2076.0 - Census of Population and Housing: Characteristics of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, 2016  
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REMOTENESS AND DIMENSIONS OF SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC WELLBEING

Where a person lives has an impact on their social and economic wellbeing. This is particularly important as Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians living in Major Cities and Regional areas have different characteristics to those living in Remote and Very Remote Australia.

The following analysis uses the Socio-Economic Index for Areas (SEIFA) Index of Relative Socioeconomic Advantage and Disadvantage (IRSAD) compiled after the 2016 Census of Population and Housing. According to the index, the higher the SEIFA score, the more advantaged the area. Detailed information about how the IRSAD was compiled for 2016 is available in Census of Population and Housing: Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas (SEIFA), Australia, 2016 (ABS cat. no. 2033.0.55.001).

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Non-remote areas generally lived in areas with a higher SEIFA score than those in Remote areas. People living in Remote areas are much more likely to be living in an area in the lowest, most disadvantaged quintile. No Very Remote area in Australia is in the top, most advantaged quintile for the IRSAD.


Graph Image for Index of Relative Socioeconomic Advantage and Disadvantage(a) by Remoteness, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders, 2016

Footnote(s): a) Quintiles used are area based and at the SA2 level. Refer to SEIFA on the ABS website for more information. b) Includes Remote and Very Remote Australia. c) Includes other Territories, comprising Jervis Bay Territory, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Christmas Island and Norfolk Island. d) Includes Migratory-Offshore-Shipping and No usual address. Note: Cells in this table have been randomly adjusted to avoid the release of confidential data. No reliance should be placed on small cells.

Source(s): Source: ABS Census of Population and Housing, 2016




Education

School attendance

In 2016, the proportion of 3-17 year olds attending pre-school, primary school or secondary school was 82% in Non-remote areas and 75% in Remote areas. School attendance was highest in Major Cities (83%) and lowest in Very Remote Australia (74%).

Year 12 attainment

There is a noticeable difference in Year 12 attainment for people living in Remote areas versus those living in Non-remote areas.

A quarter (25%) of people aged 20-64 years living in Remote areas (who are not currently studying) reported having completed Year 12 or equivalent in 2016, compared to 36% in Non-remote areas. The difference was greatest between Major Cities and Very Remote areas, with 41% of people in Major Cities having completed Year 12 or equivalent compared to 25% of people in Very Remote areas.


Highest Year of School Completed by Remoteness, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders aged 20-64 years, 2016(a)

Non-remote areas
Remote areas
Australia(c)


Major Cities of Australia
Inner Regional Australia
Outer Regional Australia
Total
Non-remote
Remote
Australia
Very Remote Australia
Total
Remote(b)

Per cent (%)

Year 12 or equivalent
40.5
31.7
31.7
35.9
25.8
24.6
25.0
33.6
Year 11 or equivalent
11.9
11.8
14.3
12.5
16.4
15.0
15.5
13.1
Year 10 or equivalent
31.8
36.2
34.8
33.7
34.2
29.2
30.8
33.1
Year 9 or equivalent
9.8
12.9
11.5
11.1
11.6
11.9
11.8
11.3
Year 8 or below
Did not go to school
5.2
0.7
6.9
0.6
7.1
0.7
6.1
0.7
10.3
1.7
16.5
2.8
14.4
2.4
7.8
1.0
Total number of persons aged 20-64 years(d)
101,527
61,164
51,552
214,247
17,852
36,073
53,931
269,426

a) Usual residence Census counts. Excludes overseas visitors.
b) Includes Remote and Very Remote Australia.
c) Includes migratory-offshore-shipping and no usual address.
d) Excludes students who are still attending an educational institution.
Cells in this table have been randomly adjusted to avoid the release of confidential data. No reliance should be placed on small cells.
Source: ABS Census of Population and Housing, 2016

Non-school qualifications

Looking at levels of educational attainment across Remoteness areas can show how Remoteness impacts the kind of qualifications Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people have attained.

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people were more likely to have certificate level qualifications than undergraduate or postgraduate qualifications regardless of remoteness. However, people living in Non-remote areas were nearly three times more likely than those in Remote areas to have attained a Bachelor Degree or postgraduate qualification.


Graph Image for Non-school Qualifications by Remoteness, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders aged 20-64, 2016(a)(b)

Footnote(s): a) Usual residence Census counts. Excludes overseas visitors. b) Includes students who are still studying at non-school institutions but excludes those still at school. Excludes not stated responses and those where insufficient information was obtained to determine the level of qualification. c) Includes Graduate Certificate and Graduate Diploma. d) Includes Remote and Very Remote Australia. Note: Cells in this table have been randomly adjusted to avoid the release of confidential data. No reliance should be placed on small cells.

Source(s): Source: ABS Census of Population and Housing, 2016


Employment

Employment to population ratio

The employment to population ratio shows the proportion of people within a population who are employed. Remoteness has a substantial impact on the employment to population ratio. In 2016, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people aged 15-64 years in Non-remote areas were much more likely (49%) to be employed than those in Remote areas (31%). The employment to population ratio was largest in Major Cities (53%) and lowest in Very Remote Australia (28%).



Graph Image for Employment to Population Ratio by Remoteness, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders Aged 15-64 years, 2016(a)

Footnote(s): a) Usual residence Census counts. Excludes overseas visitors. Note: Cells in this table have been randomly adjusted to avoid the release of confidential data. No reliance should be placed on small cells.

Source(s): Source: ABS Census of Population and Housing, 2016


Unemployment rate

With the employment to population ratio being lower in Remote areas than in Non-remote areas, it is not surprising that the unemployment rate was higher in Remote areas (26%) than in Non-remote areas (17%). The unemployment rate in Very Remote Australia was twice that of Major Cities (29% compared to 15%).


Graph Image for Unemployment Rate by Remoteness, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders Aged 15-64 years, 2016(a)

Footnote(s): a) Usual residence Census counts. Excludes overseas visitors. Note: Cells in this table have been randomly adjusted to avoid the release of confidential data. No reliance should be placed on small cells.

Source(s): Source: ABS Census of Population and Housing, 2016


Persons not in the labour force

Any discussion of the unemployment rate is incomplete without considering those who are not in the labour force. People move in and out of the labour force for a number of reasons such as retirement or child rearing.

Half (50%) of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population aged 15-64 years in Remote areas were not in the labour force, compared to 39% of the population in Non-remote areas. The proportion of people not in the labour force in Non-remote areas was higher in Inner Regional and Outer Regional Australia (42% and 44% respectively) than in Major Cities (36%).


Graph Image for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders Aged 15-64 years Not in the Labour Force by Remoteness, 2016(a)

Footnote(s): a) Usual residence Census counts. Excludes overseas visitors. Note: Cells in this table have been randomly adjusted to avoid the release of confidential data. No reliance should be placed on small cells.

Source(s): Source: ABS Census of Population and Housing, 2016


Income


Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Non-remote areas had a higher income on average than those living in Remote areas. This is the case for both personal and household income.

The median personal income for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Non-remote areas was $474 per week compared to $314 per week in Remote areas. Weekly incomes were highest in Major Cities ($513) and lowest in Very Remote Australia ($286) with incomes decreasing as remoteness increases.

Similarly, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander households in Non-remote areas had a median total household income of $1,226 ($1,390 in Major Cities) compared with $1,016 in Remote areas ($964 in Very Remote).


Graph Image for Median Personal and Household Weekly Income by Remoteness, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders, 2016(a)

Footnote(s): a) Usual residence Census counts. Excludes overseas visitors. b) Place of Enumeration Census counts. Excludes overseas visitors. Note: Cells in this table have been randomly adjusted to avoid the release of confidential data. No reliance should be placed on small cells.

Source(s): Source: ABS Census of Population and Housing, 2016