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SUMMARY OF FINDINGS
ALL EMPLOYED PERSONS
Employed males were more likely than females to be independent contractors (12% compared to 5%) or other business operators (10% compared to 8%). As a result, employed women were more likely to be employees (88% compared to 78% for males).
Younger persons were most likely to be employees rather than independent contractors or other business operators. As age increases, generally the proportion of employees decreases, while the proportion of independent contractors and other business operators increase. However, being an employee was the most common form of employment for employed persons for all age ranges. For example:
Of the 9.6 million persons who were employees, 51% were male. Of the 7.3 million employees with paid leave entitlements, 53% were male (Table 1). Nearly four out of five (79%) male employees had paid leave entitlements, compared to almost three out of four female employees (74%) (Table 7).
The largest proportion of employees worked in the Health care and social assistance industry (13%). This industry also employed the highest proportion of female employees (22%), compared with only 5% of male employees working in this industry. Other industries employing a higher proportion of female employees include Retail trade (14%) and Education and training (13%).
Of all male employees, the highest proportion worked in Manufacturing industry (12%) followed by Construction industry (11%). In contrast, of all female employees 5% and 2% worked in these industries respectively.
The industry with the highest proportion of male and female employees without paid leave entitlements was Accommodation and food services (60% and 68% respectively). Female employees made up 57% of employees working in this industry.
Male employees were most likely to be in the occupation of Technicians and trades workers (22%), and Professionals (19%). In contrast half of all female employees were concentrated in two occupations - Professionals (26%) and Clerical and administrative workers (24%).
For both male and female employees, the occupation with the highest proportion of paid leave entitlements was Managers (93%). This was followed by Professionals for both males and females (91% and 89% respectively).
The occupation with the highest proportion of employees without leave entitlements was Labourers (48%). This was also the occupation with the highest proportion of male employees working without leave entitlements (46%). By comparison, for female employees it was the occupation of Sales workers (53%) followed by Labourers (52%).
An estimated 6.6 million (69%) employees worked full-time in their main job. Most employees who worked full-time in their main job had paid leave entitlements (90%). By comparison, of the 2.9 million part-time employees, less than half (47%) had paid leave entitlements.
Other employment characteristics
Other characteristics of employees in November 2013 included:
There were 986,000 persons who were independent contractors in their main job in November 2013. Independent contractors made up 9% of all employed people, and three quarters (75%) of all independent contractors were males. More than half (53%) of the independent contractors were aged 45 years and over compared to 35% of employees in this age group.
Almost half (47%) of all independent contractors worked 40 hours or more in their main job in the week before they were interviewed, with almost a quarter of them (24%) working 49 hours or more. In comparison 37% of all employees reported working 40 hours or more (12% reporting 49 hours or more) in their main job in the week before they were interviewed.
Male independent contractors were more likely to have worked longer hours than female independent contractors. For example, 28% of male independent contractors worked 49 hours or more in their main job in the week before interview, compared with 10% of female independent contractors. This was higher than for employees (17% of males and 6% of females).
Of all independent contractors, the highest proportion worked in the Construction industry (31%) followed by the Professional, scientific and technical services industry (15%). These industries were also employing the highest proportion of male independent contractors (39% and 13% respectively). Of all female independent contractors, the highest proportion worked in the Professional, scientific and technical services industry (20%) followed by Health care and social assistance industry (16%).
The highest proportion of independent contractors worked as Technicians and trades workers (30%) and Professionals (23%). These occupations also employed the highest proportions of male independent contractors (37% and 20% respectively). In contrast, of all female independent contractors, the highest proportion were Professionals (34%), followed by Clerical and administrative workers (20%).
Other employment characteristics
Three-quarters (75%) of independent contractors were usually able to work on more than one active contract at a time, however, under half (47%) of all independent contractors had more than one active contract in the week before interview (Table 10).
Other characteristics of independent contractors in November 2013 included:
OTHER BUSINESS OPERATORS
There were just over 1 million other business operators in November 2013 or 9% of employed persons, of whom 60% were male. There has been a steady decline in the number of other business operators from November 2010 (Table1).
Almost half (46%) of those employed in Agriculture, forestry and fishing industry were other business operators. This industry employed 15% of all other business operators. For male other business operators, the industry that employed the highest proportion was Agriculture, forestry and fishing industry (16%) and for female other business operators, the industry that employed the highest proportion was Retail trade (14%).
Of all other business operators, the highest proportion worked in the occupation of Managers (46% and 36% of males and females respectively) (Table 4). This is in line with the definition of other business operators - that they operate their own business and generally generate their income from managing their staff or selling goods or services to the public.
Over a quarter of all managers were other business operators (29% of males and 28% of females) (Table 4).
Other employment characteristics
Other characteristics of other business operators in November 2013 included:
1 Excluding contributing family workers. Back to 1
2 See paragraph 19 of the Explanatory Notes for more information. Back to 2
3 See paragraph 19 of the Explanatory Notes for more information. Back to 3
4 See paragraph 19 of the Explanatory Notes for more information. Back to 4
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