1 This publication presents estimates of expenditure and human resources devoted to R&D carried out in Australia by Government and Private non-profit organisations during 2002-03.
2 For details of R&D statistics available for the Business and Higher education sectors see paragraph 18.
3 The 2002-03 data presented in this publication have been compiled from data collected from Government and Private non-profit organisations in the Survey of Research and Experimental Development in respect of the year ended 30 June 2003. This survey was based on a complete enumeration of Government and Private non-profit organisations identified by the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) as likely R&D performers. The survey was conducted by mail questionnaires and a 97% response rate was obtained.
4 The GDP figures used to derive Government expenditure on R&D/GDP ratios are current at the time of manuscript finalisation - Australian National Accounts: National Income, Expenditure and Product, June quarter 2004 (cat. no. 5206.0) - and, at current prices, are as follows: $471,348m (1994-95); $529,886m (1996-97); $591,917m (1998-99); $671,120m (2000-01); and $756,170m (2002-03). The available Government expenditure on R&D/GDP ratios for other Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries are current at the time of manuscript finalisation and are soured from Main Science and Technology Indicators, 2004/1, OECD, Paris, 2004.
5 R&D is defined in accordance with the OECD standard as comprising 'creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications'.
6 Type of R&D activity comprises pure basic research, strategic basic research, applied research and experimental development. Data in this classification are subjectively allocated by data providers at the time of reporting, using OECD/ABS definitions. The ABS makes every effort to ensure correct and consistent interpretation and reporting of these data and applies consistent processing methodologies. Analysts using this classification should bear the original subjectivity in mind.
7 For a more comprehensive interpretation of the definition of R&D activity, see the Australian Standard Research Classification (ASRC), 1998 (cat. no. 1297.0) or refer to the OECD publication Proposed Standard Practice for Surveys on Research and Experimental Development ('Frascati Manual' 2002), OECD, Paris, 2003.
8 The Government sector includes all Commonwealth, state and local government departments and authorities. However, for the purpose of this survey local government organisations were excluded as research has indicated that their contribution to total R&D activity would be minimal.
9 Public sector organisations mainly engaged in higher education (e.g. universities) are included in the Higher education sector whilst those mainly engaged in trading or financial activities are included in the Business sector.
10 The Private non-profit sector includes private or semi-public incorporated organisations which are established with the intention of not making a profit.
11 If an organisation is considered as Private non-profit but was established to serve the Business sector then it is included in that sector.
SOCIOECONOMIC OBJECTIVE (SEO) AND RESEARCH FIELDS, COURSES AND DISCIPLINES (RFCD) CLASSIFICATIONS
12 The statistics in this publication are classified by Socioeconomic objective (purpose of the research) and Research fields, courses and disciplines (fields in which the research was undertaken). Data were subjectively allocated by data providers at the time of reporting, using OECD/ABS definitions. The ABS makes every effort to ensure correct and consistent interpretation and reporting of these data and applies consistent processing methodologies. Analysts using these data should bear the original subjectivity in mind.
13 For more information on these classifications see the Australian Standard Research Classification (ASRC), 1998 (cat. no. 1297.0).
14 Data providers are asked to classify each of their R&D programs or projects to a SEO and a RFCD. Two reporting possibilities exist. The first possibility allows for reporting of an obviously predominant SEO and RFCD. The second allows for reporting at program level of several SEOs and RFCDs where there was no obvious single predominant classification for either or both SEO and RFCD. In these instances the ABS distributes the reported data to R&D projects with relevant SEOs and RFCDs according to classifications and estimated percentage splits provided by data providers. Most of the data have been reported on this basis.
CHAIN VOLUME MEASURES
15 The chain volume measures appearing in this publication are annually reweighted chain Laspeyres indexes referenced to the current price values in a chosen reference year (currently 2002-03). They are formed in a multi-stage process of which the major steps are described in Section 15 of the Information Paper: Introduction of Chain Volume Measures in the Australian National Accounts (cat. no. 5248.0).
RELIABILITY OF STATISTICS
16 The statistics in this publication should be used with caution for the following reasons:
- Many data providers made estimates because their accounts did not separately record data on R&D activity.
- The OECD standard definition of R&D used in this survey differs in some respects from what data providers may regard as R&D activity. This is because the definitions used within the grants for industry R&D schemes (for the allocation of grants) and the R&D Tax Concession scheme (for tax deductibility for specific R&D activities) are slightly different from the international standard.
- Some data providers had difficulties describing their R&D programs in terms of socioeconomic objectives, research fields and types of activity. The data presented under these classifications therefore reflect a degree of subjectivity.
ABS DATA AVAILABLE ON REQUEST
17 As well as the statistics included in this and related publications, the ABS may have other relevant data available on request. Inquiries should be made to the National Information and Referral Service on 1300 135070.
18 Users may also wish to refer to the following publications:
19 Current publications and other products released by the ABS are listed in the Catalogue of Publications and Products cat. no. 1101.0. The catalogue is available from any ABS office or the ABS web site. The ABS also issues a daily Release Advice on the web site which details products to be released in the week ahead.
Australian Bureau of Statistics 1998, Australian Standard Research Classification (ASRC), cat. no. 1297.0, ABS, Canberra
Australian Bureau of Statistics 2002, Research and Experimental Development, All Sector Summary, Australia, 2000-01, cat. no. 8112.0, ABS, Canberra
Australian Bureau of Statistics 2004, Research and Experimental Development, Businesses, Australia, 2002-03, cat. no. 8104.0, ABS, Canberra
Australian Bureau of Statistics 2004, Research and Experimental Development, Higher Education Organisations, Australia, 2002, cat. no. 8111.0, ABS, Canberra
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 2004, Main Science and Technology Indicators 2004/1, OECD, Paris
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 2003, Proposed Standard Practice for Surveys on Research and Experimental Development ('Frascati Manual' 2002), OECD, Paris
20 Where figures have been rounded, discrepancies may occur between sums of the component items and totals.