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Energy lost in the transformation of energy into a different energy product.
A mixture of hydrocarbons, existing in the liquid state; both in natural underground reservoirs and at atmospheric pressure after passing through surface separating facilities.
Economic Demonstrated Resource
Resources judged to be economically extractable and for which the quantity and quality are computed partly from specific measurements, and partly from extrapolation for a reasonable physical distance on geological evidence.
The flow of electrical power or charge. It is commonly derived from burning organic matter, especially coal and natural gas. Other sources include hydroelectricity, solar photovoltaic, wind and nuclear.
Items considered to be of value to society. In economics, assets are seen as stores of value that, in many situations, also provide inputs to production processes. Energy assets include Black coal, brown coal, crude oil, LPG, Natural Gas and Uranium.
A measure of the energy consumed to produce one unit of economic output, measured in this publication in gigajoules of energy per million dollars of Industry Gross Value Added (GJ/$m IGVA).
The GDP or Industry Gross Value Added per unit of energy used. A measure of the economic value associated with energy use. Energy productivity is determined by energy efficiency, energy prices and the composition of the economy.
An information system and framework that links the economic activities and uses of a resource to changes in the natural resource base, thus linking resource use with the System of National Accounts. See also SEEA.
The exports of goods represents the quantity of goods sent to other countries or for which ownership changes from residents to non-residents.
Use that finally consumes a product, as opposed to an intermediate use. Final use includes: household final consumption; government final consumption; exports; and changes in inventories.
General term used for a framework which presents information on the physical flows of resources throughout the economy. Flow accounts published for energy include supply and use tables.
Any natural fuel derived from decomposed or partly decomposed organic matter (eg. oil, natural gas and coal).
A unit of energy equal to one billion (i.e. 1,000,000,000) joules, which is roughly equivalent to the energy content of 29 litres of petrol or 280 kilowatt hours of electricity. The gigajoule is the principal unit of energy used in the Energy Intensity chapter of this publication.
Government Energy Use
Use of energy by the general government sector. The principal function of the general government sector is to provide non-market goods and services (e.g. roads, hospitals, libraries) primarily financed by taxes, to regulate and influence economic activity, to maintain law and order, and to redistribute income by means of transfer payments. This sector covers the Commonwealth Government, state governments and local government municipalities, as well as associated agencies and non-departmental bodies. Public universities are also included in this sector. Public non-financial corporations are excluded from this sector. For further information please refer to the Government Finance Statistics (cat. no. 5512.0) publication.
Gross Domestic Product
Gross domestic product is the total market value of goods and services produced in Australia within a given period after deducting the cost of goods and services used up in the process of production, but before deducting allowances for the consumption of fixed capital. Thus gross domestic product, as here defined, is 'at market prices'. It is equivalent to gross national expenditure plus exports of goods and services less imports of goods and services.
Is the energy contained in primary energy (energy sourced directly from nature) as well as the energy derived from it. See also net energy.
Household Final Consumption Expenditure
Net expenditure on goods and services by persons and expenditure of a current nature by private non-profit institutions serving households. For further information please refer to the Australian System of National Accounts: Concepts, Sources and Methods, Edition 3 (cat. no 5216.0).
The presentation of information that combines both monetary and physical data across common classifications and definitions.
A process in which flowing water is harnessed to generate power, especially electricity.
Industry gross value added (IGVA)
The value of an industry’s output at basic prices, minus the value of goods and services consumed as inputs during the process of production. Basic prices valuation of output removes the distortion caused by variations in commodity taxes and subsidies across the output of individual industries.
Intermediate use consists of goods and services consumed as inputs by a process of production, excluding fixed assets whose consumption is recorded as consumption of fixed capital. The goods or services may be either transformed or used up by the production process.
Liquefied natural gas (LNG)
Natural gas which has been refrigerated to a liquid state, which greatly reduces its volume and enables its transport by sea-going vessels.
Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)
A combination of propane and butane, along with trace amounts of other compounds, recovered in either natural gas extraction or oil refining. The gases are transformed into a liquid to assist in transport.
A product resulting from high-temperature retorting of suitable coal; a dense, crush-resistant fuel commonly used in blast furnaces.
Supply and use tables compiled in economic units.
Systematic summary of national economic activity. At a detailed level it shows a statistical picture of the performance and structure of the economy. for further information please refer to the Australian System of National Accounts: Concepts, Sources and Methods, Edition 3 (cat. no 5216.0).
A combustible mixture of hydrocarbon gases. While natural gas is formed primarily of methane, its composition can vary widely, commonly including ethane, propane, butane and pentane.
Total net energy accounts for the conversion losses associated with transforming one form of energy into another form. In this way, estimates for total net energy use avoid double-counting the amount of converted primary energy. See also gross energy.
Net Present Value
The expected value of the resource based on current resource prices, current extraction methods and costs, and on present physical rates of extraction.
The National Greenhouse and Energy Reporting System, which commenced in relation to the 2008-09 reference period, is a framework for the mandatory reporting of greenhouse gas emissions, energy consumption and energy production by Australian businesses exceeding specified thresholds of emissions or energy consumption.
Other volume changes
Quantify changes in resources that occur between one period and another.
Consists of those goods and services produced within a business that become available for use outside that business, plus any goods and services produced for own final use.
A petajoule is equal to one million gigajoules, or 1015 joules. Petajoules are typically used to measure national or industry energy production and consumption. The energy supply and use data present in this publication are in petajoules (PJ).
Naturally occurring hydrocarbon or mixture of hydrocarbons as oil or gas, or in solution, found in sedimentary rocks.
Physical Supply and Use Tables
A record of physical flows through the compilation of supply and use tables.
A gaseous hydrocarbon. When exposed to higher pressures or lower temperatures it can be converted to liquid form, and is a component of LPG.
Includes products derived from crude oil and other refinery feedstock e.g. automotive gasoline and diesel, aviation gasoline and turbine fuel, kerosene and heating oil, industrial diesel and fuel oil, naphtha and petroleum coke used as fuel.
A concentration of naturally occurring solid, liquid, or gaseous materials in or on the earth’s crust and in such form that its economic extraction is presently or potentially feasible. The definition does not intend to imply that exploitation of any such material will take place in that time span, but only that its possibility might reasonably be considered.
The System of Environmental and Economic Accounting. It is a framework used to develop environmental accounts by integrating environmental information into an accounting framework. The SEEA 2012 handbook provides the conceptual basis for developing a framework to describe the inter-relationship between the natural environment and the economy. See also Environmental account.
Solar energy in the Energy Account Australia refers to solar energy used for electricity generation (by photovoltaic conversion or solar thermal generation) and solar energy used to heat water in solar hot water systems.
The changes in energy consumption resulting from a change in the mix of industrial output; for example, a contraction in energy intensive sectors.
A subdivision is a sub-industry within the ANZSIC classification of Australian industries. ANZSIC Subdivisions generally reflect distinct production processes related to material inputs, production equipment and employee skills. For example, Coal mining is a subdivision within the Mining division.
An accounting framework utilising the basic principle that the total supply of a product is equal to its total use.
System of National Accounts
The System of National Accounts (SNA) is an international framework which can be used to develop a comprehensive, consistent and flexible set of macroeconomic accounts.
Australian production plus imports.
A heavy, radioactive metallic element, used as a source of nuclear energy.
The conversion of wind energy into electricity using wind turbines.
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