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1 This publication presents national crime statistics relating to victims of a selected range of offences that have been recorded by police. These offences may have been reported by a victim, witness or other person, or they may have been detected by police. The statistics do not provide a total picture of crime, as not all crime comes to the attention of the police, nor are all incidents reported to police recorded as crimes.
20 In 2001, data was revised in all states and territories with the exception of New South Wales and South Australia, who were unable to supply revised figures. Data errors, processing time frames, extraction revisions as well as other processing, editing and general update procedures are all possible causes of revision. In 2001, rates were also revised in all states and territories (see paragraph 22).
21 2000 data was revised in Queensland, for the offence categories unlawful entry with intent involving the taking of property and total unlawful entry with intent.
22 For all the national offence categories, rates are presented per 100,000 of the Estimated Resident Population (ERP) for each of the states and territories (refer Australian Demographic Statistics, June Quarter 2002 (cat. no. 3101.0)). As the population changes over time, the denominator used for the calculation of rates will vary, depending on the reference period. The ERP for the midpoint of each reference period is used to calculate the rates. Yearly rates for the period 1 January to 31 December 2002 have been calculated on the basis of the preliminary June 2002 ERP, while yearly rates for the period 1 January to 31 December 2001 have been recalculated based on final June 2001 ERP estimates.
23 Results of the 2001 Census of Population and Housing are used to benchmark the ERP data for 2001 and 2002. ERP estimates for 1996-2000 are benchmarked on the 1996 Census of Population and Housing and ERP estimates for 1993-1995 are benchmarked on the 1991 Census of Population and Housing. It is not anticipated that the different benchmarks will have a noticeable impact on the victimisation rates at the national and state and territory levels.
24 Rates enable comparisons of national offence categories to be made across the states and territories. Rates expressed per 100,000 persons generally accord with international and state and territory practice.
25 The risk of victimisation varies depending on the age and sex of the victim. These statistics include details of the age and sex of the victim, and age and sex specific victimisation rates have been included. These are calculated using estimates of the age and sex breakdown of the population. For offence categories such as robbery and blackmail/extortion, where the victim may be a person or an organisation, victimisation rates have been provided for person victims only for the age and sex breakdown in table 3.
26 With the implementation of the ASOC beginning with Recorded Crime, Australia, 1999 (cat. no. 4510.0), data have been presented at the national offence category level (refer to Glossary), without further disaggregation to the ASOC Group level.
27 The statistics in the national crime statistics collection measure the number of victims per national offence category for offences recorded by police during the reference period. The national counting rule is that each victim within a distinct criminal incident is counted once to the most serious offence within each national offence category. The most serious offence within the national offence category is the one with the lowest ASOC code. For example, Murder (0111) is a more serious offence than Manslaughter (0131).
Counting within a national offence category
28 For criminal incidents involving homicide and related offences, assault, sexual assault or kidnapping/abduction offences, one victim is counted within each national offence category. For example, if a person is indecently assaulted (one form of sexual assault) and then raped (another form of sexual assault), only one victim of sexual assault is counted.
29 Where a victim is subjected to multiple offences of the same type within a distinct criminal incident (e.g. in the case of assault this may be due to attacks by several offenders or being repeatedly assaulted by the same offender) the victim is counted only once. Similarly, the victim is also counted once where multiple offences of the same type (e.g. long-term abuse) occur to the same victim repeatedly over a period of time. However, if the victim reports the offences to police at different times, then a count is made for each separate report.
30 For each criminal incident involving the national offence category of robbery, one victim is counted for each person/organisation victimised. For example, if a bank with several customers present is robbed, this is counted as one robbery with the victim being the bank. If personal property is also taken from two customers, there are three victims, the bank and the two customers, hence the number of robberies counted is three.
31 For each criminal incident involving the national offence category of blackmail/extortion, one victim is counted for each person/organisation victimised.
32 For each criminal incident involving the national offence category of UEWI, one victim is counted for each place/premise victimised. A place/premise can consist of either a single structure (e.g. house), part of a single structure (e.g. flat) or multiple structures (e.g. farmstead with house, barns and sheds). The same property containing the same structure(s) can be counted differently depending on the occupancy arrangements at the time. The following guidelines relate to the counting of UEWI offences.
33 For each criminal incident involving the national offence category of motor vehicle theft, one victim is counted for each motor vehicle stolen. For example, if five cars are stolen from a car yard, this is counted as five motor vehicle thefts.
34 For each criminal incident involving the national offence category of other theft, one victim is counted for each person/organisation victimised.
Counting across national offence categories
35 If a victim is subjected to multiple offences belonging to different national offence categories during the same criminal incident, the victim is counted once under each category. For example, someone who has been kidnapped, raped and murdered, will be counted three times according to the national counting rule; once in the kidnapping/abduction offence category, once in the sexual assault offence category, and once in the homicide and related offences offence category.
36 Note that the national crime statistics do not measure:
DATA COMPARABILITY AND SIGNIFICANT EVENTS
37 National crime statistics are compiled in order to maximise comparability of statistics across jurisdictions. Although jurisdictional differences have been mainly overcome through the introduction of national standards, some legislative, interpretive and processing differences inevitably remain. As part of its quality assurance program the ABS, in conjunction with statistical staff of each state and territory police force, have identified data comparability issues and significant events relating to the 2002 reference period. In addition, the ABS is undertaking a project to investigate the differences in recorded crime statistics between state and territory police agencies.
Relationship of offender to victim
38 Data based on relationship of offender to victim are unavailable for New South Wales in 2002 due to incomplete data coverage (see paragraph 39). At the state and territory level, there are a substantial number of victims for whom the relationship of the offender to the victim could not be determined for some offence categories. Consequently, the tables are restricted to the offence categories for which relationship of offender to victim information is sufficiently reliable to publish. For the offence category sexual assault, Queensland data has not been published due to a high proportion of victims for whom the relationship of the offender to the victim was unknown.
New South Wales
39 Prior to 2002, New South Wales manually extracted from their recording system relationship of offender to victim information. In late July 2002, New South Wales commenced recording relationship of offender to victim data for all personal crimes. Data are therefore only available for the last five months of 2002. As data for this period do not appear to be representative of the whole year, it is not possible to publish New South Wales relationship of offender to victim data for the 2002 reference year.
40 In July 2002, structural changes within the New South Wales Police force resulted in the reformation of specialist squads to address specific incident types including armed holdups and motor vehicle theft. During 2002, there has been a reduction in the number of armed robbery and motor vehicle theft offences in New South Wales.
41 In 2002, Operation Viking in New South Wales combined saturation patrolling and other high visibility police patrols to target identified trouble spots.
42 In July 2002, the New South Wales Bail Amendment (Repeat Offenders) Act 2002 extended the provision to refuse bail to repeat offenders.
43 The Embona Taskforce in Victoria has continued to target armed robbery offences in 2002. During 2002, there has been a reduction in the number of armed robbery offences in Victoria.
44 In July 2002 a management framework was introduced within the Victorian Police force to specifically target volume crime including motor vehicle theft, domestic violence, criminal damage, burglary and other theft. During 2002, the number of victims within the offence categories unlawful entry with intent, motor vehicle theft and other theft have decreased.
45 Tactical crime squads have been established in a number of regions in Queensland to target 'hot spot' areas to reduce drug, property crime and street offences. The crimes of motor vehicle theft, robbery and unlawful entry with intent have all decreased during 2002.
46 Operation Counteract by South Australia police has targeted armed robbery incidents in 2002. During 2002 there has been a decline in the number of armed robbery offences.
47 In Tasmania, the recording of the local offence Assault/Resist/Obstruct Police (nonaggravated assault) continued to increase in 2002. This is the result of new business processes introduced to support the Forensic Procedures Act 2000 which enables Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) and other samples to be taken from offenders charged with 'serious offences'. Previously not all Assault/Resist/Obstruct Police offences were entered into the Offence Reporting system.
48 A review of local offences codes by Northern Territory Police during 2002 identified that theft of motor vehicle parts or contents offences (ASOC code 0813) and some theft (except motor vehicles) n.e.c. (ASOC code 0829) had been incorrectly included in the motor vehicle theft offence category. These offences however, were also correctly coded to the other theft offence category.
49 In the Northern Territory, a public campaign and police strategy of targeting repeat offenders was introduced in the latter half of 2002. Since the introduction of the campaign and police strategy, the number of UEWI offences has declined.
Australian Capital Territory
50 Operation Halite, implemented by the Australian Capital Territory Police force, commenced in October 2002. It targeted the progressive re-emergence of burglary and related offences. Since the introduction of Operation Halite there has been a decrease in burglary and motor vehicle theft offences.
51 A standard set of additional tables containing state and territory wafers of the tables in this publication, as well as a financial year table for 2001- 02, is available. Special tabulations can be produced on request to meet individual user requirements. For further information, contact the National Centre for Crime and Justice Statistics (NCCJS) by email through firstname.lastname@example.org.
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