4655.0 - Australian Environmental-Economic Accounts, 2019 Quality Declaration 
ARCHIVED ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 26/07/2019   
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Aluminium is a chemical element and a soft, ductile metal.

Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC)

The Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC) is the standard classification used in Australian and New Zealand for the collection, compilation, and publication of industry statistics.

Basic prices

The basic price is the amount receivable by the producer from the purchaser for a unit of a good or service produced as output, minus any tax payable plus any subsidy receivable, on that unit as a consequence of its production or sale. It excludes any transport charges invoiced separately by the producer.


Bauxite is an aluminium ore and the world’s main source of aluminium.


Biocarbon is the carbon stored in the biosphere, in living and dead biomass and soils in terrestrial and marine vegetated ecosystems.


The biosphere is the part of the Earth system comprising all ecosystems and living organisms in the atmosphere, on land (terrestrial biosphere), or in the oceans (marine biosphere), including derived dead organic matter such as litter, soil organic matter, and oceanic detritus.

Black coal

Black coal is a sedimentary organic rock consisting of anthracite, bituminous and sub-bituminous coals. Black coal is primarily used as a solid fuel to generate electricity and for coke production within the steel making process.

Brown coal

Brown coal, also known as lignite, is a low quality, brownish-black coal, typically with a high moisture content.

Carbon Pricing Mechanism

The carbon pricing mechanism (CPM) was a scheme that put a price on Australia's carbon pollution. It was introduced on 1 July 2012 by the Clean Energy Act 2011 and related legislation, and applied to Australia's biggest carbon emitters (called liable entities). Under the mechanism, liable entities were required to pay a price for the carbon emissions they produced each year. This covered approximately 60 per cent of Australia's carbon emissions, including those from electricity generation, stationary energy, landfill, wastewater, industrial processes and fugitive emissions. The CPM was abolished on 1 July 2014 with the repeal of the Clean Energy Act 2011.

Carbon stock

Carbon stock is the quantity of carbon held in a reservoir at a point in time.


Condensate is a liquid mixture of pentanes and heavier hydrocarbons that form part of the vapour phase of natural gas in the reservoir and become liquid under standard field separation conditions.


Construction is the process of adding structure to real property or the building or assembling of infrastructure. It includes additions, alterations, reconstruction, installation and maintenance and repairs of buildings and other structures.


Copper is a chemical element and a ductile metal with very high thermal and electrical conductivity. It is used as a conductor of heat and electricity, a building material, and as a constituent of various metal alloys.

Crude oil

Crude oil is a mixture of hydrocarbons, existing in the liquid state; both in natural underground reservoirs and at atmospheric pressure after passing through surface separating facilities.

Distributed water

Distributed water is that water supplied to a user including through a natural (e.g. a river) or non-natural (piped or open channel) network, and where an economic transaction has occurred for the exchange of this water. The majority of distributed water is supplied by the Water, sewerage and drainage services industry (ANZSIC Division 28). The water supply component consists of units mainly engaged in storage, purification or distribution of water by pipeline or carrier. It also includes the operation of irrigation systems that supply water to a farm and the supply of steam and hot water. Distributed water includes potable, mains and raw water but does not include reuse or bulk water.

Economic asset

An economic asset is a store of value representing a benefit or series of benefits accruing to the economic owner by holding or using the entity over a period of time. It is a means of carrying forward value from one accounting period to another.

Economic Demonstrated Resource

An Economic Demonstrated Resource is a resource judged to be economically extractable. The quantity and quality are computed partly from specific measurements and partly by extrapolating from geological evidence.


Electricity is the flow of electrical power or charge. It is commonly derived from burning organic matter, especially coal and natural gas. Other sources include hydroelectricity, solar photovoltaic, wind and nuclear.


An emission is the release of a particular gas to the atmosphere as a result of a certain activity. Emissions can be of the following four types: 1) generated - the gross result of a process or activity; 2) recovered - the diversion of emissions for use in a secondary process, such as power generation; 3) sinks - the process of removing carbon from the atmosphere; and 4) net emissions - remaining gas released to the atmosphere after generation, recovery and sinks are taken into account.


Intensity is a measure of the environmental recourse consumed to produce one unit of economic output.

Environmental accounts

Environmental Accounts are accounts produced using the principles of the System of Environmental-Economic Accounting (SEEA). These accounts are produced in a systematic manner, using principles that allow their integration with information produced in accordance with the SEEA.

Environmental asset

Environmental assets are those naturally occurring living and non-living components of the Earth, together comprising the bio-physical environment that may provide benefits to humanity.

Environmental protection activities

Environmental protection activities are those activities whose primary purpose is the prevention, reduction and elimination of pollution and other forms of degradation of the environment.

Environmental protection specific services

Environmental protection specific services are services related to the protection of the environment and that are produced by economic units for sale or own use. Examples of environmental protection specific services are waste and wastewater management and treatment services.

Environmental tax

An environmental tax is a tax whose base is a physical unit (or a proxy of it) of something that has a proven specific negative impact on the environment. The SEEA Framework allocates environmental taxes across four categories: energy taxes; transport taxes; pollution taxes; and resource taxes.

Environmentally related/connected products

Environmentally related/connected products are products whose use directly serves environmental protection/resource management purposes but which are not environmental protection/resource management specific services or inputs into characteristic activities.

Excise duty

Excise duty is levied on a variety of petroleum products, including gasoline (petrol), diesel, aviation fuels, kerosene, heating and fuel oil, and crude oil and condensate. Excise is also levied on non-petroleum based fuels, including ethanol and biodiesel fuels (includes the Product Stewardship for Oil Program).


Exports are goods and services provided by residents to non-residents.

Fossil fuel

A fossil fuel is a natural fuel derived from decomposed or partly decomposed organic matter (e.g. oil, natural gas and coal).


Geocarbon is the carbon stored in the geosphere, in fossil fuel deposits including coal, oil and gas, shale oil, sedimentary rocks including limestone, deep ocean sediments and methane clathrates, and the Earth’s crust.


Geosphere relates to the solid parts of earth, as distinct from the atmosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere.

Gigajoule (GJ)

A gigajoule (GJ) is a unit of energy equal to one billion (i.e. 1,000,000,000) joules, which is roughly equivalent to the energy content of 29 litres of petrol or 280 kilowatt hours of electricity.

Gigalitre (GL)

A gigalitre (GL) is a one billion litres.

Gigatonne (Gt)

A gigatonne (Gt) is one billion tonnes.


Gold is a chemical element and a dense, soft, malleable, ductile metal.

Government energy use

Government energy use is the use of energy by the general government sector. The principal function of the general government sector is to provide non-market goods and services (e.g. roads, hospitals, libraries) primarily financed by taxes, to regulate and influence economic activity, to maintain law and order, and to redistribute income by means of transfer payments. This sector covers the Commonwealth Government, state governments and local government municipalities, as well as associated agencies and non-departmental bodies. Public universities are also included in this sector. Public non-financial corporations are excluded from this sector.

Greenhouse gases (GHG)

Greenhouse gases (GHG) are those gaseous constituents of the atmosphere, both natural and anthropogenic, that absorb and re-emit infrared radiation. The three key greenhouse gases are carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4).

Gross domestic product (GDP)

Gross domestic product (GDP) is the total market value of goods and services produced in Australia within a given period after deducting the cost of goods and services used up in the process of production but before deducting allowances for the consumption of fixed capital. Thus GDP is expressed in market prices. It is equivalent to gross national expenditure plus exports of goods and services less imports of goods and services.

Gross energy

Gross energy is the energy contained in primary energy (energy sourced directly from nature) as well as the energy derived from it.

Gross value added

Gross value added is the value of output at basic prices minus the value of intermediate consumption at purchasers' prices. The term is used to describe gross product by industry and by sector. Basic prices valuation of output removes the distortion caused by variations in the incidence of commodity taxes and subsidies across the output of individual industries.


A household is a group of persons who share the same living accommodation, who pool some, or all, of their income and wealth and who consume certain types of goods and services collectively, mainly housing and food.


Hydropower is a process in which flowing water is harnessed to generate power, especially electricity.


Imports are goods and services provided by non-residents to residents.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is a scientific body established by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) to review and assess scientific, technical and socio-economic information about climate change and its consequences.

Iron ore

Iron ore consists of rocks and minerals from which metallic iron can be extracted.

Kilolitre (kL)

A kilolitre (kL) is one thousand litres.

Kilotonne (Kt)

A kilotonne (Kt) is one thousand tonnes.

Kyoto Protocol

The Kyoto Protocol is an Intergovernmental agreement linked to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) which sets binding emission reduction targets for certain countries for a predefined commitment period.


A site used for the disposal of solid material by burial in the ground between layers of earth is called a landfill site.

Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)

Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is a combination of propane and butane, along with trace amounts of other compounds, recovered in either natural gas extraction or oil refining. The gases are transformed into a liquid to assist in transport.


The manufacturing industry is made up of units primarily engaged in the physical or chemical transformation of materials, substances or components into new products (except agriculture and construction). The materials, substances or components transformed by units in this division are raw materials that are products of agriculture, forestry, fishing and mining or products of other manufacturing units.

Megalitre (ML)

A megalitre (ML) is one million litres.

Megatonne (Mt)

A megatonne (Mt) is one million tonnes.

Minerals Resource Rent Tax

The minerals resource rent tax (MRRT) was a tax on profits related to the extraction of coal and iron ore. MRRT applied from 1 July 2012 to all new and existing coal or iron ore mining ventures in Australia. Following the introduction of the Minerals Resource Rent Tax Repeal and Other Measures Act 2014, which abolished the MRRT, entities ceased to accrue further MRRT liabilities from 1 October 2014.


The mining industry is made up of units primarily engaged in the extraction of naturally occurring mineral solids, such as coal and ores; liquid minerals, such as crude petroleum; and gases, such as natural gas from the earth, from an ore body, vein or seam. It also includes the removal of soil. The term mining is used in the broad sense to include: underground or open-cut mining; dredging; quarrying; well operations or evaporation pans; recovery from ore dumps or tailings as well as beneficiation activities (i.e. preparing, including crushing, screening, washing and floatation) and other preparation work customarily performed at the mine site, or as part of mining activity.

Natural gas

Natural gas is a combustible mixture of hydrocarbon gases. While natural gas is formed primarily of methane, its composition can vary widely, commonly including ethane, propane, butane and pentane.

Natural resources

On the national balance sheet, natural resources consist of naturally occurring resources such as land, water resources, uncultivated forests and deposits of minerals that have an economic value.

Net energy

Total net energy accounts for the conversion losses associated with transforming one form of energy into another form. In this way, estimates for total net energy avoid double-counting the amount of converted to primary energy.

Non-profit institutions

Non-profit institutions (NPIs) are organisations that are not-for-profit and non-profit-distributing; they are institutionally separate from government and are self-governing. Membership of a NPI is non-compulsory.

Organic waste material

Organic waste material is the component of the waste stream from plant or animal sources that is readily biodegradable.


Output consists of those goods and services produced within a business that become available for use outside that business, plus any goods and services produced for own final use.

Paper and cardboard

Paper and cardboard is a category of waste material whose main component is cellulose. Its recycled and reused forms include cardboard boxes, newspaper, office paper, envelopes, junk mail, cards, milk and juice cartons.

Petajoule (PJ)

A petajoule is equal to one million gigajoules. Petajoules are typically used to measure national or industry energy production and consumption.


Petroleum is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon or mixture of hydrocarbons as oil or gas, or in solution, found in sedimentary rocks.

Potable water

Potable water is treated water that is suitable for human consumption, e.g. drinking water.


Production is an activity that uses inputs of labour, capital, and goods and services to produce outputs of goods and services carried out under the responsibility, control and management of an institutional unit.

Purchaser’s price

The amount paid by the purchaser, excluding any deductible tax, in order to take delivery of a unit of a good or service at the time and place required by the purchaser. The purchaser’s price of a good includes any transport charges paid separately by the purchaser to take delivery at the required time and place.

Recyclable waste services

Recyclable waste services are services provided to treat or process waste materials so as to make them suitable for reuse.


Recycling is a resource recovery method involving the collection and/or processing of waste for use as a raw material in the manufacture of the same, or similar, non-waste product(s).

Refined products

Refined products include products derived from crude oil and other refinery feedstock (e.g. motor vehicle petrol and diesel, aviation petrol and turbine fuel, kerosene and heating oil, industrial diesel and fuel oil, naphtha and petroleum coke used as fuel).

Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs)

RECs are financial instruments each representing a quantity of renewable power generated. They are created by renewable energy power stations and by owners of small scale renewable power systems. Electricity retailers have an obligation, set annually and linked to the Renewable Energy Target, to acquire a certain amount of RECs and to surrender these to the Clean Energy Regulator. The purchase of RECs constitutes the payment of a tax.

Renewable Energy Target (RET)

The renewable energy target (RET) is split into two parts: the large-scale renewable energy target and the small-scale renewable energy scheme. These schemes create a financial incentive for investment in renewable energy sources through the creation and sale of renewable energy certificates (RECs).

Research and development

Research and development consists of creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including human knowledge, culture and society, and use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications.

Residence principle

When following the residence principle, the geographic boundary of a country is determined by the activities of economic units resident in that country.

Resource management activities

Resource management activities are those activities whose primary purpose is preserving and maintaining the stock of natural resources and hence safeguarding against damage and depletion.

Resource recovery

Resource recovery is the process of extracting materials or energy from a waste stream through re-use (using the product for the same or a different purpose without further production), recycling or recovering energy from waste.

Rest of the world

The rest of the world consists of all non-resident institutional units that enter into transactions with resident units, or have other economic links with resident units.

Reuse water

Reuse water is drainage, waste or storm water that has been used again without first being discharged to the environment. It may have been treated to some extent. It excludes ‘on-site’ recycling.


Silver is a chemical element and a soft transition metal with the highest electrical conductivity of any element and the highest thermal conductivity of any metal.

Solar energy

Solar energy is the energy the Earth receives from the sun, primarily as visible light and other forms of electromagnetic radiation. Uses of solar energy include electricity generation (by photovoltaic conversion or solar thermal generation) and to heat water in solar hot water systems.


Radio spectrum is an asset that is recognised as being of economic value from the time a licence is issued to use it. Within the System of National Accounts, spectrum licences fall under contracts, leases and licences and are recorded on the national balance sheet.

Subsoil assets

Subsoil assets are proven reserves of mineral and energy resources located on or below the Earth’s surface that are economically exploitable, given current technology and relative prices.

Supply table

A supply table at purchasers’ prices consists of a rectangular matrix. The rows correspond to the same groups of products as the matching use tables and the columns correspond to the supply from domestic production valued at basic prices. There are also columns for imports and the valuation adjustments necessary to record total supply of each group.

System of Environmental-Economic Accounting (SEEA)

The System of Environmental-Economic Accounting (SEEA) is a framework used to develop environmental accounts by integrating environmental information into an accounting framework. The SEEA provides a framework to understand and describe the inter-relationship between the natural environment and the economy.

Territory basis

Statistics produced on a territory basis use a geographic boundary defined by the national territory.

Timber assets

Timber assets consist of native standing timber and plantation standing timber.

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)

The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is an international environmental treaty negotiated at the UN Conference on Environment and Development (Rio de Janeiro, 1992). The objective of the treaty is to ‘stabilise greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system’.


Uranium is a heavy, radioactive metallic element, used as a source of nuclear energy.

Use table

A use table at purchasers’ prices consists of a set of product balances covering all products supplied within an economy arranged in the form of a rectangular matrix with the products, valued at purchasers’ prices, appearing in the rows and the columns indicating the disposition of these products to various types of uses.

Vehicle import duty

Vehicle import duty is a levy relating to applications to import a passenger vehicle into Australia. This duty is levied at between 5% and 10% of the customs value of the vehicle, with this value calculated either as the original country purchase price (which may be subject to depreciation allowance), or its Australian landed value.

Vehicle stamp duty

Vehicle stamp duty is a levy on applications to either register a vehicle or to transfer registration of a vehicle to another party. Stamp duty rates vary significantly across states and territories, and are generally based on the size (measured as either vehicle weight or engine size) and value of a given vehicle.


Waste consists of: any substance that is discarded, emitted or deposited in the environment in such volume, constituency or manner as to cause an alteration in the environment; any discarded, rejected, unwanted, surplus or abandoned substance; and/or any otherwise discarded, rejected, unwanted, surplus or abandoned substance intended for sale or for recycling, reprocessing, recovery, or purification by a separate operation from that which produced the substance.

Waste Management Services Industry

The Waste management services industry consists of enterprises whose predominant activity relates to the delivery of services in the collection, transportation, recycling, treatment, processing, disposal, managing and monitoring of waste materials (as described in ANZSIC Division D, subdivision 29).

Water consumption

Water consumption is that part of water use not distributed to other economic units and which does not return to the environment (to water resources, sea or ocean) because during use it has been incorporated into products, evaporated, transpired or otherwise consumed by households or businesses.

Water supply services

Water supply services are services related to the provision of reticulated water (including desalinated water), irrigation water, recycled (reuse) water, bulk and/or retail water supply service.

Wind power

Wind power is the conversion of wind energy into electricity using wind turbines.