1367.2 - State and Regional Indicators, Victoria, Jun 2010  
ARCHIVED ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 20/08/2010   
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Chain volume measures

Annually-reweighted chain Laspeyres volume price indexes referenced to the current price values in a chosen reference year (i.e. the year when the quarterly chain volume measures sum to the current price annual values). Chain Laspeyres volume measures are compiled by linking together (compounding) movements in volumes, calculated using the average prices of the previous financial year, and applying the compounded movements to the current price estimates of the reference year.

Generally, chain volume measures are not additive. In other words, component chain volume measures do not sum to a total in the way original current price components do. In order to minimize the impact of this property, the ABS uses the latest base year as the reference year. By adopting this approach, additivity exists for the period following the reference year and non-additivity is relatively small for the years immediately preceding. A change in reference year changes levels but not growth rates, although some revision to recent growth rates can be expected because of the introduction of a more recent base year (and revisions to the current price estimates underlying the chain volume measures).

Deficit and surplus

A deficit occurs when the sum of all debit entries exceeds the sum of all credit entries, and a surplus occurs when the sum of all credit entries exceeds the sum of all debit entries. The term deficit (or surplus) can therefore be used in relation to various balances, e.g. balance of trade.

Duration of unemployment

The elapsed period to the end of the reference week since a person began looking for work, or since a person last worked for two weeks or more, whichever is the shorter. Brief periods of work (of less than two weeks) since the person began looking for work are disregarded.


Persons aged 15 years and over who, during the reference week:

  • worked for one hour or more for pay, profit, commission or payment in kind, in a job or business or on a farm (comprising employees, employers and own account workers);
  • worked for one hour or more without pay in a family business or on a farm (i.e. contributing family workers);
  • were employees who had a job but were not at work and were:
      • away from work for less than four weeks up to the end of the reference week;
      • away from work for more than four weeks up to the end of the reference week and received pay for some or all of the four week period to the end of the reference week;
      • away from work as a standard work or shift arrangement;
      • on strike or locked out;
      • on workers' compensation and expected to return to their job;
  • were employers or own account workers who had a job, business or farm, but were not at work.

Liquid crystal display (LCD)

Liquid crystal display is display technology that uses rod-shaped molecules (liquid crystals) that flow like liquid and bend light.

Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)

Liquefied petroleum gas (LP Gas or autogas) is the generic name for mixtures of hydrocarbon (mainly propane and butane). It is used as a fuel in heating appliances and vehicles, and increasingly replacing chlorofluorocarbons as an aerosol propellant and a refrigerant to reduce damage to the ozone layer.

Part-time workers

Employed persons who usually worked less than 35 hours a week (in all jobs) and either did so during the reference week, or were not at work in the reference week.

Particles as PM10

Particles with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 micrometres or less.

Photochemical oxidants and ozone

'Photochemical oxidants' is the technical term for the type of smog found in Australian cities during the warmer months of the year. This type of smog can be invisible or it can appear as a whitish haze.

Photochemical oxidants are formed when sunlight falls on a mixture of chemicals in the air. Ozone is one of the main photochemical oxidants. Other chemicals such as formaldehyde are also found and, like ozone, have adverse health effects. Environment agencies measure the level of ozone because it indicates the total amount of photochemical oxidants in the air. Cities that have abundant sunshine over periods of time, together with moderate winds and high temperatures, are most likely to experience high levels of photochemical oxidants.

Ozone is a gas that is formed when nitrogen oxides react with a group of air pollutants known as 'reactive organic substances' in the presence of sunlight. The chemicals that react to form ozone come from sources such as: motor vehicle exhaust, oil refining, printing, petrochemicals, lawn mowing, aviation, bushfires and burning off. Motor vehicle exhaust fumes produce as much as 70% of the nitrogen oxides and 50% of the organic chemicals that form ozone. (Source: Australian Government Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, <http://www.environment.gov.au>)


Re-exports are defined as goods, materials or articles originally imported into Australia which are exported in either the same condition in which they were imported, or after undergoing some minor operations (e.g. blending, packaging, bottling, cleaning and sorting) which leave them essentially unchanged. Included in international merchandise export statistics.

Seasonal adjustment

A means of removing the estimated effects of normal seasonal variations from economic time series so that the effects of other influences are obvious. Seasonal variations are the systematic (though not necessarily regular) intra-year movements of economic time series. These are often the result of non-economic phenomena, such as climatic changes and regular religious festivals (e.g. Christmas and Easter).

State final demand

Conceptually identical to domestic final demand at the national level (the sum of private and government final consumption expenditure and private and public gross fixed capital formation).

National estimates are based on the concepts and conventions embodied in the System of National Accounts, 1993, but for regional (including state) estimates there is no separate international standard. Although national concepts are generally applicable to state accounts, there remain several conceptual and measurement issues that either do not apply or are insignificant nationally. Most of the problems arise in the measurement of gross state product for the transport and storage, communication services, and finance and insurance industries, where production often takes place across state borders. In these cases, a number of conceptual views can be applied to the allocation of value added by state. For more information, see chapter 28 of Australian System of National Accounts: Concepts, Sources and Methods (cat. no. 5216.0).

Trend estimates

Smoothing seasonally adjusted series produces a measure of trend by removing the impact of the irregular component of the series. The trend estimates are derived by applying a 13-term Henderson weighted moving average to the respective seasonally adjusted series. Readers are reminded that trend estimates are subject to revision as subsequent months' data become available.


Persons aged 15 years and over who were not employed during the reference week, and:
  • had actively looked for full-time or part-time work at any time in the four weeks up to the end of the reference week and:
      • were available for work in the reference week;
      • were waiting to start a new job within four weeks from the end of the reference week, and could have started in the reference week if the job had been available then.