4604.0 - Energy Account, Australia, 2011-12 Quality Declaration 
ARCHIVED ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 26/11/2013   
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The Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC) is the standard classification used in Australia and New Zealand for the collection, compilation, and publication of industry statistics.

Asset Account

Presents records of opening and closing stocks of assets and various stock changes for an accounting period.


Residue of the sugar cane milling process.

Black coal

A sedimentary organic rock consisting of anthracite, bituminous and sub-bituminous rank coals. Black coal is primarily used as a solid fuel to raise steam to generate electricity and to produce coke for steelmaking.


Produced from renewable organic sources or ‘feedstocks’. Biofuels include ethanol and biodiesel which are commonly used as transportation fuels, and biogas which is commonly used in the generation of electricity.

Biomass wood

Includes wood and wood waste used to produce energy, usually through burning.


Made from brown coal through a process of crushing, drying and the addition of a binding agent, to produce a compact, high energy fuel easily transported and commonly used for industrial and domestic heating.

Brown coal

Also known as lignite, is a low rank, brownish-black coal with a high moisture content of around 60%.


A gaseous hydrocarbon. When exposed to higher pressures or lower temperatures it can be converted to liquid form, and is a major component of LPG.

Catastrophic losses

These are reductions in assets due to catastrophic or exceptional events. Examples include floods.

Chain Volume Measure

For certain types of economic analysis it is useful to examine estimates of the principal flows of goods and services in the economy revalued in such a way as to remove the direct effects of price change over the relevant period. These estimates are obtained by first weighting together the elemental volume indexes from the previous financial year to the current financial year, where the weights are calculated using the current price value shares of the previous financial year. Second, the resulting aggregate year-to-year volume indexes are linked together to form a time series. Third, the time series is referenced to the current price estimates of the reference year.

Coal by-products

Include blast furnace gas (from iron and steel processing), coal tar and benzene/toluene/xylene (BTX) feedstock and coke oven gas (from the coke making process).


A liquid mixture of pentanes and heavier hydrocarbons that form part of the vapour phase of natural gas in the reservoir and become liquid under standard field separation conditions. Treated as crude oil in Energy Account, Australia.

Consumer Price Index

Measures quarterly changes in the price of a 'basket' of goods and services which account for a high proportion of expenditure by the CPI population group (i.e. metropolitan households). This 'basket' covers a wide range of goods and services, arranged in the following eleven groups:

  • Food and non-alcoholic beverages
  • Alcohol and tobacco
  • Clothing and footwear
  • Housing
  • Furnishings, household equipment and services
  • Health
  • Transport
  • Communication
  • Recreation and culture
  • Education
  • Insurance and financial services.

Conversion loss

Energy lost in the transformation of energy into a different energy product.

Crude oil

A mixture of hydrocarbons, existing in the liquid state; both in natural underground reservoirs and at atmospheric pressure after passing through surface separating facilities.

Economic Demonstrated Resource

Resources judged to be economically extractable and for which the quantity and quality are computed partly from specific measurements, and partly from extrapolation for a reasonable physical distance on geological evidence.


The flow of electrical power or charge. It is commonly derived from burning organic matter, especially coal and natural gas. Other sources include hydroelectricity, solar photovoltaic, wind and nuclear.

Energy Assets

Items considered to be of value to society. In economics, assets are seen as stores of value that, in many situations, also provide inputs to production processes. Energy assets include Black coal, brown coal, crude oil, LPG, Natural Gas and Uranium.

Energy intensity

A measure of the energy consumed to produce one unit of economic output, measured in this publication in gigajoules of energy per million dollars of Industry Gross Value Added (GJ/$m IGVA).

Energy Productivity

The GDP or Industry Gross Value Added per unit of energy used. A measure of the economic value associated with energy use. Energy productivity is determined by energy efficiency, energy prices and the composition of the economy.

Environmental account

An information system and framework that links the economic activities and uses of a resource to changes in the natural resource base, thus linking resource use with the System of National Accounts. See also SEEA.


The exports of goods represents the quantity of goods sent to other countries or for which ownership changes from residents to non-residents.

Final use

Use that finally consumes a product, as opposed to an intermediate use. Final use includes: household final consumption; government final consumption; exports; and changes in inventories.

Flow accounts

General term used for a framework which presents information on the physical flows of resources throughout the economy. Flow accounts published for energy include supply and use tables.

Fossil fuel

Any natural fuel derived from decomposed or partly decomposed organic matter (eg. oil, natural gas and coal).

Gigajoule (GJ)

A unit of energy equal to one billion (i.e. 1,000,000,000) joules, which is roughly equivalent to the energy content of 29 litres of petrol or 280 kilowatt hours of electricity. The gigajoule is the principal unit of energy used in the Energy Intensity chapter of this publication.

Government Energy Use

Use of energy by the general government sector. The principal function of the general government sector is to provide non-market goods and services (e.g. roads, hospitals, libraries) primarily financed by taxes, to regulate and influence economic activity, to maintain law and order, and to redistribute income by means of transfer payments. This sector covers the Commonwealth Government, state governments and local government municipalities, as well as associated agencies and non-departmental bodies. Public universities are also included in this sector. Public non-financial corporations are excluded from this sector. For further information please refer to the Government Finance Statistics (cat. no. 5512.0) publication.

Gross Domestic Product

Gross domestic product is the total market value of goods and services produced in Australia within a given period after deducting the cost of goods and services used up in the process of production, but before deducting allowances for the consumption of fixed capital. Thus gross domestic product, as here defined, is 'at market prices'. It is equivalent to gross national expenditure plus exports of goods and services less imports of goods and services.

Gross energy

Is the energy contained in primary energy (energy sourced directly from nature) as well as the energy derived from it. See also net energy.

Household Final Consumption Expenditure

Net expenditure on goods and services by persons and expenditure of a current nature by private non-profit institutions serving households. For further information please refer to the Australian System of National Accounts: Concepts, Sources and Methods, Edition 3 (cat. no 5216.0).

Hybrid Account

The presentation of information that combines both monetary and physical data across common classifications and definitions.


A process in which flowing water is harnessed to generate power, especially electricity.

Industry gross value added (IGVA)

The value of an industry’s output at basic prices, minus the value of goods and services consumed as inputs during the process of production. Basic prices valuation of output removes the distortion caused by variations in commodity taxes and subsidies across the output of individual industries.

Intermediate use

Intermediate use consists of goods and services consumed as inputs by a process of production, excluding fixed assets whose consumption is recorded as consumption of fixed capital. The goods or services may be either transformed or used up by the production process.

Liquefied natural gas (LNG)

Natural gas which has been refrigerated to a liquid state, which greatly reduces its volume and enables its transport by sea-going vessels.

Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)

A combination of propane and butane, along with trace amounts of other compounds, recovered in either natural gas extraction or oil refining. The gases are transformed into a liquid to assist in transport.

Metallurgical coke

A product resulting from high-temperature retorting of suitable coal; a dense, crush-resistant fuel commonly used in blast furnaces.

Monetary Accounts

Supply and use tables compiled in economic units.

National Accounts

Systematic summary of national economic activity. At a detailed level it shows a statistical picture of the performance and structure of the economy. for further information please refer to the Australian System of National Accounts: Concepts, Sources and Methods, Edition 3 (cat. no 5216.0).

Natural gas

A combustible mixture of hydrocarbon gases. While natural gas is formed primarily of methane, its composition can vary widely, commonly including ethane, propane, butane and pentane.

Net energy

Total net energy accounts for the conversion losses associated with transforming one form of energy into another form. In this way, estimates for total net energy use avoid double-counting the amount of converted primary energy. See also gross energy.

Net Present Value

The expected value of the resource based on current resource prices, current extraction methods and costs, and on present physical rates of extraction.


The National Greenhouse and Energy Reporting System, which commenced in relation to the 2008-09 reference period, is a framework for the mandatory reporting of greenhouse gas emissions, energy consumption and energy production by Australian businesses exceeding specified thresholds of emissions or energy consumption.

Other volume changes

Quantify changes in resources that occur between one period and another.


Consists of those goods and services produced within a business that become available for use outside that business, plus any goods and services produced for own final use.

Petajoule (PJ)

A petajoule is equal to one million gigajoules, or 1015 joules. Petajoules are typically used to measure national or industry energy production and consumption. The energy supply and use data present in this publication are in petajoules (PJ).


Naturally occurring hydrocarbon or mixture of hydrocarbons as oil or gas, or in solution, found in sedimentary rocks.

Physical Supply and Use Tables

A record of physical flows through the compilation of supply and use tables.


A gaseous hydrocarbon. When exposed to higher pressures or lower temperatures it can be converted to liquid form, and is a component of LPG.

Refined products

Includes products derived from crude oil and other refinery feedstock e.g. automotive gasoline and diesel, aviation gasoline and turbine fuel, kerosene and heating oil, industrial diesel and fuel oil, naphtha and petroleum coke used as fuel.


A concentration of naturally occurring solid, liquid, or gaseous materials in or on the earth’s crust and in such form that its economic extraction is presently or potentially feasible. The definition does not intend to imply that exploitation of any such material will take place in that time span, but only that its possibility might reasonably be considered.


The System of Environmental and Economic Accounting. It is a framework used to develop environmental accounts by integrating environmental information into an accounting framework. The SEEA 2012 handbook provides the conceptual basis for developing a framework to describe the inter-relationship between the natural environment and the economy. See also Environmental account.

Solar energy

Solar energy in the Energy Account Australia refers to solar energy used for electricity generation (by photovoltaic conversion or solar thermal generation) and solar energy used to heat water in solar hot water systems.

Structural effect

The changes in energy consumption resulting from a change in the mix of industrial output; for example, a contraction in energy intensive sectors.


A subdivision is a sub-industry within the ANZSIC classification of Australian industries. ANZSIC Subdivisions generally reflect distinct production processes related to material inputs, production equipment and employee skills. For example, Coal mining is a subdivision within the Mining division.

Supply-use framework

An accounting framework utilising the basic principle that the total supply of a product is equal to its total use.

System of National Accounts

The System of National Accounts (SNA) is an international framework which can be used to develop a comprehensive, consistent and flexible set of macroeconomic accounts.

Total supply

Australian production plus imports.


A heavy, radioactive metallic element, used as a source of nuclear energy.

Wind power

The conversion of wind energy into electricity using wind turbines.