4125.0 - Gender Indicators, Australia, Nov 2019  
Latest ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 01/11/2019   
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SAFETY AND JUSTICE

KEY FINDINGS

The key findings for Safety and Justice are:

    1. In 2018, the number of recorded incidences of female victims of sexual assault increased and was more than five times higher than males.
    2. In 2017–18, illicit drug offences continued as the leading principal offence for females, while for males illicit drug offences and acts intended to cause injury remained the two leading principal offences.


DATA

The detailed data supporting the following insights are available from the Downloads tab of this publication:
    • Data Cube 12: Safety and Justice.


INSIGHTS

Experiences of crime

Experience of physical or threatened assault or violence

This section presents information from Crime Victimisation, Australia, 2017–18 (cat. no. 4530.0).

During the 2017–18 reference period men were more likely than women to have experienced threatened physical assault (3.2% males compared to 2.4% females) and face-to-face threatened assault (3.0% males compared to 2.1% females).

In the 2017–18 reference period, 4.4% of females and 5.2% of males aged 15 years and over had experienced physical assault or threatened assault (435,800 women and 494,500 men). Since 2008-09, this has decreased for both females (5.1% in 2008–09) and males (7.5% in 2008-09). See Data Cube 12, Table 12.5.


Experienced physical or threatened physical assault in the last 12 months(a), 15 years and over, by sex, 2008-09 to 2017-2018
Graphs shows experienced physical or threatened physical assault in the last 12 months, 15 years and over, by sex, 2008-09 to 2017-2018
Footnote(s): (a) ABS analysis has shown that there are insufficient reference periods at this point in time to accurately conduct time series analysis. It is recommended that changes in victimisation rates be analysed by comparing whether there is a statistically significant movement from a base year (e.g. 2008–09) to the current year (2017–18).
Source(s): Crime Victimisation, Australia, 2017-18 (cat. no. 4530.0)


Victimisation rates

Sexual assault

This section presents information from Recorded Crime - Victims, Australia, 2018 (cat. no. 4510.0).

In 2018, the number of recorded incidences of female victims of sexual assault was more than five times higher than males, with 175.5 per 100,000 females compared with 33.1 per 100,000 males.

These rates have increased for women this decade (143.8 per 100,000 females in 2010). The rates have also slightly increased for males over the same period (26.1 per 100,000 males in 2010). There was a peak in 2017 of 37.1 males per 100,000. Detailed data are available in Data Cube 12, Table 12.8.


Recorded rates of persons who experienced sexual assault, by sex, 2010-2018
Graphs shows recorded rates of persons who experienced sexual assault, by sex, 2010-2018
Source(s): Recorded Crime - Victims, Australia, 2018 (cat. no. 4510.0)


Robbery

This section presents information from Recorded Crime - Victims, Australia, 2018 (cat. no. 4510.0).

In 2018, males 15 years and older were more likely to have a recorded incidence of being robbed than females.

Recorded robbery rates declined between 2010 and 2018:
    • 86.6 per 100,000 males in 2010 to 53.5 per 100,000 males in 2018
    • 27.3 per 100,000 females in 2010 to 18.1 per 100,000 females in 2018.

Males were also twice as likely as females to have a recorded incidence of being blackmailed. See Data Cube 12, Table 12.8.

Reporting rates of physical or threatened assault or violence (whether told police about experience of selected personal crimes)

This section presents information from Crime Victimisation, Australia, 2017-18 (cat. no. 4530.0).

In 2017–18, men and women who had experienced an assault were more likely to have reported their most recent physical assault to police than a face-to-face threatened assault. The reporting rates were:
    • Men had reported 52.4% of physical assaults and 33.7% of face-to-face threatened assaults
    • Women had reported 52.2% of physical assaults and 45.7% of face-to-face threatened assaults.

Women (85.9%) were also more likely than men (49.4%) to have reported their most recent incident of robbery in the last 12 months to police. See Data Cube 12, Table 12.7.


Imprisonment

This section presents information from Prisoners in Australia, 2018 (cat. no. 4517.0).

Imprisonment rates

At 30 June 2018, there were 3,600 women and 39,300 men in Australian adult corrective services facilities. Imprisonment rates were highest for males aged 25–29.


Imprisonment rates, 18 years and over, by sex by age group, 2018
Graphs shows imprisonment rates, 18 years and over, by sex by age group, 2018
Source(s): Prisoners in Australia, 2018 (cat. no. 4517.0)


Between 30 June 2008 and 30 June 2018, the imprisonment rate increased or remained the same for all age and sex cohorts except 19 year old and 20-24 year old males who experienced a slight decrease in imprisonment rates (see Data Cube 12, Table 12.9). The median sentence length has remained relatively steady for both females and males over the past decade, with females having lower sentence lengths at 24.0 months in 2018 compared to 37.1 months for males in 2018 (see Data Cube 12, Table 12.12).

In 2018, the median sentence length was longer for non-Indigenous male sentenced prisoners (45 months) than Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander male sentenced prisoners (26 months). Similarly the median sentence length was also longer for non-Indigenous female sentenced prisoners (30 months) than Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander female sentenced prisoners (18 months). See Data Cube 12, Table 12.13.

Sentenced prisoners

At 30 June 2018, there were 2,300 female and 26,800 male sentenced prisoners in Australia. Sentenced prisoners made up 68% of prisoners, with the remainder being unsentenced. Unsentenced prisoners are confined to custody or remand while awaiting the outcome of their trial. For further information on unsentenced prisoners see Prisoners in Australia, 2018 (cat. no. 4517.0).

For sentenced prisoners, the most common serious offences for men and women were:
    • Women: illicit drug offences (22.6%) and acts intended to cause injury (14.7%)
    • Men: acts intended to cause injury (18.5%) and sexual assault and related offences (14.6%).

Females are more likely to have been sentenced for Illicit drug offences (22.6% females compared with 14.3% of male sentenced prisoners). Males were more likely to have been sentenced for sexual assault and related offences (14.6% compared with 1.7% of female sentenced prisoners). See Data Cube 12, Table 12.11.

In 2018, imprisonment rates were higher for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander males (3,984.4 per 100,000 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander males) than non-Indigenous males (322.2 per 100,000 non-Indigenous males). Imprisonment rates were also higher for Aboriginal and Torres females (459.9 per 100,000 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander females) in 2018 than non-Indigenous females (26.8 per 100,000 non-Indigenous females). See Data Cube 12, Table 12.10.

Offenders

This section presents information from Recorded Crime - Offenders, 2017-18 (cat. no. 4519.0).

Offenders are defined as people aged 10 years and over who police have taken legal action against for one or more criminal offences.

The most common principal offences (that is, the most serious offence for which a person has been proceeded against by police during the reference period) for both females and males were:
    • Acts intended to cause injury
    • Illicit drug offences
    • Theft and related offences.

The male offender rate for acts intended to cause injury was more than three times that recorded for females in 2018 (571 per 100,00 males compared with 160 per 100,000 females).

The leading principal offence for females has changed in the last ten years. In 2008-09, theft and related offences was the leading principal offence for females. However, illicit drug offences has emerged as the leading principal offence for females since 2014-15.

In 2017-18, the leading principal offences for females were:
    1. Illicit drug offences (174.3 per 100,000 females)
    2. Acts intended to cause injury (159.7 per 100,000 females)
    3. Theft and related offences (159.2 per 100,000 females)
    4. Offences against justice (51.3 per 100,000 females).


Female offender rate by principal offence, aged 10 years and over, 2008-09 to 2017–18
Graphs shows female offender rate by principal offence, aged 10 years and over, 2008-09 to 2017-18
Source(s): Recorded Crime - Offenders, 2017-18 (cat. no. 4519.0)


Over the last ten years, illicit drug offences and acts intended to cause injury have remained the leading principal offences for males.

In 2017-18, the leading principal offences for males were:
  1. Acts intended to cause injury (571.2 per 100,000 males)
  2. Illicit drug offences (553.8 per 100,000 males)
  3. Theft and related offences (227.3 per 100,000 males)
  4. Offences against justice (194.8 per 100,000 males).


Male offender rate by principal offence, aged 10 years and over, 2008-09 to 2017–18
Graphs shows male offender rate by principal offence, aged 10 years and over, 2008-09 to 2017-18
Source(s): Recorded Crime - Offenders, 2017-18 (cat. no. 4519.0)


No new data is available for the below topic. For analytical commentary on these topics please refer to previous versions of this publication, which can be found in the Past & Future Releases tab.
    • Experience of crimes: sexual harassment.