4604.0 - Energy Account, Australia, 2009-10 Quality Declaration 
ARCHIVED ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 20/12/2011   
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The Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC) is the standard classification used in Australia and New Zealand for the collection, compilation, and publication of industry statistics.


Residue of the sugar cane milling process.

Black coal

A sedimentary organic rock consisting of anthracite, bituminous and sub-bituminous rank coals. Black coal is primarily used as a solid fuel to raise steam to generate electricity and to produce coke for steelmaking.


Produced from renewable organic sources or ‘feedstocks’, biofuels include ethanol and biodiesel, and are commonly used as a fuel in transportation.

Biomass wood

Includes wood and wood waste used to produce energy, usually through burning.


Made from brown coal through a process of crushing, drying and the addition of a binding agent, to produce a compact, high energy fuel easily transported and commonly used for industrial and domestic heating.

Brown coal

Also known as lignite, is a low rank, brownish-black coal with a high moisture content of around 60%.


A gaseous hydrocarbon. When exposed to higher pressures or lower temperatures it can be converted to liquid form, and is a major component of LPG.

Chain Volume Measure

For certain types of economic analysis it is useful to examine estimates of the principal flows of goods and services in the economy revalued in such a way as to remove the direct effects of price change over the relevant period. These estimates are obtained by first weighting together the elemental volume indexes from the previous financial year to the current financial year, where the weights are calculated using the current price value shares of the previous financial year. Second, the resulting aggregate year-to-year volume indexes are linked together to form a time series. Third, the time series is referenced to the current price estimates of the reference year.

Coal by-products

Include blast furnace gas (from iron and steel processing), coal tar and benzene/toluene/xylene (BTX) feedstock and coke oven gas (from the coke making process).


A liquid mixture of pentanes and heavier hydrocarbons that form part of the vapour phase of natural gas in the reservoir and become liquid under standard field separation conditions.

Conversion loss

Energy lost in the transformation of energy into a different energy product.

Crude oil

A mixture of hydrocarbons, existing in the liquid state; both in natural underground reservoirs and at atmospheric pressure after passing through surface separating facilities.

Domestic net energy consumption

In this publication excludes net conversion losses and inventory changes.


The flow of electrical power or charge. It is commonly derived from burning organic matter, especially coal and natural gas. Other sources include hydroelectricity, solar photovoltaic, wind and nuclear.

Energy intensity

A measure of the energy consumed to produce one unit of economic output, commonly measured in gigajoules of energy per million dollars of Industry Gross Value Added (GJ/$m IGVA)

Environmental account

An information system and framework that links the economic activities and uses of a resource to changes in the natural resource base, thus linking resource use with the System of National Accounts. See also SEEA.


The exports of goods represents the quantity of goods sent to other countries or for which ownership changes from residents to non-residents.

Final use

Use that finally consumes a product, as opposed to an intermediate use. Final use includes: household final consumption; government final consumption; exports; and changes in inventories.

Flow accounts

General term used for a framework which presents information on the physical flows of resources throughout the economy. Flow accounts published for energy include supply and use tables.

Fossil fuel

Any natural fuel derived from decomposed or partly decomposed organic matter (eg. oil, natural gas and coal).

Gigajoule (GJ)

A unit of energy equal to one billion (i.e. 1,000,000,000) joules, which is roughly equivalent to the energy content of 29 litres of petrol or 280 kilowatt hours of electricity. The gigajoule is the principal unit of energy used in the Energy Intensity chapter of this publication.

Gross energy

Is the energy contained in primary energy (energy sourced directly from nature) as well as the energy derived from it. See also net energy.


A process in which flowing water is harnessed to generate power, especially electricity.

Industry gross value added (IGVA)

The value of an industry’s output at basic prices, minus the value of goods and services consumed as inputs during the process of production. Basic prices valuation of output removes the distortion caused by variations in commodity taxes and subsidies across the output of individual industries.

Intermediate use

Intermediate use consists of goods and services consumed as inputs by a process of production, excluding fixed assets whose consumption is recorded as consumption of fixed capital. The goods or services may be either transformed or used up by the production process.

Liquefied natural gas (LNG)

Natural gas which has been refrigerated to a liquid state, which greatly reduces its volume and enables its transport by sea-going vessels.

Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)

A combination of propane and butane, along with trace amounts of other compounds, recovered in either natural gas extraction or oil refining. The gases are transformed into a liquid to assist in transport.

Metallurgical coke

A product resulting from high-temperature retorting of suitable coal; a dense, crush-resistant fuel commonly used in blast furnaces.

National Accounts

Systematic summary of national economic activity. At a detailed level it shows a statistical picture of the performance and structure of the economy.

Natural gas

A combustible mixture of hydrocarbon gases. While natural gas is formed primarily of methane, its composition can vary widely, commonly including ethane, propane, butane and pentane.

Net energy

Total net energy accounts for the conversion losses associated with transforming one form of energy into another form. In this way, estimates for total net energy use avoid double-counting the amount of converted primary energy. See also gross energy.


The National Greenhouse and Energy Reporting System, which commenced in relation to the 2008-09 reference period, is a framework for the mandatory reporting of greenhouse gas emissions, energy consumption and energy production by Australian businesses exceeding specified thresholds of emissions or energy consumption.

Other volume changes

Quantify changes in resources that occur between one period and another.


Consists of those goods and services produced within a business that become available for use outside that business, plus any goods and services produced for own final use.

Petajoule (PJ)

A petajoule is equal to one million gigajoules, or 1015 joules. Petajoules are typically used to measure national or industry energy production and consumption. The energy supply and use data present in this publication are in petajoules (PJ).


Naturally occurring hydrocarbon or mixture of hydrocarbons as oil or gas, or in solution, found in sedimentary rocks.


A gaseous hydrocarbon. When exposed to higher pressures or lower temperatures it can be converted to liquid form, and is a major component of LPG.

Refined products

Includes products derived from crude oil and other refinery feedstock e.g. automotive gasoline and diesel, aviation gasoline and turbine fuel, kerosene and heating oil, industrial diesel and fuel oil, naphtha and petroleum coke used as fuel.


A concentration of naturally occurring solid, liquid, or gaseous materials in or on the earth’s crust and in such form that its economic extraction is presently or potentially feasible. The definition does not intend to imply that exploitation of any such material will take place in that time span, but only that its possibility might reasonably be considered.


The System of Environmental and Economic Accounting. It is a framework used to develop environmental accounts by integrating environmental information into an accounting framework. The SEEA 2003 handbook provides the conceptual basis for developing a framework to describe the inter-relationship between the natural environment and the economy. See also Environmental account.

Solar power

Photovoltaic conversion generates electric power directly from the light of the sun in a photovoltaic (solar) cell. Solar thermal electric generators use the radiant energy from the sun to produce steam to drive turbines.

Structural effect

The changes in energy consumption resulting from a change in the mix of industrial output; for example, a contraction in energy intensive sectors.


A subdivision is a sub-industry within the ANZSIC classification of Australian industries. ANZSIC Subdivisions generally reflect distinct production processes related to material inputs, production equipment and employee skills. For example, Coal mining is a subdivision within the Mining division.

Supply-use framework

An accounting framework utilising the basic principle that the total supply of a product is equal to its total use.

System of National Accounts

The System of National Accounts (SNA) is an international framework which can be used to develop a comprehensive, consistent and flexible set of macroeconomic accounts.

Total supply

Australian production plus imports.


A heavy, radioactive metallic element, used as a source of nuclear energy.

Wind power

The conversion of wind energy into electricity using wind turbines.