6160.0 - Jobs in Australia, 2011-12 to 2016-17 Quality Declaration 
Latest ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 01/08/2019   
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Jobs in Victoria

Jobs in Australia statistics provide useful annual information about the number and nature of filled jobs in Australia, the people who hold them and their employers. The data is compiled from the recently developed Linked Employer Employee Dataset (LEED). The LEED includes more than 100 million tax records over six consecutive years between 2011-12 and 2016-17, and provides information for over 2,200 different regions (based on a person’s residence).

This feature article is based on the Victoria Greater Capital City Statistical Areas (the Greater Melbourne region, and the Rest of Victoria) (footnote 1).

The ABS would like to acknowledge the collaboration and support of the Northern Territory Department of Treasury and Finance in analysing the state and territory level statistics and developing the eight state and territory spotlights in this release.

The ABS also acknowledges the continuing support of the Australian Tax Office (ATO) in compiling these statistics and enabling unique insights into labour markets across Australia.

Number of employed persons and jobs

In 2016-17, around 2.6 million people in the Greater Melbourne region were employed at some point during the year, who worked across 3.7 million jobs (footnote 2). The number of employed people increased by 3.3% over the past 12 months, and increased by 9.7% over the previous six years. The number of jobs reflected similar results (up 5.1% and 12.4%, respectively) in the Greater Melbourne region.

Of the people employed, 2.2 million people (84.4%) were single job holders, while 413,400 people (15.6%) worked multiple jobs at the same time during 2016-17. This trend has been consistent over the past six years, with single job holders averaging 85.2% and multiple job holders averaging 14.8% in the Greater Melbourne region.

In comparison, there were 786,200 employed people in the Rest of Victoria during 2016-17, which represents an increase of 2.3% from the previous year, and 3.8% from 2011-12. These people worked across 1.1 million jobs during the year, which reflects a 4.1% increase from 2015-16 and a 5.2% increase from 2011-12 in the number of jobs.

The number of jobs was higher in the Greater Melbourne region compared to the Rest of Victoria (76.9% and 23.1% respectively), reflecting the demographic dynamics of the jurisdiction, that is, more people live and work in the capital city region. This proportion has been relative stable over the past six years.

In the Rest of Victoria, 656,300 people (83.5%) were single job holders, while 129,900 people (16.5%) worked multiple jobs at the same time during 2016-17. As in the Greater Melbourne region, the majority of people worked one job at a time during a year over the past six years. Over this period, single job holders averaged 85.2% whilst multiple job holders averaged 14.8%.

Graph 1: Number of jobs and employed persons, 2011-12 to 2016-17
Graph 1: Number of jobs and employed persons, 2011-12 to 2016-17


Across Australia, there were 13.5 million employed people in 2016-17 who worked across 19.2 million jobs during the year. The number of employed people has continued to grow at the national level over the time series (up 2.1% from 2015-16 and up 5.4% from 2011-12). This is also true for the number of jobs worked in Australia (up 3.6% from 2015-16 and up 6.4% from 2011-12).

Of the people employed across Australia, 84.4% of people were single job holders compared to 15.6% who held multiple jobs at the same time throughout 2016-17. This proportion has remained stable over the past six years, with single job holders averaging 85.0% and multiple job holders averaging 15.0%.

Jobs by gender

In the Greater Melbourne region, the number of jobs held by males increased by 5.3%, and the number of jobs held by females increased by 4.8% over the past 12 months. Similarly in the Rest of Victoria, the number of jobs held by both males and females grew (up 4.0% and 4.2% respectively) over the same period.

Compared to 2011-12, the number of jobs held by both males and females increased (up 11.6% and 13.2% respectively) in the Greater Melbourne region and in the Rest of Victoria (up 3.2% and 7.3% respectively). Nationally, the increase in the number of jobs was a result of growth in jobs by both males and females over the previous 12 months and six years. The growth rate in the number of jobs held by females was greater than males over the time series (7.9% and 5.1% respectively).

In both the Greater Melbourne and Rest of Victoria regions, the number of jobs held in 2016-17 was greater for males (51.6% and 48.4% of jobs, respectively) compared to females (50.8% and 49.2% of jobs, respectively). This was consistent at the national level, with males working across 52.0% of all jobs, compared to females, who worked across 48.0% of total jobs during 2016-17.

Jobs by age

In 2016-17, across the Greater Melbourne region, the highest number of jobs were held by people in the 25 to 29 year age group (557,400 jobs), with males in this age group holding a higher proportion of the jobs than females (51.3% and 48.7% respectively). These results were also consistent in the Rest of Victoria region, with males in this age group holding 52.1% of all jobs compared to 47.9% held by females. Over the past six years, this age group filled the most number of jobs in both the Victoria regions.

Graph 2: Number of jobs by age and region, 2016-17
Graph 2: Number of jobs by age and region, 2016-17

This was also consistent at the national level, with 2.6 million jobs held by people in this age group and males holding a slightly higher proportion of the jobs than females (52.2% and 47.8% respectively) during 2016-17. Similarly, this age group also held the highest number of jobs over the past six years across Australia.

Type of employment

Of the 3.7 million jobs in the Greater Melbourne region in 2016-17, 90.0% of them were employee jobs (footnote 3) and 10.0% were jobs worked by owner managers of unincorporated enterprises. In the Rest of Victoria, the majority of jobs worked were also employee jobs (86.5%) compared to jobs worked by owner managers of unincorporated enterprises (13.5%) over the same period. This development was also consistent at the national level, with 89.5% of all jobs being employee jobs, and only 10.5% being worked by owner managers of unincorporated enterprises. These proportions have been relative stable over the six years at both the Victoria and national level.

Median Income

The median income per job (footnote 4) in Greater Melbourne region was higher than in the Rest of Victoria ($43,800 and $36,700 respectively) in 2016-17. The median income per job grew by 11.7% in Greater Melbourne and 13.9% in the Rest of Victoria since 2011-12.

By gender, the male median income per job was higher than the female median in both regions consecutively throughout all six years of data. Since 2011-12, the male median income per job grew by 9.7% in Greater Melbourne and by 11.0% in the Rest of Victoria. Over the same period, the female median income per job increased by 14.2% in the Greater Melbourne region and by 18.8% in the Rest of Victoria.

Nationally, the median income per job was $43,200 in 2016-17, slightly higher than the Victoria median of $42,100. Similarly, the national median income per job for males was also higher than for females ($52,700 and $34,900 respectively) during 2016-17, as well as over the previous six years.

Graph 3: Median income by region, 2011-12 to 2016-17
Graph 3: Median income by region, 2011-12 to 2016-17

Industry

In the Greater Melbourne region, the five key industries that supplied the most jobs during 2016-17 were Health care and social assistance, Administrative and support services, Retail trade, Professional, scientific and technical services and Education and training. Over the past 12 months, the number of jobs in all of these industries increased.

Over the same period, three out of the five highest employing industries were found to be similar in the Rest of Victoria, with the highest number of jobs in Health care and social assistance, Retail trade, Education and training, Accommodation and food services, and Manufacturing. The number of jobs in each of these industries increased over the period, with the exception of Education and training (down 2.4%).

In comparison, the highest employing industries in Australia during 2016-17 were Health care and social assistance, Retail trade, Administration and support services, Education and training, and Accommodation and food services. Over the past 12 months, there was jobs growth in all of these industries.

Graph 4: Distribution of jobs across industries by region, 2016-17
Graph 4: Distrubution of jobs across industries by region, 2016-17

Occupation

In 2016-17, the most common occupations nationally were Professionals (18.2% of all occupations), Clerical and administrative workers (11.5%), and Managers (10.7%). In the Victoria, the most common were Professionals (19.4%), Clerical and administrative workers (11.5%), and Managers (11.1%).

In the Greater Melbourne region, the most common occupations were Professionals (20.6% of all occupations), Clerical and administrative workers (12.1%), and Managers (11.8%). In comparison, the most common occupations in the Rest of Victoria were Professionals (15.4%), Technicians and Trades Workers (10.8%) and Labourers (11.0%).

Differences in male and female employment in occupations continued to be pronounced in the Victoria. Jobs worked by Managers, Technicians and trades workers, Machinery operators and drivers, and Labourers were most likely to be held by males, while those worked by Professionals, Community and personal service workers, Clerical and administrative workers, and Sales workers were most likely to be held by females.

Footnotes

1. "Jobs in Melbourne" and "Jobs in the Rest of Victoria" refer to jobs worked by people living in those regions.

2. The job counts in this publication differ from the filled job estimates from other data sources such as the Australian Labour Account and the Labour Force Australia. The Jobs in Australia data sourced from LEED provides insights into all jobs held throughout the year, while the Labour Account data provides the number of filled jobs at a point-in-time each quarter, and Labour Force Survey data measures the number of people employed each month.

3. Employee jobs include owner managers of incorporated enterprises as these employees cannot be separately identified from other employees in this publication.

4. Median employment income per job is based on filled employee jobs during the reference year. It has been adjusted to account for the duration the job was held. For further detail, see the Explanatory Notes.