4156.0 - Sports and Physical Recreation: A Statistical Overview, Australia, 2009  
ARCHIVED ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 23/10/2009   
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Includes callisthenics, gymnasium work, exercise bike, circuits.

Air sports

Includes parachuting, gliding, hang-gliding, model aircraft.


Attendance at a sporting event, match or competition as a spectator, irrespective of whether an admission fee is paid.

Attendance rate

For any group, the number of persons who attended a sporting event at least once during the year, expressed as a percentage of the total population of that group.

Australian Culture and Leisure Classifications (ACLC)

The ACLC, 2008 (Second Edition) (cat. no. 4902.0) consists of three classifications; Industry, Product, and Occupation Classifications. The categories used for the presentation of data in this publication are those which closely align with one or more of the sports and physical recreation classes from the relevant classification within the ACLC. For example, the categories used to present industry data are those which closely align with classes in the ACLC Industry Classification Division 3, Sports and Physical Recreation.


Includes indoor and outdoor.

Capital city

The six state capital city statistical divisions. The Darwin Statistical Division and the Canberra Statistical Division are excluded.

Casual employees

Casual employees usually receive a higher rate of pay, to compensate for lack of permanency and leave entitlements.

Club or association

Includes work social club, community club, church group, old scholars association.

Country of birth

Classified according to the Standard Australian Classification of Countries (SACC), Second Edition (cat. no. 1269.0).


Includes BMX and mountain bikes.


All persons aged 15 years and over who, during the reference week:

  • worked for one hour or more for pay, profit, commission or payment in kind in a job or business, or on a farm (comprising employees, employers and own account workers); or
  • worked for one hour or more without pay in a family business or on a farm (i.e. contributing family workers); or
  • were employees who had a job but were not at work and were:
      • away from work for less than four weeks up to the end of the reference week; or
      • away from work for more than four weeks up to the end of the reference week and received pay for some or all of the four week period to the end of the reference week; or
      • away from work as a standard work or shift arrangement; or
      • on strike or locked out; or
      • on workers' compensation and expected to return to their job; or
  • were employers or own account workers, who had a job, business or farm, but were not at work.

Employment at end June

Working proprietors and partners, and employees (including working directors) working for the business during the last pay period ending in June. It excludes volunteers and subcontracted workers.

Exercise level

Based on frequency, intensity (i.e. walking, moderate exercise and vigorous exercise) and duration of exercise (for recreation, sport or fitness) in the 2 weeks prior to interview. From these components, an exercise score was derived using factors to represent the intensity of the exercise. Scores were grouped for output as follows:
  • Sedentary - Less than 100 minutes (includes no exercise);
  • Low - 100 minutes to less than 1,600 minutes of exercise;
  • Moderate - 1,600 to 3,200 minutes of exercise, or more than 3200 minutes but less than 2 hours of vigorous exercise;
  • High - More than 3,200 minutes of exercise and 2 hours or more of vigorous exercise.

Full-time employees

Employees who normally work the agreed or award hours for a full-time employee in their occupation. If agreed or award hours do not apply, employees are regarded as full-time if they usually work 35 hours or more per week.

Generalised trust

Generalised trust refers to trust that individuals have toward other people in general.


Includes trampolining.


Excludes indoor hockey, ice hockey.

Horse riding

Includes equestrian, rodeo, polo, polocrosse.


A group of people who usually reside and eat together. This may be:
  • a one person household, that is, a person who makes provision for his or her own food or other essentials for living without combining with any other person; or
  • a multi-person household, that is, a group of two or more persons, living within the same dwelling, who make common provision for food or other essentials for living.

Household expenditure

The cost of goods and services acquired during the reference period for private use, whether or not those goods were paid for or consumed. For example, goods purchased by credit card are counted as expenditure at the time they were acquired rather than at the time the credit card bill was paid.

Expenditure is net of refunds or expected refunds. For example, payments for health services are net of any refunds received or expected to be received. Similarly, gambling wins are offset against gambling outlays to show net gambling expenditure.

Household Expenditure Survey

A survey, conducted at approximately five-yearly intervals, which records the expenditure of households rather than individuals because some expenditures (e.g. on domestic inground swimming pools, caravans, boats) are usually for the benefit of everyone in the household and therefore cannot be attributed in a meaningful way to any particular person in the household.

Information about most types of expenditure is obtained from a diary maintained by all persons aged 15 years and over in households selected in the sample. Some infrequent items of expenditure are collected on a 'recall' or 'last payment' basis' the length of the recall period ranging from two years for house purchases to three months for health expenses.

A household's expenditure on sports, physical recreation and other leisure can be affected by many things including:
  • the size of the household - the more people a household contains, the larger the expenditure is likely to be
  • the location of the household
  • the income of the household - expenditure on many goods and services increases as income increases
  • the composition of the household - the age and sex of household members and their relationships within the household will impact on their interests and spending habits.

Ice/snow sports

Include ice hockey, ice skating, snow skiing.


Involvement in sport or physical activity in either a playing role, or a non-playing role such as coach, umpire or administrator.

Labour costs

Include wages and salaries, employer contributions to superannuation funds, workers' compensation costs, payroll tax and fringe benefits tax. Exclude payments to self-employed persons such as consultants, contractors and persons paid solely by commission without a retainer; and payments to proprietors and partners of unincorporated businesses.

Main English speaking countries

Comprise United Kingdom, Ireland, New Zealand, Canada, United States of America, and South Africa.

Martial arts

Include Taekwondo, Aikido, judo, karate, kickboxing.

Motor sports

Include car and motor cycle racing and rallying; and speedway, drag and go-kart events.


Includes indoor and outdoor netball.

Net takings

Gross takings less payments of prize money and winnings.

Not-for-profit organisations

Organisations not permitted to be a source of income, profit or other financial gain for the units that establish, control or finance them.

Operating profit before tax

A measure of the level of profit achieved prior to extraordinary items being brought to account, income tax being deducted and dividends being paid. It is derived as total income minus total expenses plus closing inventories minus opening inventories.

Organised sports and physical activities

Sports and physical activities which were organised by a club, association or school. The club or association need not be sporting body. It may be a work social club, church group or old scholars association. Physical activity such as aerobics and other exercise sessions organised by fitness centres or gymnasia are also included.

Paid involvement

Persons were classed as being paid for involvement in sport or physical activity in a particular role if they received any payment at all for that involvement. If a person undertook more than one role, payment had to be received for each role for all involvements to be classed as paid.


Persons playing a sport or undertaking physical activity. Persons involved only in non-playing roles such as coach, umpire or administrator are excluded.

Participation rate

For any group, the number of persons involved (either as participants or otherwise) in sports or physical activities, expressed as a percentage of the total population of that group.

Part-time employees

Employees who normally work less than the agreed or award hours for a full-time employee in their occupation. If agreed or award hours do not apply, employees are regarded as part-time if they usually work less than 35 hours per week.

SAR of China

Special Administrative Region of China.

Shooting sports

Include pistol and rifle shooting, hunting, and paintball.


Excludes indoor soccer.

Social capital

Networks, together with shared norms, values and understandings which facilitate cooperation within and among groups (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) 2001).

Sports hospitality clubs

Clubs which obtained the largest portion of their income from the provision of hospitality services, but identified themselves as being sports or physical recreation clubs

Surf sports

Include surfing and windsurfing. Exclude surf-lifesaving.


Includes indoor and outdoor tennis.


Persons aged 15 years and over who were not employed during the reference week, and:
  • had actively looked for full-time or part-time work at any time in the four weeks up to the end of the reference week and were available for work in the reference week; or
  • were waiting to start a new job within four weeks from the end of the reference week and could have started in the reference week if the job had been available then.


Includes indoor and outdoor volleyball.

Volunteer rate

For any group, the number of volunteers, expressed as a percentage of the total population of that group.


Persons who willingly gave unpaid help in the form of time, service or skills, to assist an organisation or group. The reimbursement of expenses and the bestowing of small gifts are not regarded as payment for services rendered. Hence, persons who received these (and nothing else) are still treated as volunteers.


Includes jet skiing.

Weekly ordinary time cash earnings

Weekly earnings of employees which are attributable to award, standard or agreed hours of work, including allowances, penalty payments, payments by measured result and regular bonuses and commissions. Amounts salary sacrificed are also included. Excluded are non-cash components of salary packages, overtime payments, retrospective pay, pay in advance, leave loadings, severance pay, and termination and redundancy payments.

Weekly total cash earnings

Weekly total cash earnings of employees is regular wages and salaries in cash and is equal to weekly ordinary time cash earnings plus weekly overtime cash earnings.