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The Energy Survey 2001-02 collected information on energy use across the non-household sectors of the domestic Australian economy. It covered a range of energy and fuel types including electricity, natural gas, petroleum products, coal and renewable energy. The survey also collected information on the supply of petroleum products, electricity and natural gas, and the associated conversion, transmission and distribution losses. Energy use data will be available at a national and state level (at a later date for selected industries and fuel types); supply data will only be available at a national level. The survey only collected Australian domestic production and use.
In Australia, electricity generation is primarily undertaken by the electricity supply industry, but electricity can also be generated by individual businesses which either directly use the electricity (called own use) or sell excess generation to other users (called secondary generation). Total electricity generated in Australia in 2001-02 was 216,076 GWh. Of this 205,407 GWh was generated by the electricity supply industry and by secondary generators, and 10,669 GWh was generated for their own use by other businesses (table 1).
Non-renewable fuels used to generate electricity include black coal (53,576 kt); brown coal (65,075 kt); and natural gas (290,287 TJ). Hydro-electricity was the main renewable source of electricity - in 2001-02, 15,567 GWh of hydro-electricity were produced (table 1).
TABLE 1. FUELS USED TO GENERATE ELECTRICITY, Australia, 2001-02
Electricity is lost during its supply from power stations to homes and businesses; these losses are called supply losses. Initial losses occur when electricity generators use power in their generation processes and send out electricity to customers and transmission networks. Further losses occur along transmission and distribution networks. In 2001-02, 26,907 GWh was used or lost during supply of electricity to users. Initial losses by generators accounted for 12,082 GWh, transmission losses accounted for 6,301 GWh, and distribution losses accounted for 8,524 GWh. These losses represent around 13.1% of total electricity generated for sale.
Electricity is generally supplied to households and industry by distributors. However, high-voltage transmission companies, and even the generating businesses themselves can supply electricity directly to businesses. In 2001-02, according to electricity supply businesses, 127,095 GWh of electricity were supplied to industrial and commercial customers and 53,309 GWh were supplied to residential customers. Generators supplied 4,267 GWh of electricity to industry, transmitters supplied 24,993 GWh and distributors supplied 97,835 GWh (table 2).
TABLE 2. ELECTRICITY SUPPLY BY SOURCE, Australia, 2001-02
In 2001-02, 862,635 TJ of natural gas and ethane, 415,404 TJ of liquefied natural gas (LNG) and 4,439 ML of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), were produced in Australia. Production losses including the flaring of gas, amounted to 31,974 TJ.
Transmission and distribution pipelines transport natural gas to end-users; this transportation can also lead to losses. Total supply losses in 2001-02 were 12,093 TJ, comprising 905 TJ of pipeline losses and 11,188 TJ of distribution losses. This represents around 1.5 % of all pipelined natural gas.
In 2001-02, 620,972 TJ of natural gas were delivered to large customer connections (industrial and commercial customers), comprising 232,416 TJ from distribution networks and 388,556 TJ from transmission pipelines (table 3). Total supply to small customer connections (households and small businesses) was 168,614 TJ.
TABLE 3. NATURAL GAS SUPPLY BY SOURCE, Australia, 2001-02
Australian petroleum refineries converted 44,907 ML of crude oil and other feedstocks into petroleum fuels and non-fuel products, including 18,727 ML of petrol; 13,503 ML of diesel; 5,212 ML of aviation turbine fuel (Avtur); and 2,271 ML of LPG (table 4).
TABLE 4. PETROLEUM REFINING, Australia, 2001-02
Energy end-use by industry
End-use of energy by industry (that is, energy which is not converted into another form of energy) included 143,207 GWh of electricity, 362,931 TJ of natural gas, and 4,196 kt of black coal (table 5). Additionally, industry end-users consumed 9,726 ML of diesel, 4,474 ML of petrol and 1,117 ML of LPG. Biomass was the main renewable fuel used; 6,748 kt of bagasse and 1,146 kt of wood and woodwaste were consumed by industry for end-use activities.
TABLE 5. END-USE FUEL CONSUMPTION, by industry, Australia, 2001-02(a)
Caution should be taken when comparing end-use and supply data as presented in this publication. No attempt has been made to balance the figures, and scope and coverage issues will only partially explain the discrepancies. Fully balanced supply and use estimates will be published by ABARE and ABS during 2004.
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