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Operating surplus and mixed income

Australian System of National Accounts: Concepts, Sources and Methods
Reference period
2020-21 financial year


11.25    Operating surplus is the income from production of corporate enterprises, while mixed income is the income from production of unincorporated enterprises. Both operating surplus and mixed income are measured prior to deducting any explicit or implicit interest charges, rent or other property incomes payable on the financial assets, land or other natural resources required to carry on production.

11.26    The term 'mixed income' is used because the surplus arising from the productive activities of unincorporated enterprises can comprise returns to the capital of the proprietors (representing operating surplus), and an element akin to wages and salaries accruing to the proprietors or other members of the household as payment for their labour input to the enterprise (even though they may not receive explicit payment for their work).

11.27    Operating surplus and mixed income can be measured on a gross or net basis. Gross operating surplus (GOS) and gross mixed income are defined as gross value added minus compensation of employees, minus taxes payable plus subsidies receivable on production and imports. GOS represents the gross income derived by corporations, both financial and non-financial, dwellings owned by persons and general government. In the case of general government, gross operating surplus represents only consumption of fixed capital. Gross mixed income (GMI) represents the gross income derived by unincorporated enterprises.

11.28    Net operating surplus is equal to gross operating surplus less consumption of fixed capital, and net mixed income is equal to gross mixed income less consumption of fixed capital.

11.29    Estimates of GOS and GMI are compiled by institutional sector, namely:

  • GOS – private non-financial corporations;
  • GOS – public non-financial corporations;
  • GMI – unincorporated enterprises;
  • GOS – dwellings owned by persons;
  • GOS – general government; and
  • GOS – financial corporations.