5249.0 - Australian National Accounts: Tourism Satellite Account, 2007-08  
ARCHIVED ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 16/04/2009   
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Basic price

The amount receivable by the producer from the purchaser for a unit of a good or service produced as output minus any tax payable, and plus any subsidy receivable, on that unit as a consequence of its production or sale. It excludes any transport charges invoiced separately by the producer. See also
Purchasers’ prices

Compensation of employees

The total remuneration, in cash or in kind, payable by an enterprise to an employee in return for work done by the employee during the accounting period. It is further classified into two sub-components: wages and salaries; and employers’ social contributions. Compensation of employees is not payable in respect of unpaid work undertaken voluntarily, including the work done by members of a household within an unincorporated enterprise owned by the same household. Compensation of employees excludes any taxes payable by the employer on the wage and salary bill (e.g. payroll tax, fringe benefits tax). See also
Employers’ social contributions
; Wages and salaries.

Consumption by international visitors

Consists of the visitor expenditure, including imputed expenditure, incurred within Australia by non-residents on tourism related products, including those sold at prices that are not economically significant. See also
Tourism consumption; Tourism business and government consumption; Tourism household consumption

Current prices

Estimates are valued at the prices of the period to which the observation relates. For example, estimates for 2002-03 are valued using 2002-03 prices. This contrasts to chain volume measures where the prices used in valuation refer to the prices of the previous year.

Direct tourism demand

A direct economic impact is generated where a direct physical or economic relationship between the visitor and producer of the good or service exists. See also Indirect tourism demand.

Economically significant prices

Prices which have a significant influence on both the amounts the producers are willing to supply and the amounts purchasers wish to buy. See also Basic price; Purchasers’ prices.

Employed person

Is a person aged 15 years and over who, during the reference week:

  • worked for one hour or more for pay, profit, commission or payment in kind in a job or business, or on a farm (comprising employees, employers and own account workers)
  • worked for one hour or more without pay in a family business or on a farm (i.e. contributing family workers)
  • were employees who had a job but were not at work and were: on paid leave; on leave without pay for less than four weeks up to the end of the reference week; stood down without pay because of bad weather or plant breakdown at their place of employment for less than four weeks up to the end of the reference week; on strike or locked out; on workers’ compensation and expected to be returning to their job; or receiving wages or salary while undertaking full-time study
  • were employers, own account workers or contributing family workers who had a job, business or farm, but were not at work.

Employers' social contributions

Payments by employers which are intended to secure for their employees the entitlement to social benefits should certain events occur, or certain circumstances exist, that may adversely affect their employees' income or welfare - namely work-related accidents and retirement.

Exports of goods and services

The value of goods exported and amounts receivable from non-residents for the provision of services by residents.

Final consumption expenditure - general government

Net expenditure on goods and services by public authorities, other than those classified as public corporations, which does not result in the creation of fixed assets or inventories or in the acquisition of land and existing buildings or second-hand assets. It comprises expenditure on compensation of employees (other than those charged to capital works, etc.), goods and services (other than fixed assets and inventories) and consumption of fixed capital. Expenditure on repair and maintenance of roads is included. Fees, etc., charged by general government bodies for goods sold and services rendered are offset against purchases. Net expenditure overseas by general government bodies and purchases from public corporations are included. Expenditure on defence assets that are used in a fashion similar to civilian assets is classified as gross fixed capital formation; expenditure on weapons of destruction and weapon delivery systems is classified as final consumption expenditure.

Final consumption expenditure - households

Net expenditure on goods and services by persons and expenditure of a current nature by private non-profit institutions serving households. This item excludes expenditures by unincorporated businesses and expenditures on assets by non-profit institutions (included in gross fixed capital formation). Also excluded is expenditure on maintenance of dwellings (treated as intermediate expenses of private enterprises), but personal expenditure on motor vehicles and other durable goods and the imputed rent of owner-occupied dwellings are included. The value of 'backyard' production (including food produced and consumed on farms) is included in household final consumption expenditure and the payment of wages and salaries in kind (e.g. food and lodging supplied free to employees) is counted in both household income and household final consumption expenditure.

Gross domestic product (GDP)

Is the total market value of goods and services produced in Australia within a given period after deducting the cost of goods and services used up in the process of production but before deducting allowances for the consumption of fixed capital. Thus gross domestic product, as here defined, is 'at market prices'. It is equivalent to gross national expenditure plus exports of goods and services less imports of goods and services. Gross farm product is that part of gross domestic product which arises from production in agriculture and services to agriculture. Gross non-farm product arises from production in all other industries.

Gross fixed capital formation

Expenditure on fixed assets - dwellings, other buildings and structures, machinery and equipment, livestock, intangible fixed assets and ownership transfer costs. The machinery and equipment category includes plant, machinery, equipment, vehicles, etc. Expenditure on repair and maintenance of fixed assets is excluded, being chargeable to the production account. Additions to fixed assets are regarded as capital formation. Also included is compensation of employees and other costs paid by private enterprise in connection with own-account capital formation. Expenditure on dwellings, other buildings and structures, and machinery and equipment is measured as expenditure on new and second-hand assets, less sales of existing assets. Ownership transfer costs comprise stamp duty, real estate agents' fees and sales commissions, conveyancing fees and miscellaneous government charges.

Gross mixed income of unincorporated enterprise

The surplus or deficit accruing from production by unincorporated enterprises. It includes elements of both compensation of employees (returns on labour inputs) and operating surplus (returns on capital inputs).

Gross operating surplus

The operating surplus accruing to all enterprises, except unincorporated enterprises, from their operations in Australia. It is the excess of gross output over the sum of intermediate consumption, compensation of employees, and taxes less subsidies on production and imports. It is calculated before deduction of consumption of fixed capital, dividends, interest, royalties and land rent, and direct taxes payable, but after deducting the inventory valuation adjustment. Gross operating surplus is also calculated for general government and it equals general government's consumption of fixed capital.

Gross value added

The value of output at basic prices minus the value of intermediate consumption at purchasers' prices. The term is used to describe gross product by industry and by sector. Basic prices valuation of output removes the distortion caused by variations in the incidence of commodity taxes and subsidies across the output of individual industries. See also Intermediate consumption; Output.

Imports of goods and services

The value of goods imported and amounts payable to non-residents for the provision of services to residents.

Indirect tourism demand

Includes downstream effects of tourism expenditure. For example, when a visitor buys a meal, indirect tourism demand is generated for the food manufacturer, the transporter, the electricity company etc., that provide the necessary inputs required to make the meal. To fully measure indirect effects, account should also be taken of the effect of changes in incomes which feed through to further changes in tourism demand. See also Direct tourism demand.

Input-output table

An input-output table is a means of presenting a detailed analysis of the process of production and the use of goods and services (products) and the income generated in the production process; they can be either in the form of (a) supply and use tables or (b) symmetric input-output tables.

Intermediate consumption

Consists of the value of the goods and services consumed as inputs by a process of production, excluding the consumption of fixed capital. See also Gross value added.


This is the difference between the resale price of a good and the cost to the retailer or wholesaler of the good sold. A transport margin consists of the transport charges paid separately by the purchaser in taking delivery of the good.

Other taxes on production

Consists of all taxes that enterprises incur as a result of engaging in production, except taxes on products. Other taxes on production include: taxes related to the payroll or workforce numbers excluding compulsory social security contributions paid by employers and any taxes paid by the employees themselves out of their wages or salaries; recurrent taxes on land, buildings or other structures; some business and professional licences where no service is provided by the Government in return; taxes on the use of fixed assets or other activities; stamp duties; taxes on pollution; and taxes on international transactions. See also Taxes less subsidies on production and imports and Taxes less subsidies on products.


This consists of those goods and services that are produced within an establishment that become available for use outside that establishment, plus any goods and services produced for own final use. See also Gross value added.

Purchasers’ price

The purchaser's price is the amount paid by the purchaser, excluding any deductible tax, in order to take delivery of a unit of a good or service at the time and place required by the purchaser. The purchaser’s price of a good includes any transport charges paid separately by the purchaser to take delivery at the required time and place. See also Basic prices; Economically significant prices.

Taxes less subsidies on production and imports

Defined as ‘taxes on products’ plus ‘other taxes on production’ less 'subsidies on products' less 'other subsidies on production'. The taxes do not include any taxes on the profits or other income received by an enterprise. They are payable irrespective of the profitability of the production process. They may be payable on the land, fixed assets or labour employed in the production process, or on certain activities or transactions. See also Other taxes on production and Taxes on products.

Taxes less subsidies on products

A tax or subsidy on a product is payable per unit of a good or service. The tax or subsidy may be a specific amount of money per unit of quantity of a good or service (quantity being measured either in terms of discrete units or continuous physical variables such as volume, weight, strength, distance, time, etc.), or it may be calculated ad valorem as a specified percentage of the price per unit or value of the goods or services transacted. A tax or subsidy on a product usually becomes payable when the product is produced, sold or imported, but it may also become payable in other circumstances, such as when a good is exported, leased, transferred, delivered, or used for own consumption or own capital formation. See also Other taxes on production and Taxes on production and imports.


Comprises the activities of persons travelling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes not related to the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the place visited.

Tourism business and government consumption

Consists of the visitor expenditure, including imputed expenditure, incurred within Australia by resident businesses or governments, on tourism related products.

Tourism characteristic industries

Are those industries that would either cease to exist in their present form, producing their present product(s), or would be significantly affected if tourism were to cease. In the Australian Tourism Satellite Account, for an industry to be 'characteristic', at least 25 per cent of its output must be consumed by visitors.

Tourism characteristic products

These are defined in the international TSA standards as those products which represent an important part of tourism consumption, or for which a significant proportion of the sales are to visitors. In the Australian TSA, for a product to be 'characteristic' it must account for at least 10 per cent of total tourism consumption and/or at least 25 per cent of the total output of the product must be consumed by visitors.

Tourism connected industries

Are those, other than tourism characteristic industries, for which a tourism related product is directly identifiable (primary) to, and where the products are consumed by visitors in volumes which are significant for the visitor and/or the producer. All other industries are classified as non-tourism industries, though some of their products may be consumed by visitors and are included in the calculation of tourism gross value added and tourism GDP.

Tourism connected products

Are those that are consumed by visitors but are not considered as tourism characteristic products. All other products in the supply and use table not consumed by visitors are classified as 'all other goods and services' in the TSA.

Tourism consumption

Is the total consumption made by a visitor or on behalf of a visitor for and during his/her trip and stay at the destination. See Tourism business and government consumption, Tourism household consumption, and Consumption by international visitors.

Tourism GDP

Is tourism gross value added plus taxes paid less subsidies received on tourism related products as these are reflected in prices that visitors actually pay. Tourism GDP will generally have a higher value than tourism value added. Tourism GDP is a satellite account construct to enable a direct comparison with the most widely recognised national accounting aggregate, GDP. While it is useful in this context, the tourism gross value added measure should be used when making comparisons with other industries or between countries. See Tourism gross value added.

Tourism gross value added

Measures the value of tourism gross output at basic prices by all industries which supply tourism products, less the value of the inputs used in producing these tourism products. This measure is directly comparable with the value added of 'conventional' industries such as mining and manufacturing and should also be used for comparisons across countries. See Tourism GDP.

Tourism household consumption

Consists of the visitor expenditure, including imputed expenditure, incurred within Australia by resident households on tourism related products, including those sold at prices that are not economically significant. See Tourism consumption.

Tourism industry ratio

This is the proportion of the total value added of an industry which is related to tourism.

Tourism product ratio

This is the proportion of the total supply of a product which is consumed by visitors.

Tourism trip

This is defined in the international TSA standards as those trips which are taken by visitors.

Usual environment

This is made up of one or more areas in which a person undertakes their regular activities such as their residence, place of work, place of study and other places frequently visited. The usual environment criteria has two dimensions. Frequency means places that are visited on a routine basis (at least once a week) are considered part of a person's usual environment, even if the place visited is located a considerable distance from place of residence. Distance means locations close (up to 40 kilometres from home for overnight trips and up to 50 kilometres from home (round trip) for day trips) to the place of residence of a person are also included in their usual environment.


A visitor is defined as 'any person travelling to a place other than that of his/her usual environment for less than twelve months and whose main purpose of trip is other than the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the place visited'.

Wages and salaries

Consist of amounts payable in cash including the value of any social contributions, income taxes, etc., payable by the employee even if they are actually withheld by the employer for administrative convenience or other reasons and paid directly to social insurance schemes, tax authorities, etc., on behalf of the employee. Wages and salaries may be paid as remuneration in kind instead of, or in addition to, remuneration in cash. Separation, termination and redundancy payments are also included in wages and salaries. Wages and salaries are also measured as far as possible on an accrual rather than a strict cash basis. See also Employers’ social contributions; Compensation of employees.