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This document was added or updated on 08/12/2017.
The CNOS variable on the file compares the number of bedrooms required with the actual number of bedrooms in the dwelling.
Capital city under the Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC) refers to Australia's six State capital city Statistical Divisions and the Darwin Statistical Division as defined in the Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC) (cat. no. 1216.0). For the Australian Capital Territory the estimates relate predominantly to urban areas, and all of the Australian Capital Territory is defined as a capital city for this publication. Capital city estimates for the Northern Territory are not available on the CURF. The ASGC has been replaced with Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS), see definition of Greater Capital City Statistical Area.
A household which bought their dwelling in the three years prior to being interviewed, and either the reference person or partner had owned or been purchasing a home previously.
Child care assistance
Includes social transfers in kind relating to the Child Care Benefit and Child Care Rebate and associated administrative costs. Child care assistance is a component of welfare benefits.
Child Care Benefit (CCB)
Assistance in the form of a payment made by the Australian Government to help with the costs of child care for families who use either approved or registered child care. The scheme is means-tested and families can either receive CCB as a lump sum payment, or as reduced child care fees.
Child Care Rebate (CCR)
Child Care Rebate (CCR) covers 50 per cent of out-of-pocket child-care expenses, up to a maximum amount per child per year. The CCR is available for families who qualify for Child Care Benefit (CCB) and meet a work, study and training test.
Any assets owned by children, aged 14 years or less, in the household that are not included in the value of the household contents. These assets can be financial (e.g. a child's bank accounts, assets held in trusts, bonds, debenture stock) or can be non-financial (e.g. jewellery or property held in trust for the children). Children's assets is no longer collected separately in the SIH, but is a component of 'other assets'.
A tax-exempt, indexed payment paid to pensioners, other income support recipients, families receiving Family Tax Benefit payments and Seniors Supplement recipients, provided they meet eligibility requirements.
Commonwealth Rent Assistance (CRA)
Commonwealth Rent Assistance (CRA) is a non-taxable income supplement paid through Centrelink to individuals and families who rent in the private rental market. It is only paid to recipients of another government benefit or pension, and paid in conjunction with that other benefit.
Community health service benefits
Includes social transfers in kind relating to community health services such as domiciliary nursing services, well baby clinics, dental health services, health services provided to particular community groups, family planning services, alcohol and drug rehabilitation programs not involving admission, and other health services provided in a community setting. Also includes expenditure on patient transport. Community health service benefits are a component of health benefits.
Consumer Price Index (CPI)
A general measure of price inflation for the household sector in Australia. Specifically, it provides a measure of changes, over time, in the cost of a constant basket of goods and services acquired by the capital city households in Australia.
Contents of dwelling
This is a non-financial asset and comprises an estimated value of household contents. Examples include: clothing, jewellery, hobby collections, furniture, paintings and other works of art, soft furnishings and electrical appliances other than fixtures such as stoves and built-in items.
Cost of child care
The cost, gross of Child Care Benefit and the Child Care Rebate, to parents for a child to attend care. In most cases, where the Child Care Benefit was paid directly to the child care service provider, the cost of care was directly collected in the survey. In a small number of cases, where the Child Care Benefit was not paid directly to the provider, the Child Care Benefit was estimated.
See One family households.
Couple family with dependent children
See One family households.
Couple, one family household
A one family household consisting of:
Credit card debt
The amount owing on the respondent's latest credit card account statement (including any government, interest of financial institution charges). Includes amounts owing on specialised retail shopping cards as well as general credit cards such as Visa, Mastercard and store credit cards but excludes Visa and Mastercard debit only cards.
Current financial year income
Income earned in the period 1 July 2015 to 30 June 2016.
A formal acknowledgement of indebtedness by a company. Interest is paid by the company at specific intervals. A loan or deposit can be called a debenture if it is secured over company assets. Unlike shareholders, debenture holders have a creditor relationship with the company. Instead of dividends, debenture holders receive interest on their debentures which is accounted for by the company as an expense.
Groupings that result from ranking all households or persons in the population in ascending order according to some characteristic such as their household income and then dividing the population into 10 equal groups, with each group comprising 10% of the estimated population.
All persons aged under 15 years; and persons aged 15–24 years who are full-time students, have a parent in the household and do not have a partner or child of their own in the household.
Disability and carer payment
Households that receive income from Carer allowance, Carer payment, Disability Pension Department of Veterans' Affairs (DVA) or Disability Support Pension.
Disability support pension
Includes the Disability Support Pension, as well as additional cash allowances such as rent assistance. Disability support pension is a component of social assistance benefits in cash.
Gross income less income tax, the Medicare levy and the Medicare levy surcharge i.e. remaining income after taxes are deducted, which is available to support consumption and/or saving. Income tax, Medicare levy and the Medicare levy surcharge are imputed based on each person's income and other characteristics as reported in the survey. Disposable income is sometimes referred to as net income.
Dividends may be the main source of income for people who run their own incorporated business. They can be:
Defined as a suite of rooms contained within a building which are self-contained and intended for long-term residential use. To be self-contained the suite of rooms must possess cooking and bathing facilities as building fixtures. Examples of types of dwelling include: separate house; semi-detached, row or terrace house or townhouse; flat, unit, or apartment; and other dwelling, including caravan, cabin, houseboat, and house or flat attached to a shop.
The dwelling structure type is determined by the structure of the building that contains the dwelling. Households belong to one of four dwelling categories:
Persons (excluding dependent children) who receive income from wages or salaries, who are engaged in their own business or partnership, or are silent partners in a business or partnership.
Social transfers in kind relating to the provision of school, tertiary and other education.
Includes social transfers in kind relating to electricity concessions and rebates.
Persons aged 15 years and over who, during the week before the interview:
An employed person who, for most of his/her working hours:
An employee's total remuneration, whether monetary or in kind, received as a return to labour from an employer or from a person's own incorporated business. It comprises wages and salaries, bonuses, amounts salary sacrificed, non-cash benefits such as the use of motor vehicles and subsidised housing, and termination payments.
A person who operates his or her own unincorporated business or engages independently in a profession or trade, and hires one or more employees.
Equity in the dwelling
A household's equity in the dwelling is the difference between the value of the dwelling and the total amount outstanding on mortgages taken out on the dwelling for any purpose, or unsecured loans taken out for housing purposes.
Can be applied to disposable household income and net worth to create equivalised disposable household income and equivalised household net worth. Adjustments are made using an equivalence scale. Equivalence measures are used in some analyses to enable comparison of the relative economic wellbeing of households of different size and composition. For a lone person household, the equivalised value is equal to the original value, or equal to zero if the original value was negative. For a household comprising more than one person, it is an indicator of the level that would be needed by a lone person household to enjoy the same level of economic wellbeing as the household in question.
For more information on the process of equivalisation, see the User Guide (cat. no. 6503.0).
A factor that can be used to adjust the actual incomes of households in a way that enables analysis of the relative wellbeing of households of different size and composition. The equivalising factor included on the file has been calculated using the 'modified OECD' equivalence scale. The factor is built up by allocating points to each person in a household. Taking the first adult in the household as having a weight of 1 point, each additional person who is 15 years or older is allocated 0.5 points, and each child under the age of 15 is allocated 0.3 points. The equivalence factor is the sum of the equivalence points allocated to the household members. Equivalised household income can be derived by dividing total household income by the equivalence factor.
Note that for large households, the equivalence factors included on the CURF file are based on the household size after it has been reduced to the maximum size allowable on each CURF.
Two or more people, one of whom is at least 15 years of age, who are related by blood, marriage (registered or de facto), adoption, step or fostering, and who usually live in the same household. A separate family is formed for each married couple, or for each set of parent-child relationships where only one parent is present.
Family composition of household
Classifies households into three broad groupings based on the number of families present (one family, multiple family and non-family). One family households are further disaggregated according to the type of family (such as couple family or one-parent family) and according to whether or not dependent children are present. Non-family households are disaggregated into lone person households and group households.
Family day care
A type of formal child care provided by experienced caregivers in their own homes, available for a full day or part day. Schemes are administered and supported by central coordination units.
Family support payments
Households that receive income from Baby Bonus, Newborn Supplement, Paid Parental Leave, Dad and Partner Pay, Family Tax Benefits, Parenting Payments or Schoolkids bonus.
Family Tax Benefit (FTB)
Includes Family Tax Benefit (both Part A and Part B) payments received fortnightly, as well as additional cash allowances such as rent assistance. It also includes one-off payments to families.
An asset whose value arises not from its physical existence (as would a building, piece of land, or capital equipment) but from a contractual relationship. Financial assets are mostly financial claims (with the exception of shares and value of own unincorporated business). Financial claims entitle the owner to receive a payment, or a series of payments, from an institutional unit to which the owner has provided funds. Examples include accounts held with financial institutions (including offset accounts), ownership of an incorporated business, shares, debentures and bonds, trusts, superannuation funds, and loans to other persons.
First home buyer
A household which bought their dwelling in the three years prior to being interviewed, and neither the reference person nor their co-resident partner had owned or been purchasing a home previously.
First Home Owners Grant
The First Home Owners Grant is a scheme established by the Australian Government to provide financial assistance to eligible first home buyers. Its value has varied over time as government policy has changed.
Flat, unit or apartment
Includes all self-contained dwellings in blocks of flats, units or apartments. These dwellings do not have their own private grounds and usually share a common entrance foyer or stairwell. This category includes houses converted into flats and flats attached to houses such as granny flats. A house with a granny flat attached is regarded as a separate house.
Formal child care
Regulated child care away from the child's home. The main types of formal care are before and/or after school care, long day care, family day care, occasional care and vacation care.
Employed persons who usually work 35 hours or more a week (in all jobs).
A person 15 years or over who is classified as a full-time student by the institution they attend, or considers himself/herself to be a full-time student. Full-time study does not preclude employment.
A summary measure of inequality of income distribution. For more information see the 'Summary indicators of income distribution' section of this publication.
Government pensions and allowances
Income support payments from government to persons under social security and related government programs. Included are pensions and allowances received by aged, disabled, unemployed and sick persons, families and children, veterans or their survivors, and study allowances for students. All overseas pensions and benefits are included here, although some may not be paid by overseas governments.
Gross imputed rent
The estimated market rent that a dwelling would attract if it were to be commercially rented.
Income from all sources, whether monetary or in kind, before income tax, the Medicare levy and the Medicare levy surcharge are deducted.
See Non-family household.
Greater Capital City Statistical Area Structure
Greater Capital City Statistical Areas (GCCSAs) represent the socio-economic extent of each of the eight state and territory capital cities. They include the people who regularly socialise, shop or work within the city, but live in the small towns and rural areas surrounding the city.
Comprise pensions which are guaranteed to provide a regular income stream for the life of the recipient or for the reversionary beneficiary’s life on the death of the member. The most common are defined benefit pensions which are calculated based on a predetermined formula which varies in different funds. Common criteria used include: average salary before retirement, retirement age and years of employment.
Health benefits are social transfers in kind relating to acute care institutions, community health services, pharmaceuticals, Private Health Insurance Rebate and other health benefits.
A person living alone or a group of related or unrelated people who usually live in the same private dwelling.
Used to collect information on household characteristics, housing costs and household assets and liabilities.
Household reference person
The reference person for each household is chosen by applying, to all household members aged 15 years and over, the selection criteria below, in the order listed, until a single appropriate reference person is identified:
Social transfers in kind from the provision of government housing at subsidised rental rates.
Housing costs for the purposes of the publication Housing Occupancy and Costs, Australia (cat. no. 4130.0), comprise the following costs for the three different tenure type categories:
Some additional items relating to housing costs are available to enable alternative estimates of housing costs to be constructed. See the Survey of Income and Housing, User Guide, Australia, 2013–14 (cat. no. 6553.0) for alternative measures of housing costs included on the files.
Housing costs as a proportion of income
The total weekly housing costs of a group (e.g. one parent households) are divided by the total weekly income of that group expressed as a percentage.
Provides a measure of the bedroom requirements of a household according to household size and composition. See Canadian National Occupancy Standard for housing appropriateness.
See Net imputed rent and Gross imputed rent.
Income consists of all current receipts, whether monetary or in kind, that are received by the household or by individual members of the household, and which are available for, or intended to support, current consumption.
Income includes receipts from:
Gross income is the sum of the income from all these sources before income tax, the Medicare levy and the Medicare levy surcharge are deducted. Other measures of income are Disposable income and Equivalised disposable household income.
Note that child support and other transfers from other households are not deducted from the incomes of the households making the transfers.
See Taxes on income.
One person or a group of related persons within a household, whose command over income is assumed to be shared. Income sharing is assumed to take place within married (registered or de facto) couples, and between parents and dependent children.
Income unit reference person
The male partner in a couple income unit, the parent in a one parent income unit and the person in a one person income unit.
An incorporated business is a company that has a registered business name with the Australian Securities and Investments Commission (ASIC) and Australian Business Register (ABR), and a legal status which is separate to that of the individual owners of the business.
Used to collect information from each person aged 15 years and over on individual details such as income, personal assets, education and labour force status.
Coded for all employed people aged 15 years and over, using the Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC).
Informal child care
Non-regulated child care, arranged by a child's parent/guardian, either in the child's home or elsewhere. It comprises care by (step) brothers or sister, care by grandparents, care by other relatives (including a parent living elsewhere) and care by other (unrelated) people such as friends, neighbours, nannies or babysitters. It may be paid or unpaid.
Income received as a result of ownership of assets. It comprises returns from financial assets (interest, dividends), and from non-financial assets (rent and royalties).
A loan taken out for the purpose of financing investment, excluding loans for business purposes and rental property.
Labour force status
Classifies all people aged 15 years and over according to whether they were employed, unemployed or not in the labour force.
For renters, the type of entity to whom rent is paid or with whom the tenure contract or arrangement is made. Renters are classified to one of the following categories:
A liability is an obligation which requires one unit (the debtor) to make a payment or a series of payments to the other unit (the creditor) in certain circumstances specified in a contract between them.
A lease arrangement in which the tenant has the right to occupy the dwelling for an indefinite or unspecified period.
A form of liability that is created when creditors lend funds directly to debtors. Examples include an overdraft from a bank, money lent by a building society with a mortgage over a property as collateral, and personal loans.
Loans for owner occupied dwelling
Principal outstanding on loans used to purchase, build, alter, or make additions to the selected dwelling. Includes money borrowed for a deposit on the selected dwelling, and bridging finance taken out until such time as a loan or mortgage is obtained or the dwelling is bought outright. Where only a proportion of a loan is used for the owner occupied dwelling, only that proportion of the principal outstanding is included.
Lone person household
See Non-family household.
Long day care centre
A type of formal child care that is centre-based and is available to children between birth and school age for the full day or part day. Centres are usually open for most of the year.
Low Economic Resource Household
People with low economic resources (i.e. low consumption possibilities) are those in households in the lowest two quintiles (i.e. 40%) of both equivalised disposable household income and equivalised household net worth.
Low income households are defined as households in the lowest equivalised disposable household income quintile, excluding the 1st and 2ndpercentiles (i.e. the 3rd to 20th percentiles inclusive). The 1st and 2nd percentiles are excluded due to the high wealth and expenditure characteristics those household exhibit, and the prevalence of income types other than employee income and government pensions and allowances.
Lower income households is a measure using in the publication Housing Occupancy and Costs, Australia (cat. no. 4130.0) that is defined as households in the lowest and second equivalised disposable household income quintiles, excluding the 1st and 2nd percentiles (i.e. the 3rd to 40thpercentiles inclusive). The 1st and 2nd percentiles are excluded due to the high wealth and expenditure characteristics those household exhibit, and the prevalence of income types other than employee income and government pensions and allowances.
Main source of income
The income source from which the most positive income is received. If total income is nil or negative the main source is undefined. As there are several possible sources, the main source may account for less than 50% of gross income.
Mean housing costs
The total weekly housing costs paid by a group of households (e.g. couple only households) divided by the number of households in that group.
The total income received by a group of units divided by the number of units in the group. For more detail about household weighted and person weighted means, see the 'Summary indicators of income distribution' section of this publication for more information.
Mean net worth
The total or aggregate net worth of a group of units, divided by the number of units in the group. In this publication, the most common unit is the household.
Median housing costs
That level of weekly housing costs that divides a group of households into two equal parts, one half having housing costs above the median and the other half having housing costs below the median. Households with nil or negative total income are not included in this calculation.
That level of income which divides the units in a group into two equal parts, one half having incomes above the median and the other half having incomes below the median. For more detail about household weighted and person weighted medians, see the 'Summary indicators of income distribution' section of this publication for more information.
Median net worth
That level of net worth which divides the units in a group into two equal parts, one half having net worth above the median and the other half having net worth below the median.
Median ratio of housing costs to income
The ratio of weekly housing costs to gross weekly income is calculated for each household. The median is the level of that ratio that divides a group of households into two equal parts, one half having the ratio above the median and the other half having the ratio below the median.
Medicare is Australia's universal health care system. The Medicare levy is a specific tax, based on individual income, intended to assist in the funding of this system.
Medicare levy surcharge
The Medicare levy surcharge is a levy, or an additional tax, on Australian taxpayers who do not have an appropriate level of private hospital insurance and who are earning more than the specified income threshold.
A mortgage is a loan taken out using the usual residence as security. An owner with a mortgage must still owe money from such a loan.
Multiple family household
A household containing two or more families. Unrelated individuals may also be present.
Income may be negative when a loss accrues to a household as an owner or partner in unincorporated businesses, rental properties or other investment income. Losses occur when operating expenses and depreciation are greater than gross receipts.
Negative net worth
Net worth may be negative when household liabilities exceed household assets.
Net imputed rent
Gross imputed rent less housing costs. Net imputed rent is an estimate of the value of housing services that households receive from home ownership or by households paying subsidised rent or occupying their dwelling rent free. Housing costs for the purpose of calculating net imputed rent for owner-occupiers comprise:
Net imputed rent from subsidised public rentals is included as a social transfer in kind for housing.
Net worth is the value of a household's assets less the value of its liabilities. Net worth may be negative when household liabilities exceed household assets.
A dwelling is new if it was built under contract for the current owner, or was purchased from the builder/developer, and the current owners were the first household to live in the dwelling.
Persons aged 15 years and over who:
A household that consists of unrelated persons only. Non-family households are classified to one of the following categories:
Non-financial assets are all assets other than financial assets. Examples include residential and non-residential property, household contents and vehicles.
Not in the labour force
Persons not in the categories employed or unemployed as defined.
A type of formal child care provided mainly for children who have not started school. These services cater mainly for the needs of families who require short term care for their children.
Coded for all employed persons aged 15 years and over, using the Australian and New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupation (ANZSCO) (cat. no. 1220.0).
An offset account is an account with a financial institution that is linked to a home loan. The balance in offset accounts reduces the interest charged on the loan.
One family household
A one family household is classified to one of the following categories:
One parent family with dependent children
See One family household.
One parent, one family household
A one family household comprising a lone parent with at least one dependent or non-dependent child. The household may also include other relatives and unrelated individuals.
Includes caravans, houseboats, or houses or flats attached to a shop or other commercial premise.
Other education benefits
Social transfers in kind relating to special education (e.g. education for children who have physical disabilities) and other education benefits which could not be assigned to school or tertiary education. Other education benefits is a component of education benefits.
Other formal child care
A type of formal child care other than before and/or after school care, long day care, family day care, occasional care and vacation care.
Other health benefits
Includes social transfers in kind relating to public health services such as health promotion campaigns, occupational health and safety programs, food standards regulation, immunisation programs, breast cancer screening and screening for childhood diseases, as well as expenditure on health research. Other health benefits is a component of health benefits.
Income other than wages and salaries, own unincorporated business income and government pensions and allowances. This includes income received as a result of ownership of financial assets (interest, dividends), and of non-financial assets (rent, royalties) and other current receipts from sources such as superannuation, child support, workers' compensation and scholarships. Income from rent is net of operating expenses and depreciation and may be negative when these are greater than gross receipts.
Other source of deposit
Other sources of deposit include state/territory government grants, contributions from employers, loans from informal sources that are not family or friends, other loans, sale of car or other assets, and inheritance.
Other source of monetary assistance
Other sources of monetary assistance include state/territory government grants, contributions from employers, sale of car or other assets, and inheritance.
Other landlord type
Where the household pays rent to the owner/manager of a caravan park, an employer (including a government authority), a housing cooperative, a community or church group, or any other body not included elsewhere.
Other one family households
See One family households.
Households that receive income from other government pensions and allowances. These include overseas pensions and benefits, partner allowance, sickness allowance, special benefit, war widow pension (DVA), widow allowance, wife pensions, seniors supplement, and other government pensions and allowances.
Other private income
Private income other than employee income, government pensions and allowance and income from own business. It includes superannuation, workers' compensation, child support and any other allowances regularly received as well as interest and property rent.
Other property loans
Principal outstanding on loans used to purchase, build, alter, or make additions to property rented out, loans taken out by people in rental properties who are buying or building a home somewhere else, and loans taken out for alterations and additions to other property. Where only a proportion of a loan is used for the property, only that proportion of the principal outstanding is included.
Other tenure type
A household which is not an owner (with or without a mortgage), or a renter. Includes rent free.
Own account worker
A person who operates his or her own unincorporated business or engages independently in a profession or trade and hires no employees.
Own unincorporated business income
The profit/loss that accrues to persons as owners of, or partners in, unincorporated businesses. Profit/loss consists of the value of gross output of the business after the deduction of operating expenses (including depreciation). Losses occur when operating expenses are greater than gross receipts and are treated as negative income.
Owner (of dwelling)
A household in which at least one member owns the dwelling in which the household members usually reside. Owners are divided into two categories: owners without a mortgage and owners with a mortgage. If there is any outstanding mortgage or loan secured against the dwelling the household is an owner with a mortgage. If there is no mortgage or loan secured against the dwelling the household is an owner without a mortgage.
An employed person who usually works less than 35 hours per week.
When all households or persons in the population are ranked from the lowest to the highest on the basis of some characteristic such as their household income, they can then be divided into equal sized groups. Division into 100 groups gives percentiles. The highest value of the characteristic in the tenth percentile is denoted P10. The median or the top of the 50th percentile is denoted P50. P20, P80 and P90 denote the highest values in the 20th, 80th and 90th percentiles. Ratios of values at the top of selected percentiles, such as P90/P10, are often called percentile ratios.
Percentile ratios summarise the relative distance between two points in a distribution. To illustrate the full spread of the income distribution, the percentile ratio needs to refer to points near the extremes of the distribution, for example, the P90/P10 ratio. The P80/P20 ratio better illustrates the magnitude of the range within which the income or net worth of the majority of households falls. The P80/P50 and P50/P20 ratios focus on comparing the ends of the income distribution with the midpoint.
Adjustment of estimates to disguise individual values without affecting the statistical validity of aggregate data.
Includes social transfers in kind relating to pharmaceuticals provided outside of hospitals, aids and appliances used for health purposes and supplied in an ambulatory setting, glasses, hearing aids, wheel chairs, etc. Pharmaceutical benefits is a component of health benefits.
Educational and developmental programs for children in the year (or in some jurisdictions, two years) before they begin full-time primary education.
Previous financial year exclusion flag
This item is available on the file to indicate records that could be regarded as out of scope when analysing previous year income data. For more information see the Survey of Income and Housing, User Guide, Australia, 2015–16 (cat. no. 6503.0).
Previous financial year income
Income earned in the period July 2012 to June 2013.
Houses, flats, home units, caravans, garages, tents and other structures that are used as places of residence. These are distinct from special dwellings which include hotels, boarding houses and institutions.
Private Health Insurance Rebate
Includes social transfers in kind relating to a rebate on private health insurance costs for members of a registered health fund. Private Health Insurance Rebate is a component of health benefits.
Current receipts from private organisations and other households, including wages and salaries, income from own business, superannuation, workers' compensation, income from annuities, interest, dividends, royalties, income from rental properties, scholarships and child support.
A household paying rent to a landlord who is a real estate agent, a parent or other relative not in the same unit or another person not in the same unit.
Trusts other than public unit trusts. These include private unit trusts, fixed unit trusts, family trusts, charitable trusts and testamentary trusts.
All residential and non-residential properties owned by persons in the household, excluding properties owned by the respondent's business.
A household paying rent to a state or territory housing authority/trust.
Public unit trusts
A trust which issues units to the general public within Australia for the purpose of investing the pooled monies. A public unit trust must have registered a prospectus with the Australian Securities and Investments Commission (ASIC) and be governed by a trust deed between its management company and a trustee company. The units may or may not be listed on the Australian Stock Exchange. Includes property trusts, equity trusts, mortgage trusts, cash management trusts and public trading trusts.
Groupings that result from ranking all households or people in the population in ascending order according to some characteristic such as their household income or net worth and then dividing the population into five equal groups, each comprising 20% of the estimated population.
Ratio at top of selected percentiles
Recent home buyer
A household which bought their dwelling in the three years prior to the survey.
A household in which the reference changed their residence in the five years prior to being interviewed.
See Household reference person and Income unit reference person.
Relative standard error (RSE)
The standard error expressed as a percentage of the estimate for which it was calculated. It is a measure which is independent of both the size of the sample, and the unit of measurement and as a result, can be used to compare the reliability of different estimates. The smaller an estimate's RSE, the more likely it is that the estimate is a good proxy for that which would have been obtained if the whole population had been surveyed. For more information see the Survey of Income and Housing, User Guide, Australia, 2015–16 (cat. no. 6503.0).
Repairs and maintenance
Repairs and maintenance refers to any work undertaken with the purpose of either preventing deterioration or repairing some aspect of the dwelling back to its original condition.
A household that pays rent to reside in the dwelling. See 'Landlord type' for further classification.
Rent free is a tenure arrangement where the unit (i.e. household, income unit or person) exchanges no money for lodging and is not an owner of the dwelling.
Rest of State
Under the Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS), Rest of State is any area not defined as being part of the Greater Capital City Statistical Areas (GCCSAs). In the case of Australian Capital Territory and Northern Territory however, there is no Rest of State balance.
An arrangement for the employer to remunerate the employee with a combination of cash wages and salaries and one or more non-cash benefits, to the value of the employee's total remuneration.
An arrangement under which an employee agrees contractually to forgo part of the remuneration, which the employee would otherwise receive as wages and salaries, in return for the employer or someone associated with the employer providing benefits of a similar value.
A biannual payment, paid in January and July from January 2013 to the end of 2016, to eligible families, carers and students to assist with education related costs of primary and secondary school students. The Schoolkids Bonus replaced the Education Tax Refund.
School education benefits
Social transfers in kind relating to administration, inspection, support and operation of educational programs for preschool, primary and secondary school students. Government expenditure on the administration, inspection, support and operation of transportation services to students were included. Government expenditure on school medical and dental programs (which are included in other health benefits) and monetary transfers to households were excluded. School education is a component of education benefits.
The private dwelling selected in the sample for the survey.
Selected superannuation contributions for employees
Selected superannuation contributions comprise:
After tax contributions by employees are not included.
Semi-detached, row or terrace house or townhouse
A dwelling with its own private grounds and no dwelling above or below. A key feature of this dwelling is that it is either attached in some structural way to one or more dwellings or is separated from neighbouring dwellings (usually by less than one-half metre). Examples include semi-detached, row or terrace houses, townhouses or villa units. Multistorey townhouses or units are separately identified from those which are single storey.
A dwelling which is self-contained and separated from other houses (or other buildings or structures) by a space to allow access on all sides (usually at least one-half metre). This category also includes houses that have an attached flat (e.g. a granny flat). The attached flat will be included in the flat, unit or apartment category.
An arrangement in which the costs of purchasing, and the equity in a dwelling are shared between the primary owner and a partner, usually a financial institution or government backed provider. The primary owner only makes repayments on their share of the loan on the dwelling. At the time of sale, the equity partner will recoup their share of the equity as well as a proportion of any capital gain. In some cases, an opportunity will be provided for the primary owner to progressively purchase full ownership of the dwelling.
A share is a contract between the issuing company and the owner of the share which gives the latter an interest in the management of the corporation and the right to participate in profits. The "value of shares" excludes the value of shares held by individuals in their own incorporated business. Such shares are included in "value of own incorporated business".
Significant persons are defined as follows:
Is a person who has some share or legal ownership in a business but who does not actively 'work' in that business.
Social assistance benefits in cash
Cash payments to persons from general government without any requirement to provide goods and services in return. Included are pensions and allowances received by aged, disabled, unemployed and sick persons, families and children, veterans or their survivors, and study allowances for students. Family Tax Benefit, Baby Bonus and Child Disability Assistance Payment paid to recipients of Carer Allowance are also included in social assistance benefits in cash. Household social assistance benefits in cash are the sum of all household members' cash payments. The only difference between 'government pensions and allowances' and 'social assistance benefits in cash' is that overseas pensions are included in government pensions and allowances and private income and excluded from social assistance benefits in cash.
Social transfers in kind
Non-cash benefits and services provided by the government to households for education, health, housing, social security and welfare, and electricity concessions and rebates. It includes reimbursements of approved expenditures such as the Medicare rebate, the Private Health Insurance Rebate, the Child Care Benefit and the Child Care Rebate. The cost of administering the provision of social assistance benefits in cash is included. For more information see the Survey of Income and Housing, User Guide, Australia, 2015–16 (cat. no. 6503.0).
Standard error (SE)
A measure of the likely difference between estimates obtained in a sample survey and estimates which would have been obtained if the whole population had been surveyed. The magnitude of the standard error associated with any survey is a function of sample design, sample size and population variability. For more information see the Survey of Income and Housing, User Guide, Australia, 2015–16 (cat. no. 6503.0).
Statistical Area Level 1 (SA1)
Statistical Areas Level 1 (SA1s) have been designed as the smallest unit for the release of Census data. SA1s generally have a population of 200 to 800 persons, and an average population of about 400 persons. They are built from whole Mesh Blocks and there are approximately 55,000 SA1s covering the whole of Australia.
Statistical Area Level 4 (SA4)
Statistical Areas Level 4 (SA4s) are part of the ASGS and are used for the output of a variety of regional data, including the 2011 Census Data. There are 106 SA4s covering the whole of Australia without gaps or overlaps. They are built up from SA1s. In regional areas, SA4s tend to have populations of between 100,000 to 300,000 people. In metropolitan areas, SA4s tend to have larger populations (300,000 – 500,000 people).
State/territory government concessions and exemptions
Any exemption or concession for first home buyers on stamp (transfer) duty and/or mortgage duty payable to a state or territory government. All jurisdictions offered exemptions and/or concessions on stamp duty and/or mortgage duty to first home buyers in the survey period, normally subject to property value and income thresholds.
State/territory government grants
Any monetary grant paid to eligible first home buyers that is in addition to the First Home Owner Grant and introduced by a state or territory government. Some jurisdictions offered grants to first home buyers in the survey period.
Study loans are debts incurred under Higher Education Loans Program (HELP), the government education payment scheme, and other government higher education schemes. They also include loans incurred prior to 2005 under the Higher Education Contribution Scheme (HECS) and the Student Financial Supplement Scheme (SFSS). A feature of these loans is that the obligation to repay them only exists when the student's income exceeds a threshold. The debt is also extinguished upon death. The HELP scheme includes several education payment schemes, including HECS-HELP and FEE-HELP. Study loans also includes student loans from other countries.
A long-term savings arrangement which operates primarily to provide income for retirement.
Income from superannuation, annuities and private pensions such as allocated pensions.
Persons aged 15 years and over were considered to have superannuation coverage if they:
Taxes on income
Taxes on income is the sum of personal income tax plus the Medicare levy and Medicare levy surcharge for all members of the household. Taxes on income were imputed according to the 2013–14 tax rules which were applied to the gross income of family members according to their characteristics as reported in the 2013–14 Survey of Income and Housing.
The nature of a household's legal right to occupy the dwelling in which the household members usually reside. Tenure is determined according to whether the household owns the dwelling outright, owns the dwelling but has a mortgage or loan secured against it, is paying rent to live in the dwelling, or has some other arrangement to occupy the dwelling.
Term annuities are a fixed-term product that gives people a guaranteed income for a specified term. This involves a series of payments purchased with a lump sum, usually from an insurance company.
Tertiary education benefits
Social transfers in kind relating to the administration, inspection, operation and support of education programs at higher education institutions and colleges of technical and further education. Tertiary education is a component of education benefits.
Reduction of all high values to a specified maximum value.
Any type of managed fund which involves the pooling of investors' money in order for a trustee or professional manager to administer that fund. Examples include listed and unlisted public unit trusts, cash management trusts, property trusts and family trusts used only for investment purposes.
Persons aged 15 years and over who were not employed during the week before the interview and had actively looked for full-time or part-time work at any time in the four weeks before the interview and:
Unemployment and study payments
Households that receive income from Austudy/ABSTUDY, Newstart allowance or Youth allowance.
A business in which the owner(s) and the business are the same legal entity, so that, for example, the owner(s) are personally liable for any business debts that are incurred. The business may be registered (in their own state) as a sole trader, partnership or firm; however they are not registered with the Australian Securities and Investments Commission and are not legally a company.
A loan not requiring any security or collateral.
A formal child care service provided to school children during the school holidays.
Value of dwelling
The estimated value of the dwelling and its land, as estimated and reported by the respondent. The data are only collected for owners.
Vehicles include registered and unregistered vehicles used for private purposes including cars, trucks, buses, motorcycles, caravans, aircraft, boats and bicycles.
Principal outstanding on loans used to purchase motor vehicles. Where only a proportion of a loan is used to purchase a vehicle, only that proportion of the principal outstanding is included.
See Net worth.
Worker's compensation payment
Monies paid by insurance companies and sometimes by employers as compensation for loss of earnings while unable to attend work due to an illness or injury. It can also be paid as compensation for an injury itself that was caused by an accident or injury at work.
Year of arrival in Australia
The year a person (born outside Australia) first arrived in Australia from another country, with the intention of staying in Australia for one year or more.
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