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SUMMARY OF FINDINGS
(a) Includes 30,100 employees who were unable to state whether they were permanent or casual employees.
FORM OF EMPLOYMENT
In the survey, form of employment was classified into five categories: self-employed persons; permanent employees on a fixed term contract basis; permanent employees on some other basis; casual employees on a fixed term contract basis; and casual employees on some other basis.
Current form of employment
In October 1997, some 8.1% (100,300) of permanent employees were on a fixed term contract while 91.9% (1,145,000) were not employed on a fixed term contract basis. For casual employees a slightly different picture emerged where 10.6% (34,500) were employed on a fixed term contract basis compared with 89.4% (290,900) employed on some other basis. The industries with the highest proportion of employees with fixed term contracts were Education (26.1%), and Health and community services (21.1%).
The occupation with the highest proportion of permanent employees who were employed on a fixed term contract basis were Professionals (41.8%). Considerably smaller proportions of persons were employed on a fixed term contract basis for the next most significant occupations (14,5% for Intermediate clerical, sales and service workers and 14.2% for Associate professionals).
EMPLOYED PERSONS, Current form of employment
Reasons for this form of employment
Males (66.2%) were more likely than females (62.8%) to state that there current form of employment was their choice.
For part-time employees, there was a higher proportion of females than males who states that their current form of employment was their personal choice (62.4% compared to 59.4%)
Previous form of employment
During the five years to October 1997, some 26.4% (529,200) of employed persons had changed their form of employment at least once. Females were more likely than males to have changed their form of employment inn the five year period, the highest proportion (13.4% of males and 12.6% of females) had been permanently employed prior to the change.
TYPES OF PAYMENT
In October 1997, 77.2% (1,235,100) of employees received a wage or salary and 17.5% (297,700) were paid hourly or casual rates.
Reason for change in payment type
Of the 251,200 employees who had experienced a change in their type of payment in the five-year period, 58.6% (147,400) cited a change of job due to personal choice, 13.6% (34,200) cited a change of job as a result of redundancy or a closure of their place of employment, and 12.1% (30,500) cited changed conditions in the workplace as the main reasons. A higher proportion of males than females who had experienced a change in their type of payment in the five year period, had a change due to job change resulting from the redundancy or closure of their place of employment (15.6% compared to 11.5%).
The employment conditions for employees were classified into six categories: Award; Individual agreement; Collective agreement for that business; Collective agreement for the industry; other; and Not known employment conditions.
Current employment conditions
Some 48.1% (769,900) of employees worked under Award and 25.1% (401,400) under the Individual agreement employment conditions. Industries with the highest proportion of employees covered by Awards were Health and community services (63.2%) and Education (59.9%). Industries with the highest proportion of employees covered by Individual agreements were property and business services (50.8%) and Wholesale trade (33.8%)
Occupations with the highest proportion of employees with Award conditions were Intermediate production and transport workers (59.8%) and Tradespersons and related workers (57.1%), while Managers and administrators (64.1%) and Advanced clerical and service workers (34.8%) were the occupations with the highest proportion of employees covered by Individual agreements.
EMPLOYEES, CURRENT EMPLOYMENT CONDITIONS
Previous employment conditions
Some 19.6% of employees (313,200) had not been continuously covered by the same employment conditions in the five years to October 1997. There was a slightly higher proportion of male employees who had changed their employment conditions than females (20.5% compared to 18.5%). Of the employees who had a change in their employment conditions at least once, the majority (58.7% of males and 57.5% of females) had been working under Award conditions prior to the change.
Reason for change in employment conditions
Of the 313,200 employees who had changed their employment conditions during the five years to October 1997, 53.2% (166,700) cited a change of job due to personal choice and 18.7% (58,600) cited changed conditions in the workplace as the main reasons.
A higher proportion of females than males had changed their employment conditions during the five-year period due to changed conditions in the workplace (20.1% compared to 17.6%)
SELECTED WORKING ARRANGEMENTS
The majority of employed females (71.6%) and males (65.0%) preferred their current working hours, while 22.4% of males and 15.3% of females would have preferred a job in which they worked less hours.
At October 1997, 22.0% (352,300) of employees received fringe benefits. Male employees were more likely to have received fringe benefits than females (26.4% compared to 16.9%)
EMPLOYEES, SELECTED WORKING ARRANGEMENTS
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