Original work undertaken primarily to acquire new knowledge with a specific application in view. It is undertaken either to determine possible uses for the findings of basic research or to determine new methods or ways of achieving some specific and predetermined objectives.
Expenditure on the acquisition of fixed tangible assets such as land, buildings, vehicles, plant, machinery and equipment attributable to R&D activity.
Expenditure on direct labour costs, materials, fuels, rent and hiring, repairs and maintenance, data processing etc. and the proportion of expenditure on general services and overheads which is attributable to R&D activity.
Systematic work, using existing knowledge gained from research or practical experience for the purpose of creating new or improved products/processes.
Gross expenditure on R&D (GERD)
GERD is constructed by adding together the R&D expenditures of the four performing sectors: Business; Government; Higher education; and Private non-profit.
Human resources devoted to R&D
The effort of researchers, technicians and other staff directly involved with R&D activity. Overhead staff (e.g. administrative and general service employees such as personnel officers, janitors, etc.) whose work indirectly supports R&D, are excluded.
Expenditure relating to: wages and salaries; overtime earnings; penalty payments; shift allowances; employer contributions into superannuation; fringe benefits and payroll taxes; severance, termination and redundancy payments; workers' compensation premiums/costs; provisions for employee entitlements; salaries and fees of directors and executives; retainers and commissions of persons who received a retainer; bonuses; annual and other types of paid leave.
With the exception of the Higher education sector, this represents the region(s) in which the organisations performed the R&D (which may not be the head office location of the organisation). For the Higher education sector, this represents the main campus or head office location of the reporting institution, with the exception of the Australian Defence Force Academy (ADFA) which is shown against the Australian Capital Territory.
Other current expenditure
Expenditure on: materials, fuels and other inputs; rent, leasing and hiring expenses; repair and maintenance expenses; payments to outside organisations for use of specialised testing facilities or for analytical work, engineering or other specialised services in support of R&D projects carried out by the organisation; commission and consultant expenses for research projects carried out by the organisation (except direct labour costs); software for own account produced as part of R&D; and the proportion of expenditure on general services and overheads which is attributable to R&D activity.
Skilled and unskilled craftpersons, secretarial and clerical staff directly associated with R&D activity.
Includes R&D performed overseas, but controlled by the Australian organisation. This includes analytical work, engineering or other specialised services performed by another organisation which are part of an R&D project being performed by the Australian organisation.
Person years of effort
One person year of effort is equal to a full time employee whose time is wholly devoted to R&D for a whole year.
Pure basic research
Experimental and theoretical work undertaken to acquire new knowledge without looking for long-term benefits other than the advancement of knowledge.
Systematic investigation or experimentation involving innovation or technical risk, the outcome of which is new knowledge, with or without a specific practical application, or new or improved products, processes, materials, devices or services. R&D activity extends to modifications to existing products/processes. R&D activity ceases and pre-production begins when work is no longer experimental.
Reflects the field of research in which the R&D activity was performed. The RFCD classification is primarily structured around disciplines or activities. It describes the nature of the research being performed.
Those involved with the conception and/or development of new products/processes (e.g. executives and directors involved in the planning or management of scientific and technical aspects of R&D projects, and software developers/programmers). They exclude executives and directors concerned primarily with budgets and human resources rather than project content.
The broad socio-economic areas of expected benefit rather than the immediate objectives of the researcher. The SEO classification defines the main areas of Australian economic and social activity to which the results of research programs are applied. It describes the purpose of the research.
Strategic basic research
Experimental and theoretical work undertaken to acquire new knowledge directed into specified broad areas in the expectation of useful discoveries. It provides the broad base of knowledge for the solution of recognised practical problems.
Those performing technical tasks in support of R&D activity, normally under the direction and supervision of a researcher. These tasks include preparation of experiments, taking records, preparation of charts and graphs, etc.
Type of activity
This classification allows R&D activity to be categorised according to the type of research effort, namely, Pure basic research, Strategic basic research, Applied research and Experimental development.