a total PNFC GOS indicator by industry.

Annual state by industry general government GOS

21.69    General government GOS is equal to consumption of fixed capital (COFC) of general government assets. General government GOS is estimated by industry division and is apportioned across states and territories using COFC estimates derived from the state capital stock model. For the current year, population estimates are used to extrapolate forward estimates of COFC

21.70    The following table provides additional detail on the method and data sources used to estimate general government GOS by state

Table 21.14 General government gross operating surplus
ItemComment
Method

 

 

General government GOS estimates by industry division are apportioned across states and territories using consumption of fixed capital (COFC) indicators:

\(\large{ \text {state GOS} = \text{national GOS} \times \left(\frac{\text{state COFC indicator}}{\text{national COFC indicator}}\right)} \)

COFC indicator
 Current year
  Population estimates are used to extrapolate forward estimates of consumption of fixed capital. The resulting values are then used to apportion national general government GOS across states and territories.
 Prior to the current year
  For values prior to the current year, estimates of consumption of fixed capital from the state capital stock model are used to apportion national GOS across states and territories.

Annual state financial and insurance services GOS

21.71    Financial and Insurance Services GOS is estimated using a top-down approach. National GOS for each subdivision is apportioned across states and territories using estimates of hours worked from the Labour force Survey. GOS by subdivision estimates are then aggregated to produce Financial and Insurance Services GOS by state.

21.72    The following table provides additional detail on the method and data sources used to estimate subdivision GOS by state:

Table 21.15 Gross operating surplus for Financial and insurance services (Division k)
ItemComment
Method

 

 

Financial and Insurance Services GOS for each state and territory is calculated by summing estimates of GOS by industry subdivision. National industry subdivision estimates are apportioned across states and territories according to number of hours worked:

\(\large state \space GOS_{Div. K}= \sum \limits _{n=Subdiv} \Big( national \space GOS_n × (\frac{state \space hours \space worked_n}{national \space hours \space worked_n})\big)\)

Hours worked indicator
 All years

 

 

Estimates of the number of hours worked, collected in the Labour Force Survey, are used to apportion national subdivision GOS across states and territories.

Annual ownership of dwellings GOS by state

21.73    Ownership of dwellings GOS for the household sector is estimated using a bottom-up approach but is derived residually from ownership of dwellings output.    

21.74    For the other sectors, ownership of dwellings GOS is estimated using a top-down approach. National estimates of GOS are apportioned across states and territories using estimates of consumption of fixed capital derived from the state capital stock model. For the current year, population estimates are used to extrapolate forward estimates of COFC.

21.75    The following tables provide additional detail on the method and data sources used to estimate ownership of dwellings GOS by state and territory:

Table 21.16 Ownership of dwellings gross operating surplus – Sectors excluding household sector
ItemComment
Method

 

Ownership of dwellings GOS is derived as follows:

     GOS=output
     - intermediate use
     - other taxes on production and imports
     + other subsidies on production and imports

Output

 

Ownership of dwellings output is equivalent to the estimate of household final consumption expenditure on imputed and actual dwelling rent which is compiled for each state and territory.

The data sources and methods used to compile state estimates of
actual and imputed dwelling rent are described in the sections on household final consumption expenditure.

Intermediate use

 

Intermediate use related to ownership of dwellings includes:

  • repairs and maintenance
  • building insurance
  • real estate agent commissions charged for the management of rental properties
  • loan application fees, FISIM and other charges
  • miscellaneous expenses.

Most of these expenses are apportioned across states and territories from national totals using a combination of data sources, including:

  • the Household Expenditure Survey (conducted every six years)
  • household final consumption expenditure estimates
  • consumer price index estimates
Other taxes less subsidies on production and imports

 

Other taxes less subsidies are derived largely from GFS data, relating mainly to rates and land taxes and public housing subsidies. Other taxes less subsidies on production and imports relating to state and local governments are allocated directly to the state in which they are collected or paid.
Table 21.17 Ownership of dwellings gross operating surplus – Sectors excluding household sector
ItemComment
Method

 

 

Ownership of dwellings GOS estimates are apportioned across states and territories using consumption of fixed capital (COFC) indicators by sector:

\(\large{ \text {state GOS} = \text{national GOS} \times \left(\frac{\text{state COFC indicator}}{\text{national COFC indicator}}\right)} \)           

COFC indicator
 Current year
  Population estimates are used to extrapolate forward estimates of consumption of fixed capital to derive a state indicator which is used to national GOS across states and territories.
 Prior to the current year
  For values prior to the current year, estimates of consumption of fixed capital from the state capital stock model are used to apportion national GOS across states and territories.

Gross mixed income

21.76    Annual state by industry splits of GMI are produced using a top-down approach. National industry estimates of GMI are apportioned across states and territories using relevant indicators. 

21.77    The following tables detail the method and data sources used to estimate state by industry division GMI.

Table 21.18 Gross mixed income – Agriculture, forestry and fishing (farm)
ItemComment
Method

 

Estimates of farm GMI are apportioned across states and territories using an output indicator calculated residually from Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing (AFF) gross value added:

\(\large{ \text {state GMI} = \text{national GMI} \times \left(\frac{\text{state output indicator}}{\text{national output indicator}}\right)} \)

Output indicator

 

The farm GMI output indicator is derived as follows:

Indicator = AFF gross value added

               - AFF wages and salaries

               - AFF gross operating surplus

               - AFF other taxes less subsidies on production

Table 21.19 Gross mixed income by industry for Agriculture, forestry and fishing (non-farm)
ItemComment
Method

 

 

Estimates of non-farm GMI in the Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing industry division are apportioned across states and territories using relevant output indicators:

\(\large{ \text {state GMI} = \text{national GMI} \times \left(\frac{\text{state output indicator}}{\text{national output indicator}}\right)} \)

Output indicator
 All years

 

 

Forestry and Fishing output data, derived in the calculation of gross value added, is used to apportion national GMI across states and territories.

Table 21.20 Gross mixed income by industry – Mining (Division B), Manufacturing (Division C), Electricity, Gas, Water and Waste Services (Division D), Wholesale Trade (Division F), Transport, Postal and Warehousing (Division I), Information Media and Telecommunications (Division J), Rental, Hiring and Real Estate Services (Division L), Professional, Scientific and Technical Services (Division M), and Administrative and Support Services (Division N)
ItemComment
Method

 

 

For the industry divisions listed above, estimates of GMI are apportioned across states and territories using relevant output indicators:

\(\large{ \text {state GMI} = \text{national GMI} \times \left(\frac{\text{state output indicator}}{\text{national output indicator}}\right)} \)

Output indicator
 Current year

 

 

Sales data from the Quarterly Business Indicators Survey (QBIS) is used to extrapolate forward EAS sales data. Those extrapolated values are used to apportion national GMI across states and territories.

 2006-07 to reference year  

 

 

Sales data from the Economic Activity Survey (EAS) is used to apportion national GMI across states and territories.

 Prior to 2006-07

 

 

For values prior to 2006-07, output indicators were estimated consistent with the source data and methods outlined in the 2015 version of this Concepts, Source and Methods publication. Those output indicators are used to backcast EAS data from 2006-07. Those backcasted values are then used to apportion national GMI across states and territories.

Table 21.21 Gross mixed income by industry for Construction (Division E)
ItemComment
Method

 

 

Estimates of Construction GMI are apportioned across states and territories using relevant output indicators:

\(\large{ \text {state GMI} = \text{national GMI} \times \left(\frac{\text{state output indicator}}{\text{national output indicator}}\right)} \)

Output indicator
 Current year

 

 

Values of work done from the Building Activity Survey are used to extrapolate forward EAS sales data. Those extrapolated values are used to apportion national GMI across states and territories.

 2006-07 to reference year 

 

 

Sales data from the Economic Activity Survey (EAS) is used to apportion national GMI across states and territories.

 Prior to 2006-07

 

 

For values prior to 2006-07, output indicators were estimated consistent with the source data and methods outlined in the 2015 version of this Concepts, Source and Methods publication. Those output indicators are used to backcast EAS data from 2006-07. Those backcasted values are then used to apportion national GMI across states and territories.

Table 21.22 Gross mixed income by industry for Retail trade (Division G)
ItemComment
Method

 

 

Estimates of Retail Trade GMI are apportioned across states and territories using relevant output indicators:

\(\large{ \text {state GMI} = \text{national GMI} \times \left(\frac{\text{state output indicator}}{\text{national output indicator}}\right)} \)

Output indicator
 Current year to 2006-07

 

 

Turnover data from the Retail Trade Survey is used to apportion national GMI across states and territories.

 Prior to 2006-07

 

 

For values prior to 2006-07, output indicators were estimated consistent with the source data and methods outlined in the 2015 version of this Concepts, Source and Methods publication. Those output indicators are used to backcast Retail Trade Survey turnover data from 2006-07. Those backcasted values are then used to apportion national GMI across states and territories.

Table 21.23 Gross mixed income by industry for Accommodation and food services (Division H)
ItemComment
Method

 

 

Estimates of Accommodation and Food Services GMI are apportioned across states and territories using relevant output indicators:

\(\large{ \text {state GMI} = \text{national GMI} \times \left(\frac{\text{state output indicator}}{\text{national output indicator}}\right)} \)

Output indicator
 Current year to 2006-07

 

 

Estimates of household final consumption expenditure (HFCE) on hotels, cafes and restaurants are used to apportion national GMI across states and territories.

 Prior to 2006-07
  For values prior to 2006-07, output indicators were estimated consistent with the source data and methods outlined in the 2015 version of this Concepts, Source and Methods publication. Those output indicators are used to backcast HFCE on hotels, cafes and restaurants from 2006-07. Those backcasted values are then used to apportion national GMI across states and territories.
Table 21.24 Gross mixed income by industry – Education and Training (Division P), Health Care and Social Assistance (Division Q), Arts and Recreation Services (Division R), and Other Services (Division S)
ItemComment
Method

 

 

For the industry divisions listed above, estimates of GMI are apportioned across states and territories using relevant output indicators:

\(\large{ \text {state GMI} = \text{national GMI} \times \left(\frac{\text{state output indicator}}{\text{national output indicator}}\right)} \)

Output indicator
 Current year

 

 

Estimates of household final consumption expenditure (HFCE) by relevant spending categories are used to extrapolate forward sales data from the Economic Activity Survey. Those extrapolated values are used to apportion national GMI across states and territories.

 2006-07 to previous year  

 

 

Sales data from the Economic Activity Survey (EAS) is used to apportion national GMI across states and territories.

 Prior to 2006-07

 

 

For values prior to 2006-07, output indicators were estimated consistent with the source data and methods outlined in the 2015 version of this Concepts, Source and Methods publication. Those output indicators are used to backcast EAS data from 2006-07. Those backcasted values are then used to apportion national GMI across states and territories.