6102.0.55.001 - Labour Statistics: Concepts, Sources and Methods, Feb 2018  
Latest ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 12/02/2018   
   Page tools: Print Print Page Print all pages in this productPrint All

This document was added or updated on 26/05/2020.

GLOSSARY



A

Active steps taken to find work

Active steps taken by unemployed persons in their search for work during the current period of unemployment include:
  • wrote, phoned or applied in person to an employer for work;
  • answered an advertisement for a job in a newspaper;
  • answered an advertisement for a job on the Internet;
  • answered an advertisement for a job on noticeboards;
  • had an interview;
  • contacted friends or relatives;
  • advertised or tendered for work;
  • registered with a Job Services Australia provider; or
  • registered with any other employment agency.

Actively looked for work

Actively looked for work includes:
  • written, telephoned or applied to an employer for work;
  • had an interview with an employer for work;
  • answered an advertisement for a job;
  • checked or registered with an employment agency;
  • taken steps to purchase or start your own business;
  • advertised or tendered for work; and
  • contacted friends or relatives in order to obtain work.

Actual hours of work

Actual hours of work refers to a specified reference period (e.g. a week) and includes:
  • hours actually worked during normal periods of work;
  • time spent in addition to hours worked during normal periods of work (including overtime);
  • time spent at the place of work on activities such as the preparation of the workplace, repairs and maintenance, preparation and cleaning of tools, and the preparation of receipts, time sheets and reports;
  • time spent at the place of work waiting or standing by due to machinery or process breakdown, accident, lack of supplies, power or internet access, etc.;
  • time corresponding to short rest periods (resting time) including tea and coffee breaks or prayer breaks;
  • travel time connected to work (excluding commuting time); and
  • training and skills enhancement related to the job or employer.
    Excluded are:
  • hours paid for but not worked, such as paid annual leave, public holidays or paid sick leave;
  • meal breaks (e.g. lunch breaks);
  • paid and unpaid time 'on call';
  • time spent on travel to and from work when no productive activity for the job is performed (e.g. commuting time); and
  • time off during working hours to attend outside educational activities, even if it is authorised, e.g. those not connected to the job or employer.

For multiple job holders the LFS collects a separate measure of actual hours worked in main job and in all jobs.

Adult employees

Adult employees are those employees 21 years of age or over and those employees who, although under 21 years of age, are paid at the full adult rate for their occupation.

Adult rate

Payment at the full rate stipulated in an award, agreement or the minimum wage order in the relevant jurisdiction.

Age of youngest child

Age of the youngest child, 12 years and under, in the household.

Agreement to work flexible hours

An agreement that is either in writing or otherwise. A written agreement can be in the form of, but not limited to, an individual written agreement between an employer and employee, or a Collective Agreement or Certified Agreement (CA) made directly between an employer and a group of employees.

All jobs

Employed persons may have more than one job. All jobs data items are about all the work that an employed person undertook during the reference week, not only the work that they undertook in their main job. A person's main job is the job in which they usually work the most number of hours.

Applied for workers' compensation

To have formally applied for workers' compensation by completing an application for compensation.

Apprentice

An apprentice is a person who has entered into a legal contract (called a training agreement or contract of training) with an employer, to serve a period of training for the purpose of attaining tradesperson status in a recognised trade. Apprentices and trainees are identified by their answer to a question specifically pertaining to the Australian Apprenticeship Scheme.

Apprentice or trainee rate

Payment at a rate stipulated for apprentices or trainees in an award, agreement or the minimum wage order in the relevant jurisdiction.

Attending full-time education

Persons aged 15-24 years enrolled at secondary or high school or enrolled as a full-time student at a Technical and Further Education (TAFE) college, university, or other educational institution in the reference week.

Attending school

Persons aged 15-19 years enrolled at secondary or high school in the reference week.

Attending tertiary educational institution full-time

Persons aged 15-24 years enrolled full-time at a TAFE college, university, or other educational institution in the reference week, except those persons aged 15-19 years who were still attending school.

Australian citizen

Being an Australian citizen formalises a person's membership of the Australian community. It entitles a person to live permanently in Australia, hold an Australian passport and do such things as vote to elect Australia's governments, stand for parliament, work in the Public Service and serve in the armed forces. A person may acquire Australian citizenship in a number of ways, for example, by birth, adoption, descent, resumption or granting of Australian citizenship (naturalisation). Migrants no longer require a visa once citizenship is granted.

Available to start work

Refers to employed or unemployed people who were available to start work with more hours either in the reference week, or in the four weeks subsequent to the interview.

Available to start work with more hours

Employed people who usually worked 0–34 hours per week in all jobs and were available to start work with more hours in the reference week or within four weeks.

Available to start work within four weeks

People who were available to start work within four weeks or, for people with children aged 12 years and under, could start work within four weeks if suitable child care was available.

Average (mean) earnings

The amount obtained by dividing the total earnings of a group (e.g. full-time employees) by the number of employees in that group.

Average weekly cash earnings

Average weekly cash earnings represents average gross (before tax) earnings of employees, inclusive of salary sacrifice. Average weekly cash earnings differ from average weekly earnings by the average weekly amount salary sacrificed.

Average weekly earnings

Average weekly earnings statistics represent average gross (before tax) earnings of employees and do not relate to average award rates or to the earnings of the 'average person'. Estimates of average weekly earnings are derived by dividing estimates of weekly total earnings by estimates of number of employees.

Award only

Awards are legally enforceable determinations made by federal or state industrial tribunals that set the terms of employment (pay and/or conditions), usually in a particular industry or occupation.

An award may be the sole mechanism used to set the pay and/or conditions for an employee or group of employees, or may be used in conjunction with an individual or collective agreement. Employees are classified to the Award only category if they are paid at the rate of pay specified in the award, and are not paid more than that rate of pay.

BACK TO TOP

B

Bachelor Degree or higher

Includes Bachelor Degree, Graduate Diploma, Graduate Certificate and Postgraduate Degree.

Balance of state/territory

Comprises the balance of each state/territory not included in Capital City. See Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS): Volume 1 - Main Structure and Greater Capital City Statistical Areas, July 2011 (cat. no. 1270.0.55.001).

Bonuses

Payments made to a job occupant that are in addition to regular wages and salaries and which generally relate to the job occupant’s, or the organisations’, performance. In the WPI, the term 'bonuses' refers to bonuses and commissions.

Born in Australia

Includes persons born in Australia, Norfolk Island and Australian External Territories.

BACK TO TOP

C

Capital city

Refers to Greater Capital City Statistical Areas (GCCSA) as defined by the ASGS. The GCCSAs represent the socio-economic extent of each of the eight State and Territory capital cities. The whole of the ACT is included in the GCCSA. See Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS): Volume 1 - Main Structure and Greater Capital City Statistical Areas, July 2011 (cat. no. 1270.0.55.001).

Cash earnings

Remuneration paid to employees on a regular and frequent basis (quarterly or more frequently) for time worked or work done, and for time not worked such as recreation and other types of leave. Cash earnings (inclusive of amounts salary sacrificed) are gross amounts, that is, before tax and other items (e.g. superannuation) are deducted.

Cash wages and salaries

Remuneration for time worked or work done and for time not worked, such as recreation and other types of paid leave. Comprises regular and irregular payments, including salary sacrificed amounts. Wages and salaries in cash are gross amounts, that is, before tax and other items (e.g. superannuation) are deducted.

Casual employees

Casual employees usually receive a higher rate of pay to compensate for lack of permanency and leave entitlements.

Cause of Dispute

Cause of dispute statistics relate to the reported main cause of stoppage of work and not necessarily all causes that may have been responsible for the stoppage of work. For these reasons, the statistics do not reflect the relative importance of all causes of disputes as perceived by both employers and employees. The causes are classified from information supplied by employers and according to standards determined by the International Labour Organisation.

Disputes are initially classified according to whether a dispute occurred during a process of workplace/enterprise bargaining. A process of workplace/enterprise bargaining refers to the negotiations that take place between an employer and their employees (or their representatives), in reaching an agreement over pay and employment conditions.

Disputes not related to a process of workplace/enterprise bargaining include:
  • disputes relating to award negotiations; and
  • disputes relating to the content or application of an existing agreement (and do not seek to amend or terminate the agreement).

Disputes are then further classified according to the main cause of the dispute, as follows:

Enterprise Bargaining (EB) related:
  • Remuneration: Disputes relating to wages and other forms of remuneration, e.g. increase/decrease in wages, allowances, entitlements and superannuation.
  • Employment conditions: Disputes relating to hours of work, leave, non-remuneration related benefits, and other general employment conditions, e.g. increase/decrease in hours, distribution of hours and holiday and leave provisions.
  • Other EB related: Causes other than Remuneration or Employment conditions, including job security and other causes relating to a process of workplace/enterprise bargaining, e.g. pattern bargaining strikes, and disputes where employees refuse to enter into enterprise bargaining negotiations.

Non-EB related:
  • Remuneration: As above.
  • Employment conditions: As above.
  • Health and safety: Disputes concerning physical working conditions, safety issues and workers' compensation provisions, e.g. accidents, protective clothing and equipment, first aid services, uncomfortable working conditions, employee amenities, shortage or poor distribution of equipment or material, condition of equipment, and arduous physical tasks.
  • Job security: Disputes concerning issues relating to job security, e.g. retrenchment of employees, downsizing, restructuring, use of contractors, outsourcing, re-classification of the workforce, and market conditions within the relevant industry.
  • Managerial policy: Disputes relating to the decisions and policies of line managers, e.g. disciplinary matters, suspensions, personal disagreement, discrimination, decisions that impact upon work and family issues, docking of pay, fines, production limits or quotas, principles of promotion or filling positions, and work practices.
  • Union issues: Disputes concerning the alleged anti-union attitude of the employer, inter-union and intra-union disputes (e.g. demarcation disputes), sympathy stoppages in support of employees in another industry, and recognition of union activities.
  • Other non-EB related: Disputes that cannot be ascribed to any other category, e.g. political protests.

Certificate

Includes Certificate I/II/III/IV and Certificate not further defined.

Certificate n.f.d. (Certificate not further defined)

Survey responses are coded to Certificate not further defined (n.f.d.) when there is not enough information to code them to Certificate I, II, III or IV in the Australian Standard Classification of Education, 2001 (cat. no. 1272.0), Level of education classification.

Change in work

Employees were considered to have had some change in work if they had been with their current employer for one year or more at the previous survey date and reported that, in the 12 months to current survey date, they had:
  • been promoted;
  • transferred to a different position;
  • changed usual hours worked; or
  • changed occupation.

Child

A person of any age who is a natural, adopted, step, or foster son or daughter of a couple or lone parent, usually resident in the same household. A child is also any individual under 15 years, usually resident in the household, who forms a parent-child relationship with another member of the household. This includes otherwise related children under 15 years and unrelated children under 15 years.

In order to be classified as a child, the person can have no partner or child of his or her own usually resident in the household.

There are three types of child identified in the 'Relationship in household' classification:
  • Child under 15 years
  • Dependent student
  • Non-dependent child

The differentiation of children into these three types is based upon the dependency criterion and is designed to identify families with different structures and needs. Dependency as used in these standards refers to economic dependency and is applied only to the population of people who could be described as 'children'. It is thus not intended to measure an aged or disabled person's dependency.

Children who work for themselves

A child who operates his or her own unincorporated economic enterprise or engages independently in a profession or trade. Informal work for relatives or neighbours for payment where the child has solicited the employment is included.

Civilian population aged 15 years and over

All usual residents of Australia aged 15 years and over except members of the permanent defence forces, certain diplomatic personnel of overseas governments customarily excluded from census and estimated population counts, overseas residents in Australia, and members of non-Australian defence forces (and their dependants) stationed in Australia.

Collective agreement

An agreement between an employer (or group of employers) and a group of employees (or one or more unions or employee associations representing the employees). A collective agreement sets the terms of employment (pay and/or conditions) for a group of employees, and is usually registered with a Federal or State industrial tribunal or authority.

Employees are classified to the Collective agreement category if they had the main part of their pay set by a collective agreement (registered or unregistered) or enterprise award.
Commonwealth government All public sector units controlled by the Australian Government are classified to the Commonwealth Level of Government. This includes government units controlled by the Australian Government, public financial corporations controlled by the Australian Government and Public non-financial corporations controlled by the Australian Government. Those bodies run jointly by the Commonwealth government and State governments are classified to Commonwealth.

Completed

‘Completed' a qualification means having successfully passed all of the requirements for the qualification.

Composite Estimation

The estimation methodology used in the Labour Force Survey. Composite Estimation uses sample responses from nearby months as well as from the reference month to derive estimates for the reference month. This approach achieves gains in efficiency by exploiting the high similarity between the responses provided by the same respondent in previous months. For details see Information Paper: Forthcoming Changes to Labour Force Statistics, 2007 (cat. no. 6292.0).

Considered job to be casual

Employees who considered their job to be casual, regardless of any entitlements that they may receive.

Continuous duration with current employer/business

The length of the current period of employment people had with their employer or in their own business. The length of time includes periods of paid leave, unpaid leave or strike.

Contributing family workers

Persons who work without pay in an economic enterprise operated by a relative.

Country of birth

Country of birth is classified according to the Standard Australian Classification of Countries (SACC), Second Edition (cat. no. 1269.0).

Couple relationship

A couple relationship is defined as two people usually residing in the same household who share a social, economic and emotional bond usually associated with marriage and who consider their relationship to be a marriage or marriage-like union. This relationship is identified by the presence of a registered marriage or de facto marriage.

A 'couple relationship' includes same-sex couples.

Current job

A job that a person was working in during the reference week which had lasted or was likely to last for a period of two weeks or more.

Current main job

The job that a person was working in during the reference week in which most hours were usually worked.

Current other job

Refers to a current job other than the current main job.

Currently economically active

A person is considered to be economically active if that person contributes or is available and seeking to contribute to the production of goods and services that fall within the System of National Accounts production boundary. The currently economically active population is equivalent to the total labour force, and consists of the total number of persons defined as employed and unemployed. The currently economically active population is measured during a specified short period of time, and in Australia is based on the concept of usual residency of the civilian population aged 15 years and over.

The currently economically active population excludes:
  • persons under the age of 15 years;
  • permanent members of the defence forces;
  • short term visitors to Australia; and
  • persons not in the labour force.

Currently enrolled in study

Enrolled in a course of formal study for a trade certificate, diploma, degree or any other educational qualification.

BACK TO TOP

D

Data type

Job vacancy estimates are a stock data type, as the number of job vacancies is measured at a point in time.

Days or shifts absent from work

Includes all work hours spent on medical consultation, hospitalisation and rest due to the injury or illness. The days or shifts absent do not have to be consecutive.

Dependant

A dependant is a family member who is either:
  • under 15 years of age; or
  • aged 15–19 years and attending school or aged 15–24 years and attending a tertiary education institution full-time (i.e. dependent students).

In order to be classified as a dependant, the person must have no partner or child of his/her own usually resident in the household. A separate family in the household is formed in this instance.

Dependent child

Persons aged less than 15 years who have a parent/guardian in the household.

Dependent student

A full-time student aged 15-24 years, living in the same usual residence as his or her natural, step, foster or adoptive parent.

Did not draw a wage or salary

Consists of persons who worked in their own incorporated enterprise only, i.e. Owner managers of incorporated enterprises (OMIEs).

Did not prefer to work more hours

People who said 'no' or 'don't know' when asked 'would you prefer to work more hours than you usually work?

Did not want a paid job

People who were not classified as employed or unemployed who answered 'no' or 'don't know' when asked if they would like a paid job.

Did not want to work

People who were not classified as employed or unemployed who answered 'no' when asked if they would like a job.

Disability rate

Payment stipulated in Schedule A to the National Minimum Wage Order (or an award or agreement with a specific schedule) for employees with a disability who:
  • are unable to perform the range of duties to the competence level required of an employee within the class of work for which the employee is engaged because of the effects of disability on their productive capacity; and
  • who meet the impairment criteria for receipt of a Disability Support Pension.

Discouraged job seekers

People with marginal attachment to the labour force who wanted to work and were available to start work within the next four weeks but whose main reason for not actively looking for work was that they believed they would not find a job for any of the following reasons:
  • considered to be too young by employers;
  • considered to be too old by employers;
  • believes ill health or disability discourages employers;
  • lacked necessary schooling, training, skills or experience;
  • difficulties because of language or ethnic background;
  • no jobs in their locality or line of work;
  • no jobs in suitable hours; and
  • no jobs at all.

Disputes

An industrial dispute is defined as a state of disagreement over an issue or group of issues between an employer and its employees, which results in employees ceasing work. Industrial disputes comprise strikes, which are a withdrawal from work by a group of employees; and lockouts, which are a refusal by an employer or group of employers to permit some or all of their employees to work.

Disputes which ended during the reference period

Disputes which ended during the period encompasses those disputes which:
  • started in a previous period and ended in the reference period; and
  • began and ended in the reference period.

Disputes which occurred during the reference period

Disputes which occurred during the period encompasses those disputes which:
  • started in a previous period and ended in the reference period;
  • began and ended in the reference period;
  • began in the reference period and continued into the next period; and
  • started prior to the reference period and continued past the reference period.

Duration of current main job

Length of time worked in current main job.

Duration of current main job/last job

Length of time worked in current main job/last job.

Duration of current period of insufficient work

For full-time workers who worked fewer than 35 hours in the reference week due to economic reasons, refers to the number of weeks they have been working fewer than 35 hours a week.

For part-time workers who would prefer to work more hours, refers to the number of weeks they have wanted to work more hours.

As periods of insufficient work are recorded in full weeks and rounded down, this results in a slight understatement of duration.

Duration of current period of unemployment

The period of time from when an unemployed person began looking for work until the end of the reference week; or the period of time since an unemployed person last worked in any job for two weeks or more until the end of the reference week; whichever was the shorter period. Brief periods of work (of less than two weeks) since the person began looking for work are disregarded.

Duration of employment in job where most recent work-related injury or illness occurred

Length of time worked in job where most recent work-related injury or illness occurred.

Duration of job search

The current and continuing period of unemployment for persons who are unemployed in the reference week. Duration of job search measures the elapsed number of weeks to the end of the reference week since an unemployed person began looking for work, or since that person last worked, whichever is the shorter. For persons who began looking for work while still employed, it is the period from the time the person last worked to the end of the reference week.

Duration of looking for work before current job

The number of weeks or years that employed persons were looking for work before being offered their current job or starting their own business. For employed persons who had worked before, it includes any time they were looking for work before leaving their previous employer.

BACK TO TOP

E

Earnings

Total employee remuneration during the reference year, regardless of the form of remuneration. This comprises:
  • gross wages and salaries; the value of salary sacrificed (excluding fringe benefits tax);
  • the un-grossed value of fringe benefits provided by employers through arrangements other than salary sacrifice; and
  • severance, termination and redundancy payments.

Gross wages and salaries are net of amounts reimbursed for employees on government employment programs. Workers’ compensation payments paid through the payroll and fringe benefits tax paid by employers are excluded from earnings.

Economic reasons

Economic reasons for full-time workers having worked fewer than 35 hours in the reference week are:
  • there was no work or not enough work available, e.g. due to material shortages;
  • they were stood down; or
  • they were on short time.

Educational attainment

Level of highest educational attainment identifies the highest achievement a person has attained in any area of study. It is defined as the highest educational attainment a person has achieved, and is not a measurement of relative importance of different fields of study. For further information please see paragraphs 38 to 41 of the chapter on 'Level of highest educational attainment', Education Variables, 2002 (cat. no. 1246.0).

Educational attendance

Enrolled at secondary or high school or enrolled as a full-time student at a Technical and Further Education (TAFE) college, university, or other educational institution in the reference week.

Educational institution

Any institution whose primary role is education. Included are schools, higher education establishments, colleges of technical and further education and public and private colleges.

Elapsed years since arrival

The number of years since a person first arrived in Australia with the intention of staying for at least one year.

Applies to persons born overseas only.

Elementary aggregates

The finest aggregations of jobs, in terms of state/territory, sector and industry group, for which expenditure weights are available.

Employed

All persons aged 15 years and over who met one of the following criteria during the reference week:
  • Worked for one hour or more for pay, profit, commission or payment in kind, in a job or business or on a farm (employees and owner managers of incorporated or unincorporated enterprises).
  • Worked for one hour or more without pay in a family business or on a farm (contributing family workers).
  • Were employees who had a job but were not at work and were:
    • away from work for less than four weeks up to the end of the reference week; or
    • away from work for more than four weeks up to the end of the reference week and received pay for some or all of the four week period to the end of the reference week; or
    • away from work as a standard work or shift arrangement; or
    • on strike or locked out; or
    • on workers' compensation and expected to return to their job.
  • Were owner managers who had a job, business or farm, but were not at work.

Employed full-time

Includes employed persons who usually worked 35 hours or more a week (in all jobs) and those who, although usually working less than 35 hours a week, worked 35 hours or more during the reference week.

Employed part-time

Includes employed persons who usually worked less than 35 hours a week (in all jobs) and either did so during the reference week, or were not at work in the reference week.

Employee job

A job for which the occupant receives remuneration in wages, salary, payment in kind, or piece rates.

Employee

Employees are persons who:
  • worked for a public or private employer; and
  • received remuneration in wages or salary; or
  • are paid a retainer fee by their employer and worked on a commission basis, for tips, piece-rates or payment in kind.

In some instances, employees also include Owner Managers of Incorporated Enterprises.

Employees with paid leave entitlements

Employees who were entitled to either paid sick leave or paid holiday leave (or both).

Employees without paid leave entitlements

Employees who were not entitled to, or did not know whether they were entitled to, paid sick and paid holiday leave.

Employer

Organisation with one or more employees.

Employer size

A measure of the size of the business in terms of the number of employees within that business. The employer size reflects the size of the business in a particular state or territory and not necessarily the size of the business Australia-wide.

Employment agency

An employment agency is an organisation which is engaged in personnel search, or selection and placement of people for an employing organisation. The agency or firm may also be engaged in supply of their own employees to other employers, usually on a short-term basis. (See also labour hire firm).

Employment to population ratio

For any group, the number of employed persons expressed as a percentage of the civilian population in the same group.

Engaged in employment and/or study

Persons fully engaged in employment and/or study include:
  • persons participating in full-time formal study (including school); and/or
  • persons in full-time employment; and/or
  • persons participating in part-time formal study (including school) and in part-time employment.

Persons partially engaged in employment and/or study are participating in part-time formal study or in part-time employment only.

The engagement rate is derived as the proportion of those either fully or partially engaged in employment and/or study as a proportion of the population aged 15 years and over.

Enrolled

Refers to persons registered for a course of formal study in the particular reference period (e.g. survey month, or previous calendar year).

Estimated resident population (ERP)

Estimated resident population (ERP) is Australia's official measure of the population of Australia and is based on the concept of usual residence. It refers to all people, regardless of nationality, citizenship or legal status, who usually live in Australia, with the exception of foreign diplomatic personnel and their families. It includes usual residents who are overseas for fewer than 12 months. It excludes overseas visitors who are in Australia for fewer than 12 months. Refer to Australian Demographic Statistics (cat. no. 3101.0).

Expectations of future employment with current employer or business

Whether or not an employed person expects to be working for their current employer or in their current business in 12 months' time. Reasons are provided for those who do not expect to be with their current employer or business in 12 months.

Applicable to employed persons only.

Expenditure weights

A measure of the relative importance of each elementary aggregate, based on employers’ total expenditure on wages and salaries. Expenditure weights are used to combine elementary aggregate indexes into broader level indexes.

BACK TO TOP

F

Family

Two or more people, one of whom is at least 15 years of age, who are related by blood, marriage (registered or de facto), adoption, step or fostering; and who are usually resident in the same household. The basis of a family is formed by identifying the presence of a couple relationship, lone parent-child relationship or other blood relationship. Some households will, therefore, contain more than one family.

Family business or farm

An economic enterprise (e.g. company, partnership or individual) operated solely by a relative of the child.

Family reasons for not actively looking for work

Includes ill health of someone other than themselves, caring for children and other family considerations.

Father

The male parent with dependants and/or children. The relationship between a father and a child/dependant can be formed via a natural, adoptive, step, foster or child dependency relationship.

Field not determined

Field not determined includes inadequately described responses or where no responses were given.

Field of trade

Refers to the occupation of an apprentice or trainee and is classified according to the Australian and New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations (ANZSCO), First Edition, Revision 1 (cat. no. 1220.0) Unit Group.

Financial assistance

Monetary assistance received from any party to cover medical expenses or income loss, incurred due to their work-related injury or illness.

First job ever held lasting two weeks or more

Refers to employees (excluding OMIEs) who had never worked for two weeks or more before starting their current job.

Fixed-term contract

A contract of employment which specifies that the employment will be terminated on a particular date/event.

Flow estimates

Flow estimates are a measure of activity over a given period. For example, monthly hours worked in all jobs is a measure of the total number of hours worked in a calendar month.

Formal study

Any study being undertaken that will lead to a recognised qualification, issued by a relevant approved body, in recognition that a person has achieved learning outcomes or competencies relevant to identified individual, professional, industry or community needs. This includes study for a school qualification. If the respondent was still attending school, their level of study was recorded as their current year of schooling. If the respondent had left school and was enrolled in formal study, they were asked the level of the qualification.

Former worker

Unemployed persons who have not worked in the last 2 years are categorised as those who have never worked before (looking for first job) or those who last worked 2 or more years ago (former worker).

Fringe benefits

Non-cash benefits, such as goods and services, provided to employees in respect of employment. Examples include use of a work car, a cheap loan, or health insurance costs. These benefits may be provided through salary sacrifice or other arrangements. Fringe benefits tax is payable (by the employer) in respect of most fringe benefits. Employer contributions to superannuation in respect of an employee (including through a salary sacrifice arrangement), when paid to a complying superannuation fund, are not considered to be fringe benefits.

Fringe benefits tax

A tax paid by employers on fringe benefits they provide to their employees, including their employees' family. Exemptions apply to some categories of employers (e.g. certain not-for-profit organisations) and certain benefits (e.g. laptop computers). Estimates of the un-grossed value of fringe benefits (a component of earnings) and fringe benefits tax both relate to the year ended 31 March.

Full-time employees

Full-time employees are permanent, temporary and casual employees who normally work the agreed or award hours for a full-time employee in their occupation and received pay for any part of the reference period. If agreed or award hours do not apply, employees are regarded as full-time if they ordinarily work 35 hours or more per week.

Full-time or part-time status of last job

The perception of people of whether they worked full-time or part-time in their last job.

Full-time preference

People who preferred to work 35 hours or more a week. Full-time preference is derived by applying data collected on respondents' preferred number of hours to those who intended to or might enter the labour force in the next 12 months.

Full-time workers

Employed persons who usually worked 35 hours or more a week (in all jobs) and others who, although usually working fewer than 35 hours a week, worked 35 hours or more during the reference week.

Full-time workers (usual)

Employed people who usually work 35 hours or more a week (in all jobs).

Full-time workers in main job

People who were employees in their main job and were:
  • Single job holders who usually work 35 hours or more a week, or usually work fewer than 35 hours but worked 35 hours or more during the reference week; or
  • Multiple job holders who usually work 35 hours or more in their main job and those who, although usually working fewer than 35 hours in their main job, worked 35 hours or more during the reference week.

Fully self-funded

Funded entirely from superannuation or any other income source, excluding any form of a government pension and/or allowance.

Future starters

People waiting to start, within four weeks of the end of the reference week, a new job that they have already obtained (and could have started in the reference week if the job had been available then). Under International Labour Organisation (ILO) guidelines, these persons do not have to be actively looking for work to be classified as unemployed.

BACK TO TOP

G

Government pension/allowance

Income support payments from government to people under social security and related government programs. Included are pensions and allowances received by aged, disabled, unemployed and sick people, families and children, veterans and their survivors, and study allowances for students. Payments made by overseas governments as well as the Australian government are included.

Gross flows

The matching of respondents who report in consecutive months enables analysis of the transition of individuals between the different labour force status classifications, referred to as the matched sample. The transition counts between the different labour force status classifications from one point in time to the next are commonly referred to as gross flows.

The figures presented in gross flows are presented in original terms only and do not align with published labour force estimates. The gross flows figures are derived from the matched sample between consecutive months, which after taking account of the sample rotation and varying non-response in each month is approximately 80 percent of the sample.

Caution should be exercised when analysing these gross flows data due to:
  • the figures presented sum to approximately 80 percent of the population values as the gross flows data are based on the matched sample only;
  • there is no adjustment applied to account for changes due to seasonal patterns (referred to commonly as seasonal adjustment); and
  • the estimates of relative sizes of each transition class are subject to bias due to the matched sample being a non-representative sample.

Gross wages and salaries

Payments to employees before tax and other items (such as employee contributions to superannuation) are deducted, and comprise:
  • payments for time worked;
  • payments for time not worked (such as annual, sick and other leave, and public holidays); and
  • leave loading payments.

Included are amounts paid from interstate or overseas; ordinary time and overtime earnings; over award payments; penalty payments, shift and other remunerative allowances; retainers and commissions paid to employees who received a salary; bonuses and similar payments; payments under incentive, piecework or profit sharing schemes; advance and retrospective payments; and salaries and fees paid to company directors and members of boards who received a salary.

Excluded are reimbursements of expenses, e.g. travel, entertainment, meals etc. and drawings from profits by directors or office holders. Also excluded are salary sacrifice amounts, wages and salaries reimbursed under government employment programs, and workers’ compensation payments paid through the payroll.

BACK TO TOP

H

Had a job since arrival

Includes persons who currently have a job or who had a job at some time since their arrival.

Had a job to go to

People who were waiting to start a job, but would not be starting within four weeks. Also includes people who had a job but, up to the end of the reference week, had been away from work without pay for four weeks or longer and had not been actively looking for work.

Had ever worked for two weeks or more

People who are not in the labour force or are unemployed and have previously worked for two weeks or more.

Had previously worked

People who are not in the labour force or are unemployed, who have previously worked for two weeks or more, less than 20 years ago.

Had worked before

Refers to employees (excluding OMIEs) who had worked before and were either out of work or changed their employer before starting their current job.

Has never worked

Unemployed persons who have not worked in the last 2 years are categorised as those who have never worked before (looking for first job) or those who last worked 2 or more years ago (former worker).

Higher education institution or organisation

An Australian institution providing higher education courses, e.g. universities; colleges of advanced education; institutes of advanced education; institutes of higher education; institutes of tertiary education; agricultural colleges; and some institutes of technology, and the equivalent institutions overseas.

Holiday leave

The entitlement of an employee to paid holiday, paid vacation or paid recreation leave in their main job.

Hours paid for in main job

The number of hours for which employees and OMIEs were paid in their main job in their last pay, not necessarily the number of hours actually worked during the reference week (e.g. a person on paid leave for the week was asked to report the number of hours for which they were paid).

Hours paid for in main job in last pay

The number of hours for which employees were paid in their main job in their last pay, not necessarily the number of hours actually worked during the reference week (e.g. an employee on paid leave for the week was asked to report the number of hours for which they were paid).

Hours usually worked

The number of hours usually worked in a week.

Hours worked

The number of hours actually worked during the reference week.

Household

One or more persons usually resident in the same private dwelling.

Husband/ Partner

A person in a couple relationship with another person usually resident in the same household. The couple relationship may be in either a registered or de facto marriage and includes same-sex couples.

BACK TO TOP

I

Incoming rotation group

The LFS sample is made up of eight rotation groups of approximately equal size and characteristics. Each rotation group is in the survey for a period of eight months. Each month a new rotation group enters the sample to replace the rotation group that completed its eighth survey the month before. The new rotation group is called the incoming rotation group.

Incorporated enterprise

An enterprise which is registered as a separate legal entity to its members or owners (also known as a limited liability company).

Independent contractors

Independent contractors are persons who operate their own business and who are contracted to perform services for others without having the legal status of an employee, i.e. persons who are engaged by a client, rather than an employer to undertake the work. Independent contractors are engaged under a contract for services (a commercial contract), whereas employees are engaged under a contract of service (an employment contract).

Independent contractors' employment may take a variety of forms: for example, they may have a direct relationship with a client or work through an intermediary. Independent contractors may have employees, however they spend most of their time directly engaged with clients or on client tasks, rather than managing their staff.

Index number

Measures the ratio of the price of labour between the commencement of the index series and a later period.

Index reference period

The period for which an index series is given the value of 100.0.

Individual arrangement

An arrangement between an employer and an individual employee on the terms of employment (pay and/or conditions) for the employee. Common types of individual arrangements are individual contracts, letters of offer and common law contracts. Employees are classified to the Individual arrangement category if they have their pay set by an individual contract, individual agreement registered with a Federal or State industrial tribunal or authority (e.g. Australian Workplace Agreement), common law contract (including for award or agreement free employees), or if they receive over-award payments by individual agreement.

However, the Fair Work Act 2009 does not allow the making of new individual employee agreements. Collective enterprise agreements contain a provision which allows flexibility in the workplace to be achieved by agreement between an employer and individual employee. Agreements which existed under the Workplace Relations Act will continue in existence under the Fair Work Act 2009 as ‘agreement-based transitional instruments’. These are defined by the Fair Work (Transitional and Consequential Amendments) Act 2009 (TA Act).

Industry

An industry is a group of businesses or organisations that undertake similar economic activities to produce goods and/or services.

Institutionalised persons

Residents of selected institutions or special dwellings excluding live-in staff who do not usually live in a private dwelling. Institutions include hospitals, homes and prisons.

Intends to retire from the labour force

Those people who indicated that they intend to give up all labour force activity: working or looking for work.

Intention to enter the labour force in the next 12 months

The intention of people to work or look for work in the 12 months following the interview.

Interstate

Refers to whether persons were prepared to move to another state or territory if offered a suitable job.

Intrastate

Refers to whether persons were prepared to move to another part of their state or territory if offered a suitable job.

BACK TO TOP

J

Job

Any paid employment, full-time or part-time, lasting two weeks or more.

Jobless family

A jobless family is a family where no persons in the family aged 15 years or over are employed. This includes dependants.

In a jobless family, all of the family members are either unemployed and/or not in the labour force.

Families that have no employed members but do have members that are classified as undetermined in the scope of the labour force survey, such as members of the permanent Australian defence force, are not included in the number of jobless families.

Job starters

Employed persons who started their current job in the previous 12 months.

Job vacancy

A job vacancy is a job available for immediate filling on the survey reference date and for which recruitment action has been taken. Recruitment action includes efforts to fill vacancies by advertising, by on site or online notices, by notifying employment agencies or trade unions and by contacting, interviewing or selecting applicants already registered with the enterprise or organisation.

Estimates of job vacancies exclude:
  • jobs not available for immediate filling on the survey reference date;
  • jobs for which no recruitment action has been taken;
  • jobs which became vacant on the survey date and were filled on the same day;
  • jobs of less than one day's duration;
  • jobs only available to be filled by internal applicants within an organisation;
  • jobs to be filled by employees returning from paid or unpaid leave or after industrial disputes;
  • vacancies for work to be carried out by contractors; and
  • jobs for which a person has been appointed but has not yet commenced duty.

Junior rate

Payment at a proportion of the full adult rate stipulated in an award, agreement or the minimum wage order in the relevant jurisdiction, based on age.

BACK TO TOP

L

Labour force

For any group, persons who were employed or unemployed, as defined.

Labour force participation rate

For any group, the labour force expressed as a percentage of all persons aged 15 years and over in the same group.

Labour force status

A classification of the civilian population aged 15 years and over into employed, unemployed or not in the labour force, as defined. The definitions conform closely to the international standard definitions adopted by the International Conferences of Labour Statisticians.

Labour force underutilisation rate

The sum of the number of unemployed persons and the number of underemployed workers expressed as a percentage of the labour force.

Labour hire firm

A labour hire firm is an organisation which is engaged in personnel search, or selection and placement of people for an employing organisation. The agency or firm may also be engaged in supply of their own employees to other employers, usually on a short-term basis. (See also employment agency).

Labour hire workers

Labour hire workers are persons who found their job through a labour hire firm/employment agency and are paid by the labour hire firm/employment agency.

Labour market region

Labour market regions reflect the labour markets within each state and territory. Labour market regions are equivalent to Statistical Areas Level 4 (SA4s) and are smallest geographical output of LFS data.

The Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS) is used to classify geographical areas of Australia for statistical purposes. In the LFS, geographical areas relate to a person's usual residence, classified according to the ASGS.

Last 12 months

The 12 months up to and including the survey reference week.

Last job

Refers to last job less than 20 years ago.

Last worked two or more years ago

Unemployed persons who have not worked in the last 2 years are categorised as those who have never worked before (looking for first job) or those who last worked 2 or more years ago (former worker).

Left a job

Persons who are classified as involuntarily ceasing their last job.

Left last job

Unemployed persons who have worked in the last two years are classified by whether they left or lost their job.

Persons who provided one of the following reasons for ceasing their last job are categorised as leaving their last job:
  • unsatisfactory work arrangements/pay/hours;
  • to obtain a better job or conditions;
  • the job was a holiday job;
  • they left the job to return to studies;
  • their last job was running their own business which closed down or was sold, for reasons other than financial difficulties;
  • start own or new business;
  • family reasons: get married, have children, holidays, caring, move house, spouse transferred; or
  • retired.

Level not determined

Level not determined includes inadequately described responses or where no responses were given.

Level of highest educational attainment

Level of highest educational attainment identifies the highest achievement a person has attained in any area of study. It is not a measurement of the relative importance of different fields of study but a ranking of qualifications and other educational attainments regardless of the particular area of study or the type of institution in which the study was undertaken. For more information regarding how Level of highest educational attainment is derived see Decision Table: Level of highest educational attainment. It is categorised according to the Australian Standard Classification of Education, 2001 (cat. no. 1272.0) Level of education classification.

Level of highest educational attainment (non-school priority)

A person's level of highest educational attainment (non-school priority) is their highest non-school qualification where they have completed one. For persons who have not completed a non-school qualification, their level of highest educational attainment (non-school priority) is the highest year of school they have completed. It is categorised according to the Australian Standard Classification of Education, 2001 (cat. no. 1272.0) Level of education classification.

Level of highest non-school qualification

A person's level of highest non-school qualification is the highest qualification a person has attained in any area of formal study other than school study. It is categorised according to the Australian Standard Classification of Education, 2001 (cat. no. 1272.0) Level of education classification.

Local government

All public sector units controlled by a local government are classified to the Local Level of Government. Local government units are usually known as councils and are constituted through Local Government legislation. They are established to govern articulated regions within the state or territory known variously as districts, municipalities, shires, or areas. The power to create or vary these regions usually lies with the Governor General, State Governor or a Commonwealth Minister.

Lone parent family

See One parent family.

Long-term unemployed

Persons whose duration of current period of unemployment is 12 months or more.

Long-term unemployment ratio

The number of long-term unemployed persons, expressed as a percentage of the total unemployed population.

Looking for first job

Unemployed persons who have never worked before are categorised as those who have never worked before (looking for first job) or those who last worked 2 or more years ago (former worker).

Looking for work with more hours

Looked for work with more hours at some time during the four weeks up to the end of the reference week.

Lost a job

Persons who have worked for two weeks or more in the past two years and who left that job involuntarily.

Lost last job

Unemployed persons who have worked in the last two years are classified by whether they left or lost their job.

Persons who provide one of the following reasons for ceasing their last job are categorised as losing their last job:
  • laid off or retrenched from that job;
  • left that job because of their own ill-health or injury;
  • job was seasonal or temporary;
  • they were running their own business and the business closed down because of financial difficulties; or
  • dismissed.

BACK TO TOP

M

Main activity when not in the labour force

The main activity of people who are not in the labour force since they last worked or looked for work (or in the last 12 months if they haven't worked in the last year).

Main applicant

The 'main applicant' is generally the person whose skills or proposed activities in Australia are assessed by the Department of Immigration and Border Protection as part of their visa application. They will usually have been specifically identified on the application form as the 'main applicant'. The type of visa is granted to the main applicant, and the secondary applicants (i.e. spouse or dependents).

Main difficulty in finding work

The self-reported main difficulty in finding work experienced during the current period of unemployment.

Main English-speaking countries

The list of main English-speaking countries provided here is not an attempt to classify countries on the basis of whether or not English is the predominant or official language of each country. It is a list of the main countries from which Australia has historically received significant numbers of overseas settlers who are likely to speak English. These countries comprise the United Kingdom, the Republic of Ireland, New Zealand, Canada, South Africa and the United States of America.

Main field of education

The main subject matter of the study undertaken by a person in completing an educational activity. It is categorised according to the Australian Standard Classification of Education, 2001 (cat. no. 1272.0) Field of education classification.

Main field of non-school qualification

Main field of non-school qualification is defined as the subject matter of the qualification. It is categorised according to the Australian Standard Classification of Education (ASCED), 2001 (cat. no. 1272.0) Field of Education classification.

Main job

The job in which most hours are usually worked.

Main job during school holidays

The job in which the child worked the most hours during school holidays.

Main job during school terms

The job in which the child worked the most hours during school terms.

Managerial employees

Employees who have strategic responsibilities in the conduct or operations of the organisation and/or are in charge of a significant number of employees. These employees usually do not have an entitlement to paid overtime. Includes professionally qualified staff who primarily perform managerial tasks in conjunction with utilising their professional skills. Owner managers of incorporated enterprises are regarded as managerial employees.

Marginal attachment to the labour force

People who were not in the labour force in the reference week, wanted to work and:
  • were actively looking for work but did not meet the availability criterion to be classified as unemployed; or
  • were not actively looking for work but were available to start work within four weeks.

The criteria for determining those in the labour force are based on activity (i.e. working or looking for work) and availability to start work during the reference week. The criteria associated with marginal attachment to the labour force, in particular the concepts of wanting to work and reasons for not actively looking for work, are more subjective. Hence, the measurement against these criteria is affected by the respondent’s own interpretation of the concepts used. An individual respondent’s interpretation may be affected by their work aspirations, as well as family, economic and other commitments.

Market sector

The market sector is an industry grouping comprising the following industries: Agriculture, forestry and fishing; Mining; Manufacturing; Electricity, gas, water and waste services; Construction; Wholesale trade; Retail trade; Accommodation and food services; Transport, postal and warehousing; Information media and telecommunications; Finance and insurance services; Rental, hiring and real estate services; Professional, scientific and technical services; Administrative and support services; Arts and recreation services; and Other services. Refer to Australian National Accounts: Concepts, Sources and Methods (cat. no. 5216.0).

Matched common sample

Respondents who report in consecutive months make up the matched common sample from which gross flow figures are derived.

After taking account of the sample rotation and varying non-response in each month, the matched common sample is approximately 80 percent of the original dataset for any month. The figures presented in gross flows do not align with published labour force estimates. The unmatched sample identifies those respondents who do not have a labour force status for the previous month, or those who do not have a labour force status for the current month.

Maternity/paternity leave

The provision by an employer of paid maternity/paternity leave.

Mean weekly earnings

The amount obtained by dividing the total earnings of a group by the number of employees and OMIEs in that group.

Median earnings

The amount of earnings which divides employees into two groups containing equal numbers of employees, one half with earnings below the median and the other half with earnings above the median. The median is less affected by outliers and skewed data than the mean, and is usually the preferred measure of central tendency when the distribution is not symmetrical.

Median weekly earnings

The amount which divides the distribution of employees and OMIEs into two groups of equal size, one having earnings above and the other below that amount.

Method of setting pay

How an employee's pay is set. Methods are classified to one of the following categories: Award only; Collective agreement; Individual arrangement; or Owner manager of incorporated enterprise.

Mode of travel to and from work

Refers to the mode(s) of transport usually used to get to and from the place(s) of work. It excludes travel undertaken during the course of work.

Monthly hours worked in all jobs

Monthly hours worked in all jobs measures the total number of actual hours worked by employed persons in a calendar month. It differs from the actual hours worked estimates (and the usual hours worked estimates) since these refer only to the hours worked in the reference week.

The methodology used to produce monthly hours worked in all jobs means that these are synthetic estimates. Seasonally adjusted and trend estimates of monthly hours worked in all jobs are available for the period July 1978 onwards.

Further information on the methodology used to produce the monthly hours worked in all jobs estimates is available on the ABS website in Information Paper: Expansion of Hours Worked Estimates from the Labour Force Survey (cat. no. 6290.0.55.001).

Actual and usual hours worked cannot be aggregated across time to produce either quarterly or annual estimates as they relate to only a single week in the month. In contrast, monthly hours worked in all jobs estimates are a true monthly measure, and may be aggregated across time to produce both quarterly and annual estimates.

Mother

A female parent with dependants and/or children, or non-dependent children. The relationship between a mother and a child/dependant can be formed via a natural, adoptive, step, foster or child dependency relationship.

Multiple jobholder

Employed persons who, during the reference week, worked in more than one job. Multiple jobholders exclude those who changed employer during the reference week. People who were unpaid voluntary workers or on unpaid trainee/work placement in their second job were excluded from the Multiple jobholder population. Information on earnings in main job is collected from all multiple jobholders. Information on earnings in second job is only collected from multiple jobholders who were employees or OMIEs in their second job and were an employee or OMIEs in their main job.

BACK TO TOP

N

Non-dependent child

Non-dependent children are defined as children over the age of 15 years who are not studying full-time.

In order to be classified as a child, the person must have no partner or child of his/her own usually resident in the household. A separate family in the household is formed in this instance.

The types of parent-child relationships which can be formed are via a natural, adoptive, step, or foster relationship.

Dependency, as used in these classifications, refers to economic dependency and is only applied to the part of the population that can be described as ‘children’.

The dependency criterion is based on the barriers to full-time employment: age and student status. Essentially, once a child turns 15 years and becomes eligible to be included in the labour force, they lose their dependency status unless they are attending school or a tertiary educational institution full-time, are aged 15 to 24 years old and live in the same household as their parents/ guardian.

Non-economic reasons

Non-economic reasons for full-time workers having worked fewer than 35 hours in the reference week include:
  • holiday, flextime or study leave;
  • own illness or injury or sick leave;
  • standard work arrangements, shift work or rostered day(s) off;
  • on strike, locked out or took part in an industrial dispute;
  • bad weather or plant breakdown;
  • began, left or lost job during the reference week; and
  • personal reasons.

Non-managerial employees

Employees who are not managerial employees (as defined above), including non-managerial professionals and some employees with supervisory responsibilities.

Non-market sector

The non-market sector is an industry grouping comprising the following industries: Education and training; Public administration & safety; and Health care and social assistance. Refer to Australian National Accounts: Concepts, Sources and Methods (cat. no. 5216.0).

Non-private dwelling

An establishment which provides a communal type of accommodation, such as a hotel, motel, hospital or other institution.

Non-school qualification

Non-school qualifications are awarded for educational attainments other than those of pre-primary, primary or secondary education. They include qualifications at the Postgraduate Degree level, Master Degree level, Graduate Diploma and Graduate Certificate level, Bachelor Degree level, Advanced Diploma and Diploma level, and Certificates I, II, III and IV levels. Non-school qualifications may be attained concurrently with school qualifications.

Not available to start work

Refers to people who were not available to start work with more hours either in the reference week, or in the four weeks following the interview.

Not employed

People who are either unemployed or not in the labour force.

Not fully employed

People who are not fully employed comprise part-time workers who would prefer to work more hours, and full-time workers who worked part-time hours in the reference week for economic reasons.

Not in labour force

Persons who were not in the categories employed or unemployed, as defined. They include people who undertook unpaid household duties or other voluntary work only, were retired, voluntarily inactive and those permanently unable to work.

Not retired from the labour force

People aged 45 years and over who have, at some time, worked for two weeks or more and were not retired from the labour force. That is, either employed, unemployed or not in the labour force and intend to look for, or take up, work in the future.

Number of offers of employment

The number of separate offers of employment received during the current period of unemployment.

Number of months with current employer or business

The elapsed period to the end of the reference week that an employed person has held their main job, that is the job in which a person works the most hours.

Number of weeks worked

The number of weeks within the reference period where the child did any work. For example, if a child worked one hour a week for five weeks, this would constitute five weeks worked. If a child worked 20 hours a week for five weeks, this would also constitute five weeks worked.

BACK TO TOP

O

Occupation

An occupation is a collection of jobs that are sufficiently similar in their title and tasks, skill level and skill specialisation which are grouped together for the purposes of classification.

On call

A shift arrangement, for being available, when not at work, to be contacted to resume work. An allowance may be paid to the employee for being on call.

One parent family

A family consisting of a lone parent with at least one dependent or non-dependent child (regardless of age) who is also usually resident in the family. This family type may or may not include other related individuals.

Opposite-sex couple

Two persons of the opposite sex who are in a couple relationship and are usually resident in the same household.

Ordinary time cash earnings

Payment for award, standard or agreed hours of work, including allowances, penalty payments, payments by measured result and regular bonuses and commissions. Ordinary time cash earnings are inclusive of amounts salary sacrificed. Excluded are non-cash components of salary packages, overtime payments, retrospective pay, pay in advance, leave loadings, severance pay, and termination and redundancy payments.

Ordinary time hourly rates of pay index

Measures quarterly change in ordinary time hourly rates of pay.

Ordinary time hours

Award, standard or agreed hours of work paid for at the ordinary rate.

Ordinary time hours paid for

Award, standard or agreed hours of work, paid for at the ordinary time rate. Included is stand-by or reporting time which is part of standard hours of work, and that part of annual leave, paid sick leave and long service leave taken during the reference period.

Other families

A family of related individuals residing in the same household. These individuals do not form a couple or parent-child relationship with any other person in the household and are not related to a couple or one parent family in the household.

If two brothers, for example, are living together and neither is a partner, a lone parent or a child to someone else in the household, and neither is related to any person in the household who is in a couple or one-parent family, then they are classified as an ‘other family’. However, if the two brothers share the household with the daughter of one of the brothers and her husband, then both brothers are attached to the couple family and classified as other related individuals.

Outgoing rotation group

The LFS sample is made up of eight rotation groups of approximately equal size and characteristics. Each rotation group is in the survey for a period of eight months. Each month a new rotation group enters the sample to replace the rotation group that completed its eighth survey the month before. During its eighth and last month in the survey, a rotation group is called the outgoing rotation group.

Overtime

Work undertaken which is outside, or in addition to, ordinary working hours in main job, whether paid or unpaid.

Overtime earnings

Payment for hours worked in excess of award, standard or agreed hours of work.

Overtime hours

The number of hours paid for in excess of ordinary time hours.

Overtime hours paid for

Hours paid for in excess of award, standard or agreed hours of work.

Owner managers of incorporated enterprises (OMIEs)

People who work in their own incorporated enterprise, that is, a business entity which is registered as a separate legal entity to its members or owners (may also be known as a limited liability company). An owner manager of an incorporated enterprise may or may not hire one or more employees in addition to themselves and/or other owners of that business.

Owner managers of unincorporated enterprises (OMUEs)

A person who operates his or her own unincorporated enterprise or engages independently in a profession or trade.

An owner manager of an unincorporated enterprise may or may not hire one or more employees in addition to themselves and/or other owners of that business.

BACK TO TOP

P

Paid leave entitlements

The entitlement of employees to either paid holiday leave, paid sick leave in their main job.

Parent or guardian

A parent is a natural, step, adoptive or foster mother or father of a child and resident in the same household as the child. A guardian is a person aged 15 years and over who is reported as being the guardian or main carer of a child, regardless of the existence of any legal arrangement, and resident in the same household as the child. The term 'parent' also refers to guardians.

Partially self-funded

Funded by government pension and/or allowance and at least one other income source.

Participation rate

For any group, the labour force expressed as a percentage of the civilian population aged 15 years and over in the same group.

Part-time employees

Employees who normally work less than the agreed or award hours for a full-time employee in their occupation. If agreed or award hours do not apply, employees are regarded as part-time if they ordinarily work less than 35 hours per week.

Part-time preference

People who preferred to work one to 34 hours a week. Part-time preference is derived by applying data collected on respondents' preferred number of hours to those who intended to or might enter the labour force in the next 12 months.

Part-time workers

Employed persons who usually worked fewer than 35 hours a week (in all jobs) and who either did so during the reference week, or were not at work in the reference week.

Part-time workers (usual)

Employed people who usually work less than 35 hours a week (in all jobs).

Part-time workers in main job

People who were employees in their main job and were:
  • Single job holders who usually work fewer than 35 hours a week, and did so in the reference week; or
  • Multiple job holders who actually worked fewer than 35 hours in their main job in the reference week, or were away from their main job but usually work fewer than 35 hours a week in their main job.

Payroll tax

Employers whose wage and salary payments reach a specified level, as defined in each state or territory’s payroll tax legislation, are liable to pay this tax. Employers may claim exemptions for some categories of employees. In addition, certain types of organisations are exempt from payroll tax. The types of organisations that may be exempt, depending on the state of operation, include religious, not-for-profit, health care, educational and state and local government organisations.

Percentile

Any of a hundred divisions of an earnings or hours distribution. For example:
  • 25% of employees earn less than or equal to the 25th percentile
  • 75% of employees earn less than or equal to the 75th percentile.

Permanent or fixed term employees

Permanent employees are usually employed on an ongoing basis and are entitled to paid annual and sick leave. Fixed term employees are employed for a specified period of employment, and may be entitled to paid leave.

Permanent visa

The permission or authority granted by Australia for foreign nationals to live in Australia permanently.

Personal reasons for not actively looking for work

Includes 'own short-term illness or injury' or 'long-term health condition or disability', 'pregnancy', 'attending an educational institution', 'had no need to work', 'welfare payments or pension may be affected', and 'moved house or on holidays'.

Persons in the labour force

Persons who were classified as being in the labour force, that is, either employed or unemployed.

Persons not in the labour force

Persons who were not classified as employed or unemployed. Persons not in the labour force can be divided into those who are marginally attached to the labour force, and those who are not. Persons who are marginally attached to the labour force satisfy some, but not all, of the criteria required to be classified as unemployed.

Persons not in the labour force are considered to be marginally attached to the labour force if they:
  • wanted to work and were actively looking for work (but, unlike unemployed persons, were not available to start work in the reference week); or
  • wanted to work and were not actively looking for work but were available to start work within four weeks.

Persons not in the labour force are not marginally attached to the labour force if they:
  • did not want to work; or
  • wanted to work but were not actively looking for work and were not available to start work within four weeks.

Preferred number of extra hours

The number of extra hours a week an underemployed worker would have preferred to work.

Preferred number of hours

The number of hours unemployed persons would like to work each week.

Preferred to work more hours

Employed persons who usually work 0–34 hours each week and would prefer to work more hours than they usually work.

Preferred total number of hours

The total number of hours per week an underemployed worker would prefer to work.

Previous job

The last job in which employment ceased during the last 12 months.

Private dwelling

A residential structure which is self-contained, owned or rented by the occupants, and intended solely for residential use. A private dwelling may be a flat, part of a house, or even a room, but can also be a house attached to, or rooms above shops or offices.

Private health insurance

Includes hospital and/or extras cover only. People who reported ambulance cover only, or other health arrangements (e.g. DVA), are not considered to have private health insurance.

BACK TO TOP

Q

Qualification

Formal certification, issued by a relevant approved body, in recognition that a person has achieved an appropriate level of learning outcomes or competencies relevant to identified individual, professional, industry or community needs. Statements of attainment awarded for partial completion of a course of study at a particular level are excluded.

Quarterly hours worked in all jobs

Quarterly hours worked in all jobs is a three month aggregate of monthly hours worked in all jobs. It shows the total number of actual hours worked by all employed persons in a period of three calendar months.

BACK TO TOP

R

Reason left or lost last job

Unemployed persons who have worked in the last two years are classified by whether they left or lost their job.

Persons who provided one of the following reasons for ceasing their last job are categorised as leaving their last job:
  • unsatisfactory work arrangements/pay/hours;
  • to obtain a better job or conditions;
  • the job was a holiday job;
  • they left the job to return to studies;
  • their last job was running their own business which closed down or was sold, for reasons other than financial difficulties;
  • start own or new business;
  • family reasons: get married, have children, holidays, caring, move house, spouse transferred; or
  • retired.

Persons who provide one of the following reasons for ceasing their last job are categorised as losing their last job:
  • laid off or retrenched from that job;
  • left that job because of their own ill-health or injury;
  • job was seasonal or temporary;
  • they were running their own business and the business closed down because of financial difficulties; or
  • dismissed.

Reason not in the labour force

A person's reason for not participating in the labour force.

Reason work resumed

Reason work resumed statistics relate to the reason for ending the stoppage of work as reported and not necessarily to the reason(s) for settling all matters in dispute. Therefore, they do not reflect the relative importance of the work of various industrial tribunals operating under state and federal legislation. The classification of Reason work resumed is as follows:

Negotiation without intervention of a third party: Negotiation between the parties involved, or their representatives, without the intervention or assistance of authorities constituted under state or federal industrial legislation, and without mediation.

State legislation: Intervention or assistance of an industrial authority or authorities created by, or constituted under, state industrial/workplace relations legislation. Disputes that are referred to a mediator by a state industrial tribunal, either on a voluntary or compulsory basis, are included under 'Mediation' (except in instances where mediation is directed and a return to work ordered).

Federal legislation: Intervention or assistance of the Fair Work Commission (FWC). Disputes that are referred to a mediator by FWC, either on a voluntary or compulsory basis, are included under 'Mediation' (except in instances where mediation is directed and a return to work ordered).

Pre-determined return to work: Disputes for which a return to work is determined prior to the industrial action, e.g. when employees decide to go out on strike for a pre-determined period of 24 hours.

Resumption without negotiation: Disputes in which employees decide to return to work without the dispute being resolved, and without any negotiations having taken place to prompt the return, e.g. stop-work meetings, and disputes where employees decide to return to work to avoid further loss of earnings or for other reasons. This category may include some disputes which are settled subject to subsequent negotiation, such as industrial court hearings.

Mediation: Disputes that are settled through the assistance of a mediator, either voluntarily or as directed by a state or federal industrial tribunal, e.g. FWC.

Other reasons: Disputes whose settlement cannot be ascribed to any other category, e.g. replacing employees on strike or locked out, permanent closure of business, and dismissal or resignation of employees.

Reasons for turning down job offers

Classifies reasons for turning down job offers in current period of unemployment according to the following categories:

Unsuitable Job Conditions
  • Unsatisfactory pay/conditions
  • Not in locality or line of work
  • Hours unsuitable
  • Unwilling to move state/city
  • Too far to travel

Personal Reasons
  • Own short-term illness or injury
  • Own long-term health condition or disability
  • Pregnancy
  • Affect welfare payments/pension may be affected
  • Returned to study

Family Reasons
  • Childcare
  • Ill health of other than self

Other
  • Waiting to start another job/starting new business
  • Other reasons
  • Did not know

Recent migrant

A person who was born overseas, who arrived in Australia after 2003, was aged 15 years or over on arrival, was not an Australian citizen or New Zealand citizen on arrival, does not currently hold New Zealand citizenship, and has permanent Australian resident status.

Reference week

The week preceding the week in which the interview was conducted.

Relationship in household

The relationship of each person to the family reference person, or where the person is not part of a family that person's relationship to the household reference person.

Remoteness

The Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS) is used to define remoteness. The Remoteness Structure is described in detail in the publication Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS): Volume 5 - Remoteness Structure, July 2011 (cat. no. 1270.0.55.005).

Response rate

The number of fully responding dwellings expressed as a percentage of the total number of dwellings excluding sample loss. Examples of sample loss include: dwellings where all persons are out of scope and/or coverage; vacant dwellings; dwellings under construction; dwellings converted to non-dwellings; derelict dwellings; and demolished dwellings.

Retired from the labour force

People who had previously worked and had retired from work or looking for work, and did not intend to look for, or take up, work in the future.

Retrenchment

Includes retrenchment occurring in any job held in the three months prior to the survey reference week, not just the last job, and irrespective of a person’s current labour force status. This item is measured by the total number of persons who ceased a job during the last three months because they were either:
  • Retrenched, made redundant, employer went out of business, no work was available; or
  • Self-employed persons whose business closed down for economic reasons, including went broke, liquidated, no work, no supply or demand.

BACK TO TOP

S

Salary sacrifice

Salary sacrifice is defined as an arrangement where an employee agrees to forgo part of their pre-tax salary in return for benefits. Common types of salary sacrifice arrangements include pre-tax contributions to superannuation funds and novated leases for motor vehicles.

Same-sex couple

Two persons of the same sex who are in a couple relationship and are usually resident in the same household.

School holidays

The periods of time between school terms. It includes all school holidays in the reference period. It excludes holidays taken during school terms, public holidays that fall during school terms and pupil free days. Note that school holidays differ between states and territories. All work undertaken by home-schooled children has been included under school holidays.

School-based apprenticeship or traineeship

School-based apprenticeships or traineeships are undertaken part-time while at school and combine paid employment as an apprentice or trainee, vocational training and senior secondary school studies.

School study

School study is participation in primary or secondary level education, regardless of the institution or location where the study is or was undertaken. It therefore includes such study undertaken in a Technical and Further Education (TAFE) or other institution.

School terms

The official periods of time during which school was attended in the reference period. It includes weekends that fall between two weeks of school, pupil free days and public holidays that would otherwise constitute a school day. Note that school terms differ between states and territories.

Seasonal adjustment

Process of removing systematic calendar related effects from the original series.

Second job

A job, other than the main job

Secondary applicant

A person whose visa was granted on the basis of being the family member (e.g. spouse, dependent child) of a person who qualified for a visa. They will have been identified on the visa application as a secondary or an 'other' applicant with the person who met the visa criteria being specifically identified on the visa application as the 'main applicant'. The type of visa is granted to the main applicant, and the secondary applicants (i.e. spouse or dependents).

Sector

Public sector comprises local government authorities and all government departments and agencies created by, or reporting to the Commonwealth or State/Territory Parliaments. The private sector comprises all organisations not classified as public sector.

Sector of main job

Sector of main job is used to classify a respondent’s employer as a public or private enterprise. The public sector includes all government units, such as government departments, non-market non-profit institutions that are controlled and mainly financed by government, and corporations and quasi-corporations that are controlled by government.

Severance, termination and redundancy payments

Costs incurred by employers on resignation, retirement, retrenchment or disablement of an employee.

Shift arrangements

A system of working whereby the daily hours of operation at the place of employment are split into at least two set work periods (shifts), for different groups of workers.

Shift work

A system of working whereby the daily hours of operation at the place of employment are split into at least two set work periods (shifts) for different groups of workers. Types of shifts include:
  • Irregular shifts - Describes shifts that do not follow a set pattern.
  • Regular shifts - Shifts worked to a set pattern of times. Regular shift times are presented as follows:
    • morning shifts - between 6.00am and 12.00pm;
    • afternoon shifts - between 12.00pm and 5.00pm; and
    • evening, night or graveyard shift - between 5.00pm and 6.00am
  • Rotating shift - A shift arrangement, in which the shift worked changes periodically from one time period to another, for example from mornings or afternoons to evenings or nights.
  • Split shift - Occurs when the worked period is broken by an extended unpaid 'free' period, thereby constituting an extended working day consisting of two (or more) shifts.

Sick leave

The entitlement of an employee to paid sick leave in their main job.

Social marital status

Social marital status is the relationship status of an individual with reference to another person who is usually resident in the household. A marriage exists when two people live together as husband and wife, or partners, regardless of whether the marriage is formalised through registration. Individuals are, therefore, regarded as married if they are in a de facto marriage, or if they are living with the person to whom they are registered as married.

Socio-Economic Status (SEIFA-IRSD)

This is one of four Socio-economic Indexes for Areas (SEIFAs) compiled by the ABS following each Census of Population and Housing, from various characteristics of persons resident in particular areas. The Index of Disadvantage summarises attributes such as income, educational attainment, unemployment and occupation skill levels. The index refers to the area (the Statistical Area Level 1) in which a person lives, not to the socio-economic situation of the particular individual. The index ranks areas on a continuum from most disadvantaged to least disadvantaged. A low score on the index (i.e. lowest quintile or decile) indicates a high proportion of relatively disadvantaged people in an area. Such areas include many households with low income, people with no qualifications and many people in low skill occupations. It should be noted that it cannot be concluded that an area with a very high score has a large proportion of relatively advantaged ('well off') people, as there are no variables in the index to indicate this. It can only be concluded that such an area has a relatively low incidence of disadvantage. For further information about the indexes, see Census of Population and Housing: Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas (SEIFA), 2011 (cat. no. 2033.0.55.001).

Standby

People who are usually waiting to restart work or people who have had to restart work after being recalled, without additional pay and allowances.

State government

All public sector units controlled by state/territory governments are classified to the State Level of Government. This includes government units controlled by a state/territory government, public financial corporations controlled by a state/territory government and public non-financial corporations controlled by a state/territory.

Status in employment

Status in employment is determined by an employed person's position in relation to their job, and is usually in respect of a person's main job if they hold more than one job. Employed persons are classified according to the reported relationship between the person and the enterprise for which they work, together with the legal status of the enterprise where this can be established. The groups include:
  • Employees
  • Owner manager of incorporated enterprise (OMIEs) with employees;
  • Owner manager of incorporated enterprise (OMIEs) without employees;
  • Owner manager of unincorporated enterprise (OMUEs) with employees;
  • Owner manager of unincorporated enterprise (OMUEs) without employees; and
  • Contributing family workers.

Stock estimates

Stock estimates are a measure of certain attributes at a point in time and can be thought of as stocktakes. For example, the total number of employed persons is an account of the number of people who were considered employed in the Labour Force Survey reference week.

Stood down

Persons who are in a situation where an employer is unable to provide useful work for its employees, for a particular period of time, for circumstances beyond its control.

Suitable job

A suitable job is:
  • any job for which the person is qualified (if applicable), is capable of performing and which provides adequate job conditions (including pay, hours, travel to work, etc.); and
  • it is a job that would be accepted by the person irrespective of whether a move was required.

Superannuation

Employer contributions to superannuation funds on behalf of employees. Contributions by employees, or employer contributions under salary sacrifice arrangements, are excluded.

Superannuation scheme

Any fund, association or organisation set up for the purpose of providing financial cover for members when they retire from work. Contributions could either have been made by the respondent, the respondent's partner or the respondent's employer.

BACK TO TOP

T

TAFE

A Technical and Further Education institution. In Victoria this may also be interpreted as Training and Further Education.

Temporary resident

A temporary resident is a person who:
  • was born overseas;
  • who first arrived to live in Australia (for one year or more) after 2006;
  • was aged 15 years or over on arrival;
  • was not an Australian citizen or New Zealand citizen on arrival;
  • does not currently hold New Zealand citizenship; and
  • has a temporary visa.

Temporary visa

The permission or authority granted by Australia for a foreign national to travel to Australia and stay up to a specified period of time. Temporary entrants include:
  • tourists;
  • students;
  • business people;
  • people with specialist skills, such as managers, academics and medical practitioners;
  • people who make a social or cultural contribution to the community, such as entertainers, media and film staff, sports people, religious workers, visiting academics and public lecturers; and
  • people who contribute to the development of international relations, such as participants in exchange programs and working holiday makers.

Time since last job

The elapsed time since ceasing the last job.

Time(s) of the day worked

Refers to the time(s) of the day usually worked that is the most common pattern of work undertaken. Time used for preparation is included. Children were counted in each of the time period categories they worked in, even if they did not work for the whole of that period. Children may appear in more than one category as they may have worked across more than one of the time periods presented.

Total hourly rates of pay index

Measures quarterly change in combined ordinary time and overtime hourly rates of pay.

Total hours paid for

The sum of ordinary time hours paid for plus overtime hours paid for.

Trade union

An organisation consisting predominantly of employees, the principal activities of which include the negotiation of rates of pay and conditions of employment for its members.

Trade union member

Employed persons who are a member of a trade union, not necessarily in connection with their main job.

Trade union member in main job

Employed persons with membership in a trade union in connection with their main job.

Trainee

A trainee is a person who has entered into a legal contract (called a training agreement or contract of training) with an employer, to serve a period of training in a vocational area (e.g. office administration, information technology, hospitality). Apprentices and trainees are identified by their answer to a question specifically pertaining to the Australian Apprenticeship Scheme. Note that School-based Apprenticeships/Traineeships are excluded.

Trend series

A smoothed seasonally adjusted series of estimates. See Explanatory Notes for more detail.

Type of visa as at time of interview (current visa)

The visa the respondent held at the time of interview that allowed them to stay in Australia. Categories for type of visa are:
  • Australian citizen - Persons who arrived to live in Australia on a permanent or temporary visa and have since obtained Australian citizenship;
  • Permanent Skilled - Skilled migrants are selected on the basis of their age, skills and their ability to quickly make a contribution to the Australian economy. Includes Independent, Family or government sponsored, and Employer sponsored visas;
  • Permanent Family - Includes Partner, Child and Parent visas;
  • Permanent Humanitarian - Includes Special Humanitarian Program and Refugee visas;
  • Permanent Other/n.f.d. - Includes all other permanent visa categories or where the type of permanent visa could not be determined;
  • Temporary Student - Temporary student visas are granted to people studying or seeking study, training or skills development in Australia, and are planning to stay in Australia for 12 months or more; and
  • Temporary Other/n.f.d. - Includes tourists, working holiday makers and visitors planning to stay in Australia for 12 months or more, or where the type of temporary visa could not be determined.

A respondent's visa type as at the time of interview may be different from the type of visa held on arrival to live in Australia. This may be the result of a respondent obtaining Australian citizenship, or the respondent's successful onshore application to another visa type after arrival.

Type of visa on arrival to live in Australia (initial visa)

The visa the respondent held when they first arrived in Australia to live that allowed them to come to Australia. Categories for type of visa on arrival to live in Australia are as for 'Type of visa as at time of interview.

A respondent's type of visa on arrival to live in Australia may differ from the type of visa held as at time of interview. This may be the result of a respondent obtaining Australian citizenship, or the respondent's successful onshore application to another visa type after arrival.

BACK TO TOP

U

Underemployed workers

Employed persons aged 15 years and over who want, and are available for, more hours of work than they currently have. They comprise:
  • persons employed part-time who want to work more hours and are available to start work with more hours, either in the reference week or in the four weeks subsequent to the survey; or
  • persons employed full-time who worked part-time hours in the reference week for economic reasons (such as being stood down or insufficient work being available). It is assumed that these people wanted to work full-time in the reference week and would have been available to do so.

Underemployment rate (proportion of labour force)

The number of underemployed workers, expressed as a percentage of the labour force.

Underemployment ratio (proportion of employed)

The number of underemployed workers, expressed as a percentage of total employed persons.

Underutilisation rate

The sum of the number of persons unemployed and the number of persons in underemployment, expressed as a proportion of the labour force.

Unemployed

Persons aged 15 years and over who were not employed during the reference week, and:
  • had actively looked for full-time or part-time work at any time in the four weeks up to the end of the reference week and were available for work in the reference week; or
  • were waiting to start a new job within four weeks from the end of the reference week and could have started in the reference week if the job had been available then.

Unemployed looked for full-time work

Unemployed persons who:
  • actively looked for full-time work; or
  • were waiting to start a new full-time job.

Unemployed looked for only part-time work

Unemployed persons who:
  • actively looked for part-time work only; or
  • were waiting to start a new part-time job.

Unemployment rate

For any group, the number of unemployed persons expressed as a percentage of the labour force in the same group.

Unincorporated enterprise

A business entity in which the owner and the business are legally inseparable, so that the owner is liable for any business debts that are incurred.

Unmatched common sample

The unmatched common sample consists of respondents from households who were part of the seven common rotation groups for the current and previous month (i.e. not part of the incoming group), but for whom a response was obtained in the current but not the previous month, or vice versa. This may be due to, for example, new or different persons residing in the same household, or the same respondent from a household being unable to be contacted in the current or previous month.

Unmatched sample

The unmatched sample for a particular month identifies those respondents who do not have a labour force status for the previous month, or those who do not have a labour force status for the current month.

The total unmatched sample consists of distinct two groups:
  • the incoming rotation group, and
  • the unmatched common sample.

Unpaid activities

Includes caring for own children or other people's children including grandchildren. Also includes caring for elderly or someone with long-term illness or disability or undertaking unpaid voluntary work.

Usual hours of work

Usual hours of work refer to a typical period rather than the hours worked in a specified reference period. The concept of usual hours applies both to persons at work and to persons temporarily absent from work, and is defined as the hours worked during a typical week or day. Actual hours worked (for a specific reference period) may differ from usual hours worked due to illness, vacation, strike, overtime work, a change of job, or similar reasons.

Usual number of hours

The number of hours usually worked in a week.

Usual resident

A person who usually lives in that particular dwelling and regards it as their own or main home.

BACK TO TOP

V

Vocational Education and Training (VET)

VET relates to education and training that aims to equip people with knowledge, skills and/or competences required in particular occupations or, more broadly, on the labour market. VET is a component of apprenticeships or traineeships, including those that are school-based. However, VET can be undertaken without also undertaking an apprenticeship or traineeship.

Volume measures of underutilisation

There are generally two approaches for analysing data related to labour underutilisation - headcount (number of persons) and volume measures (based on hours). While headline measures of unemployment and underemployment usually relate to headcounts, the hours measures provide further information important for analysing the labour market.

Specifically, volume measures relate to the unused potential hours of labour in comparison to the hours usually worked by employed persons. They are relevant for analysing the spare capacity of the labour force, as they take into account the number of hours sought and additional hours preferred by individuals whose labour is not fully utilised.

Underutilised hours of labour are comprised of:
  • for unemployed persons: the number of hours of work sought;
  • for part-time underemployed persons: the number of additional hours preferred; and
  • for full-time underemployed persons (i.e. full-time employed persons who worked less than 35 hours in the reference week for economic reasons): the difference between the number of hours usually worked and actually worked in the reference week.

The total potential hours in the labour force is the sum of the hours usually worked by all employed persons, plus the number of hours of underutilised labour as described above.

BACK TO TOP

W

Wage price index

Measures changes in the price of wages.

Wanted a paid job

People who are not in the labour force and would like a paid job of any kind. Includes people who said 'depends'.

Wanted more hours

See 'Preferred to work more hours'.

Wanted to work

People not in the labour force who were not actively looking for work who answered 'yes' or 'maybe' when asked if they would like a job, as well as those people not in the labour force who were actively looking. It is assumed those people actively looking want a job.

Weekly earnings

Amount of ‘last total pay’ (i.e. before taxation, salary sacrifice and other deductions had been made) from wage and salary jobs prior to the interview. For persons paid other than weekly, earnings were converted to a weekly equivalent. No adjustment was made for any back payment of wage increases, prepayment of leave or bonuses, etc.

Weekly ordinary time earnings

Weekly ordinary time earnings refers to one week's earnings of employees for the reference period, attributable to award, standard or agreed hours of work. It is calculated before taxation and any other deductions (e.g. superannuation, board and lodging) have been made.

Included in ordinary time earnings are award, workplace and enterprise bargaining payments, and other agreed base rates of pay, over-award and over-agreed payments, penalty payments, shift and other allowances, commissions and retainers, bonuses and similar payments related to the reference period, payments under incentive or piecework, payments under profit sharing schemes normally paid each pay period, payment for leave taken during the reference period, all workers' compensation payments made through the payroll, and salary payments made to directors.

Excluded are amounts salary sacrificed, non-cash components of salary packages, overtime payments, reimbursements to employees for travel, entertainment, meals and other expenditure incurred in conducting the business of their employer, and other payments not related to the reference period.

Weekly total cash earnings

The sum of weekly ordinary time cash earnings plus weekly overtime earnings.

Weekly total earnings

Weekly total earnings of employees is equal to weekly ordinary time earnings plus weekly overtime earnings.

Weight reference period

The period to which the expenditure weights relate.

Wife/partner

A person in a couple relationship with another person usually resident in the same household. The couple relationship may be in either a registered or de facto marriage and includes same-sex couples.

With paid leave entitlements

Employees who were entitled to either paid holiday leave or paid sick leave (or both) in their main job.

Without paid leave entitlements

Employees who were not entitled to paid holiday leave and paid sick leave, or did not know whether they were entitled to paid holiday leave or paid sick leave in their main job.

Worked at some time in the last 12 months

People who worked in a job which lasted for two weeks or more, in the last 12 months, regardless of whether they worked full-time or part-time.

Worked full-time

People who usually worked 35 hours or more per week in the job in which the work-related injury or illness occurred.

Worked in the last 12 months

Work occurred during the 12 month reference period if the child undertook activities for pay, profit, commission or payment in kind in a job, business or on a farm, or worked without pay in a family business or farm. Some examples of children's work include carrying out work for non-household members for payment, busking or delivering leaflets. Note that chores undertaken for the child's household are excluded.

Worked on a fixed-term contract

Employees with a contract of employment which specifies that the employment will be terminated on a particular date/event. Note, in some instances employees excludes owner managers of incorporated enterprises.

Worked part-time

People who usually worked less than 35 hours or more per week in the job in which the work-related injury or illness occurred.

Workers' compensation

Workers' compensation includes:
  • payments by an insurer or other liable party for costs related to a work-related injury or illness;
  • medical payments, incapacity payments (income maintenance and salary top-up), rehabilitation payments, travel payments and legal payments; and
  • any 'settlement' or 'judgement of claim'.

Workers’ compensation costs

Workers’ compensation costs comprise, in general, the costs of insurance premiums paid plus any other costs not reimbursed by insurers. Premium rates are usually determined by considering the industry of the employer and the employer’s previous claims history. Non-reimbursed costs may vary depending on the legislation which applies in each state, but can include wages and salaries, other costs such as medical and legal costs, and lump sum settlement payments. In addition, most states and territories allow very large employers to self-insure, where, except in extreme circumstances, workers’ compensation costs are borne by the employers.

Working days lost

Working days lost refers to working days lost by employees directly and indirectly involved in the dispute.

Working days lost per employee involved

The average number of working days lost per employee involved in the dispute, calculated by dividing the number of working days lost in the dispute by the number of employees involved (both directly and indirectly).

Working days lost per thousand employees

Working days lost per thousand employees are calculated for a quarterly period by dividing the total number of working days lost in the period by the total number of employees in the Australian labour force in the period (obtained from the ABS Labour Force Survey (LFS)) and multiplying by 1,000. LFS employee estimates are revised periodically. As a result, estimates of working days lost per thousand employees are also subject to revision.

Work-related injury or illness

Any injury or illness or disease which first occurred in the last 12 months, where a person suffers either physically or mentally from a condition that has arisen out of, or in the course of, employment.

The injury or illness was considered to be in scope if the respondent first became aware of it in the last 12 months, even though the cause of the injury or illness may have occurred outside the 12 month reference period. Included are injuries or illnesses that occurred while commuting to and from work, outside the place of work but while on work duty, or during work breaks.

Information was collected about the respondent's most recent work-related injury or illness if there was more than one work-related injury or illness in the reference period.

Works on a contract basis

Owner managers who were engaged by an organisation to provide a particular service or undertake a particular task at an agreed price or rate, and generally for a specified period.


BACK TO TOP


Back to top of the page