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Population and People
7 These Explanatory Notes have been presented under the following broad themes or topics:
Confidentialisation of data
8 Some data values in Data by Region have been randomly adjusted or suppressed to avoid the release of confidential details. Care should be taken when interpreting cells with small numbers. In some cases small cells have been randomly altered to zero, and caution should be exercised in deducing that there are no people or units with particular characteristics in a given region.
Changes from previous issue
9 In May 2019 Data by Region was released with a new time series of 2013 to 2018 (Census data available for 2011 and 2016). In this latest release there have been a number of changes to the data items and series. These changes are summarised in the following tables. Please see the relevant sections in these Explanatory Notes for more detailed descriptions.
Population and People
Estimated resident population
10 Population data in the profiles, unless otherwise stated, are the estimated resident population (ERP) for the selected region as at 30 June for the year shown. Data are shown to the nearest whole number without rounding, but accuracy to the last digit should not be assumed.
11 The concept of ERP links people to a place of usual residence within Australia. Usual residence is defined as that place where each person has lived or intends to live for six months or more in a given reference year.
12 Population estimates for most sub-state regions in Data by Region are built up from Statistical Area Level 2 (SA2). The ERP as at Census date is calculated based on usual residence Census counts, excluding short-term overseas visitors in Australia, with an allowance for Census net undercount and the number of residents temporarily overseas at Census date. As the Census is not held on 30 June (the 2011 and 2016 Census were held on 9 August), further adjustments taking into account births, deaths and migration for the intervening period are made to obtain ERP at 30 June.
13 SA2 populations are updated in post-Census years (from 2016) by adding to the estimated population at the beginning of each period the components of natural increase (births minus deaths), net internal migration (moves between and within the states and territories of Australia) and net overseas migration. In some very small areas, population change since the previous Census may be assumed to be zero in the absence of reliable component data for these areas. All estimates are scrutinised and validated by ABS analysts. Local knowledge, such as that advised by state governments (including peer reviewers) is considered and used to adjust the figures for particular SA2s. Estimates at the SA2 level are constrained so that they add to the relevant state/territory population estimates. Prior to 2016, the absence of reliable migration data at the sub-state level meant that SA2 ERP was calculated using a mathematical model, where relationships were established between changes in population and changes in indicator data between the two most recent Censuses. The indicator data sources used included dwelling approvals, Medicare enrolments and counts of people on the Australian Electoral Roll. Changes in these indicators were used to estimate changes in the population of each area since the last Census.
14 Estimates for SA2 are apportioned into Statistical Area Level 1 (SA1) regions using Census counts and indicator data. In Census years, LGA ERP is prepared by aggregating whole SA2 or SA1 level estimates where possible. Where LGAs cross SA1 boundaries, Mesh Block Census counts are used to estimate the share of the SA1 population that resides in those LGAs. In years between Census, LGA population estimates are updated by accounting for the components of population change from 2016. The components of population change (and subsequently ERP) at the LGA level are constrained to those at the SA2 level to ensure consistency between these two geographies, based on the smallest possible regions where SA2 and LGA boundaries match in terms of the combined area containing resident population. For example, where one LGA region equals one SA2 region exactly or where a group of LGAs equals a group of SA2s, the components for these areas will match.
15 Users will notice that there is no ERP data for the unincorporated LGAs in WA, Queensland and Tasmania. This is because they do not have geographically defined unincorporated areas. In contrast, the Population Census does show data for these unincorporated LGAs, depicting mainly off-shore and migratory populations.
Working age population
16 The working age population (aged 15-64 years) measure is used to give an estimate of the total number of potential workers within a region.
17 For any distribution, the median value is that which divides the relevant population into two equal parts, half falling below the value, and half exceeding it. Thus, the median age is the age at which half the population is older and half is younger.
Births and deaths
18 Births data are from Births, Australia, 2017 (catalogue no. 3301.0). The ABS Birth Registrations collection includes all births that occurred and were registered in Australia, including births to mothers whose place of usual residence was overseas. Statistics in this release relate to the number of births registered during the calendar year shown, unless otherwise stated. Total fertility rate is the sum of age-specific fertility rates (live births at each age of mother per 1,000 females of the estimated resident population of that age) divided by 1,000. It represents the number of children a female would bear during her lifetime if she experienced current age-specific fertility rates at each age of her reproductive life. At the time of publication, 2017 data for total fertility rate was not available.
19 Deaths data are from Deaths, Australia, 2017 (catalogue 3302.0). The ABS Death Registrations collection includes all deaths that occurred and were registered in Australia, including deaths of persons whose place of usual residence was overseas. Deaths of Australian residents that occurred outside Australia may be registered by individual Registrars, but are not included in ABS death statistics. However, deaths of identified Australian diplomats while overseas are included. Statistics in this release relate to the number of deaths registered during the calendar year shown, unless otherwise stated. The standardised death rate (SDR) enables the comparison of death rates between populations with different age structures by relating them to a standard population. SDRs are expressed per 1,000 or 100,000 persons.
20 The population density for a region is calculated by dividing Estimated Resident Population data by the Land Area to obtain the number of persons per square kilometre.
Internal and overseas migration
21 Overseas migration including arrivals and departures are prepared by breaking down state/territory level net overseas migration (NOM) arrivals and departures into sub-state areas, using information from the most recent Census. For the purposes of NOM, a person is regarded as a usual resident if they have been (or expect to be) residing in Australia for a period of 12 months or more. This 12-month period does not have to be continuous and is measured over a 16-month period. It includes all people, regardless of nationality, citizenship or legal status, who usually live in Australia, with the exception of foreign diplomatic personnel and their families. Further details can be found in the publication Regional Population Growth, Australia, 2017-18 (cat no. 3218.0).
22 The movement of people between and within Australia's states and territories cannot be directly measured and is instead estimated using administrative data. The main source of data used to do this is Medicare change of address information provided to the ABS by the Department of Human Services. The Medicare data used is coded directly to the ASGS and aggregated to the SA2 and LGA levels. Interstate moves are constrained to published estimates of interstate migration. The resulting estimates are known as regional internal migration estimates (RIME).
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people
23 These data are from the Census of Population and Housing and includes people who identified their origin as being Aboriginal, Torres Strait Islander, or both Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander.
Overseas born proportion
24 These data are from the Census of Population and Housing. Country of birth is the basis for determining if a person was born overseas. The Standard Australian Classification of Countries (SACC) (cat. no 1269.0) was used to classify responses for birthplace of individuals. Further information on this population can be found in the 'Overseas Born' category.
25 These data are from the Census of Population and Housing. The Australian Standard Classification of Religious Groups (ASCRG), 2016 (cat. no. 1266.0) was used to classify responses for a person's religious affiliation. Answering this Census question is optional.
Speaks language other than English
26 These data are from the Census of Population and Housing. These data identify the language spoken at home for people who were born overseas, and are coded using the Australian Standard Classification of Languages (ASCL) (cat. no. 1267.0). Only one language is coded for each person.
Economy and Industry
Count of businesses, entries and exists
27 Counts of Australian businesses, entries and exits data are based on snapshots of actively trading businesses as at June in each reference year, from the Australian Bureau of Statistics Business Register (ABSBR). Further details can be found in Counts of Australian Businesses, including Entries and Exits (cat. no. 8165.0).
28 Most businesses in Australia need to obtain an Australian Business Number (ABN). These businesses are then included on the whole of government register of businesses, the Australian Business Register (ABR). The results of these studies are based, in part, on tax data supplied by the ATO under the Taxation Administration Act 1953 and ABR data supplied by the Registrar under A New Tax System (Australian Business Number) Act 1999. The Taxation Administration Act 1953 requires that such data are only used for the purpose of administering the Census and Statistics Act 1905 and the Australian Business Number Act 1999 requires that such data are only used for the purpose of carrying out functions of the ABS. Further information about the two Acts can be found at www.comlaw.gov.au. Information about the ABR can be obtained from the ABR website www.abr.gov.au or the ATO website www.ato.gov.au/business. The ABS uses information from the ABR to populate its internal register of businesses, the Australian Bureau of Statistics Business Register (ABSBR), which is used as a source for business survey frames and business counts.
29 Counts of businesses produced from the ABSBR comprise actively trading businesses in the Australian economy. The population includes employing and non-employing, single location and multiple location businesses. It should be noted that it is not currently possible to account for those businesses which operate out of multiple locations, other than at their main location. This is particularly relevant for larger businesses, which commonly establish outlets in numerous states and regions across Australia. The reason for this is that data for individual business locations are not currently available from the ABSBR. Users should therefore be aware of this limitation when using counts of businesses.
30 Excluded from these counts are entities which are not considered to be actively trading in the market sector such as the Reserve Bank of Australia, Government and Not for profit institutions serving households. Examples of some of the other excluded entities are: Social and sporting clubs, Charitable institutions, Trade Unions and other associations, Other unincorporated entities, Police services, Fire protection and other emergency services, Religious services, Business and professional associations, Labour association services, Other interest group services, and Private households employing staff. Businesses which have not submitted a Business Activity Statement (BAS) and/or have reported zero dollar amounts over five consecutive quarters (or three consecutive years for annual BAS remitters) have been excluded.
31 The data published have been confidentialised so as not to reveal the identity of any business units. The confidentiality process perturbs data in such a way that the data presented at these detailed levels will not always be additive. For example, opening stock from the beginning of the financial year, plus entries, minus exits, may not equal the closing stock for the end of the financial year. Additionally, the total counts of businesses may not be equal to the total counts of businesses by industry. This is due to the fact that each of those components are individually rounded.
32 To aid data interpretability, data for LGA regions may have been suppressed due to the update of boundaries to the LGA 2018 boundaries. The LGA data have been geocoded and confidentialised. Some regional suppressions may have also been applied. The final estimates therefore should not be assumed to reflect exact numbers of business counts in any LGA, and in particular no reliance should be placed on very small counts.
33 Data for building approvals are compiled from:
34 The data included in this profile relate to all residential building approvals valued at $10,000 or more and all approved non-residential building jobs valued at $50,000 or more.
35 Building ownership is classified as either public or private sector and is based on the intended owner of the completed building at the time of approval.
36 Type of work can include 'new', 'alterations and additions' and 'conversions'. Unless otherwise specified, building (and building value) data relate to total building, which is the sum of new, alterations and additions, and conversions.
37 Counts of dwellings and houses refer only to building approvals for new houses or dwellings.
38 The type of building is the building's intended predominant function according to the Functional Classification of Buildings 1999 (revision 2011) (cat. no. 1268.0.55.001).
39 Construction activity not defined as building (e.g. construction of roads, bridges, railways etc.) is excluded from building statistics.
40 For further information see Building Approvals, Australia (cat. no 8731.0).
Residential property prices
41 All Australian residential property sales data are now supplied to the ABS by CoreLogic RP Data. This dataset is a combination of residential property sales data obtained from State and Territory Land Titles Office or Valuers General Offices in each capital city (collectively referred to as VGs) and real estate agents data provided to CoreLogic RP Data. The ABS applies classifications to the dataset provided by CoreLogic RP Data to create the residential property sales dataset, from which these statistics are produced. Further information can be found in Residential Property Price Indexes: Eight Capital Cities (cat. no 6416.0).
42 This product provides estimates for median price and transfer counts of established houses and attached dwellings.
43 Dwellings in scope are:
44 The ABS has confidentialised any regional data cells with very small values.
Median household net worth
45 Household net worth has been sourced from Household Income and Wealth, Australia 2015-16 (catalogue no. 6523.0). Data is produced from findings of the 2015-16 Survey of Income and Housing (SIH). The survey collected detailed information about the income, wealth and household characteristics of persons aged 15 years and over in private dwellings throughout Australia (excluding very remote areas). Net worth, often referred to as wealth, is the value of a household's assets less the value of its liabilities. Due to the nature of surveys, data for all levels of geography is not available.
Patent and trademark applicants
46 The patent and trademark applicants data is collected by IP Australia. Data produced by IP Australia can be sourced at data.gov.au.
47 The numbers of patents and trademarks relate to applicants. They are a yearly aggregate of applicants at 31 December for the year shown. The SA3 level data have been created and published by the Office of the Chief Economist, based on Postcode (of applicant) data provided by IP Australia.
48 ABS has aggregated the SA3 data to create details for the SA4, GCCSA, state, territory and Australia geographic levels. As such, the SA4, GCCSA, state or territory and Australia totals of applicants are not official aggregates provided by IP Australia or the Office of the Chief Economist.
49 ABS has suppressed data for regions in certain circumstances to prevent the identification of individuals.
50 Counts of business related and non-business related personal insolvencies by region have been provided by the Australian Financial Security Authority (AFSA) from their extensive personal insolvency collection. A randomised confidentialisation process has been applied to these data. Official statistics can be found on the AFSA website found at: for more information.
51 Unless an individual declares their situation to be directly related to a proprietary interest in a business, all other insolvencies (even those for which details are not stated) are classified as Non-business related.
Motor vehicle census
52 Motor vehicle census data refer to vehicles registered with a motor vehicle registration authority.
53 The Motor vehicle census includes all vehicles registered with a state, territory or other government motor vehicle registry for unrestricted use on public roads with the following exceptions:
54 Vehicles on register are those vehicles registered at the date of the census, or had registration expire less than one month before that date.
55 Motor vehicle census data are presented by region of owner, and based on the postcode of the owner. A geographic correspondence has been used in order to present the postcode data on ASGS boundaries. Due to rounding, the sum of the individual components of vehicles will not necessarily add up to total registered motor vehicles. See paragraph 204 Geographic correspondences for further information.
56 The Australia total includes records that could not be allocated to a state or territory. Therefore aggregating state and territory totals will not equal the Australia total. Similarly, aggregating lower levels of the ASGS (SA2, SA3, LGA, etc.) within a state will not equal the state totals, due to the nature of corresponding data from Postcodes.
57 Further information can be found in Motor Vehicle Census, Australia (cat. no. 9309.0).
Tourist accommodation establishments
58 Data on the number of tourist accommodation establishments are derived from the quarterly Survey of Tourist Accommodation (STA). The STA is a mail-out collection that completely enumerates all in-scope accommodation establishments within Australia.
59 The in-scope establishments presented in this profile include: hotels, resorts, motels, private hotels, guest houses and serviced apartments with 15 or more rooms or units.
60 The main source for coverage is the Australian Automobile Association through AAA Tourism Pty Ltd. This is supplemented by notification of new tourism developments and their likely opening dates in selected guides, major tourism journals and periodicals and newspapers. Periodic comparison with lists of accommodation establishments provided by the various tourism organisations and industry associations is also undertaken.
62 Further information on these statistics can be found in Tourist Accommodation, Australia (cat. no. 8635.0).
63 Agricultural commodities data are estimates obtained from the Agricultural Census, data from both 2011 and 2016 are presented. The scope of the 2016 Agricultural Census was all businesses undertaking agricultural activity recorded on the ABS Business Register (ABSBR) above a minimum size cut off of $40,000. The measure of size was based on the ABS' Estimated Value of Agricultural Operations (EVAO) or a derived value based on Business Activity Statement turnover if EVAO was not available. For the previous 2011 Agricultural Census, the cut-off was $5,000; 2011 data in Data by Region was re-derived using the $40,000 threshold.
64 Since not all of the businesses that were selected provided data, there are estimated data components. The estimates are subject to sampling variability; that is, they may differ from the figures that would have been produced if all businesses had provided data. One measure of the likely difference is given by the Standard Error (SE) which indicates the extent to which an estimate might vary by chance because only a sample was taken or had responded. There are about two chances in three that a 'sample' estimate will differ by less than one SE from the figure that would have been obtained if all businesses had responded, and about nineteen chances in twenty that the difference will be less than two SE.
65 In agricultural data, sampling variability of the estimates is measured by the Relative Standard Error (RSE) which is obtained by expressing the Standard Error as a percentage of the estimate to which it refers. In Data by Region, agriculture data with an RSE greater than 50% are not presented.
66 For further information see Agricultural Commodities, Australia (cat. no. 7121.0).
Gross value of agricultural production
67 The value of agricultural production estimates are derived by the multiplication of price and quantity of individual agricultural commodities. Remaining commodity data (livestock disposals and livestock products excluding eggs) are obtained from other ABS collections with some information from non-ABS sources. Price information refers to the average unit value of a given commodity realised in the market place. More specifically, price information for livestock slaughtering and wool is obtained from ABS collections. Price information for other commodities is obtained from non-ABS sources, including marketing authorities and industry sources.
68 The estimates of gross value are subject to sampling error. (See above or a discussion of sampling error in Agriculture data). In Data by Region, agriculture data with a relative standard error (RSE) greater than 50% are not presented.
69 Further information on value of agricultural production can be obtained in the ABS publication Value of Agricultural Commodities Produced, Australia (cat. no 7503.0).
Industry of employment
70 These data are from the Census of Population and Housing and are for all employed people aged 15 years and over.
71 Industry is coded using the Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC), 2006 (cat. no. 1292.0). The industry code assigned is based on the main job held during the week prior to Census night.
Income (Including Government Allowances)
Estimates of personal income
72 Due to the different sources of collection and different coverage of the population of income earners, care should be taken in comparing the income data from different sources. Some of the differences between Estimates of personal income data sourced from the Australian Taxation Office (ATO) and income data sourced from the Census of Population and Housing are highlighted in the table below:
73 Further information about income in the Census of Population and Housing can be found in the Census of Population and Housing.
74 Personal income tax data are supplied by the Australian Taxation Office (ATO) to the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) under the Taxation Administration Act 1953, which requires that such data be only used for the purpose of administering the Census and Statistics Act 1905. Any discussion of data limitations or weaknesses in these Notes is in the context of using the data for statistical purposes; it is not related to the ability of the data to support the ATO's core operational requirements. Readers should note that legislative requirements to ensure privacy and secrecy of this data have been adhered to. In accordance with the Census and Statistics Act 1905, results have been confidentialised to ensure that they are not likely to enable identification of a particular person or organisation.
75 For the purposes of providing statistical measures for the entire population, the ATO database has some limits to its coverage. Persons who receive an income below certain levels are not necessarily required to lodge a tax return. This can include persons who derive their income from Government pensions and allowances. Consequently, the coverage of low income earners, including people receiving government pensions and allowances, is incomplete in ATO records. In addition, some Commonwealth of Australia Government pension, benefit and allowance payments are exempt from income tax and are therefore do not need to be reported in tax returns. As such, the ATO data should be regarded as an indicative though not complete picture of all individual income earned in Australia.
76 This release contains a five year time series of data from the ATO. The data is collated by the ATO from individual tax returns and employer payment summaries that have been lodged for the financial years of 2011-12 to 2015-16 inclusive. Lodgements are captured for a 16 month period after each financial year.
77 This release contains regional estimates of the sources of personal income that people received for the financial years of 2011-12 to 2015-16 for the following sources - employee, own unincorporated business, investment, superannuation and annuities, other income (excluding Government pensions and allowances) - and total income from these component sources.
78 Employee income is the total (or gross) income received as a return to labour from an employer or from a person's own incorporated business (when they are employed by this business). This source of income includes the following data items on the individual income tax return:
79 Non-lodgers have being included in the Employee income data. The ABS defines non-lodgers as individuals that have a payment summary issued by an employer but who do not lodge an income tax return. Previously they were not included, however by gaining access to the data from payment summaries, the ABS is able to go some way in filling the wage and salary income gap for this non-lodger population.
80 Own unincorporated business income is the profit or loss that accrues to owners of, or partners in, their own unincorporated businesses. Profit or loss is the value of the gross output of the enterprise after the deduction of operating expenses, including reportable superannuation contributions, depreciation and operating costs, but before income tax is taken out. Losses occur when operating expenses are greater than receipts and are treated as negative income. This category includes the following data items from the individual income tax return:
81 Investment income includes the following data items on the individual income tax returns:
82 Superannuation and annuity income includes the following data items on the individual income tax returns:
83 A change to legislation relating to superannuation, taking effect from 1 July 2007, meant that people aged 60 years and over who receive superannuation income in the form of a lump sum or income stream (such as a pension) from a taxed source, receive that income tax free. Therefore, these persons are not required to report this income at on their individual tax return. Also, if such persons have no other income, or their total income is below the tax-free threshold, then they are also not required to lodge a tax return. Due to such changes, the superannuation estimates (persons, income) published in this publication are regarded as partial, subject to under-coverage. ABS is currently investigating ways of achieving fuller superannuation estimates for regions. A more comprehensive snapshot of superannuation income (at aggregate state and territory level) can be obtained from the ABS Survey of Income and Housing - see Household Income and Wealth, Australia (cat no. 6523.0).
84 Other income (excluding Government pensions and allowances) comprises income items reported on the individual income tax return that were not allocated to one of the above categories. For example, other income can include transfer or trust income, controlled foreign company income, net foreign pension and annuity income, and foreign investment and life assurance income. Other income (excluding Government pensions and allowances) includes the following data items on the individual income tax returns:
85 Total income (excluding Government pensions and allowances) is the sum of all employee income, own unincorporated business, superannuation and annuities, investment and other income (excluding Government pensions, benefits or allowances) derived from the individual income tax returns, as defined above. As the sources of income other than employee income cannot be captured for the non-lodger population, they have been excluded from the estimates of total income included in this release.
86 As indicated, Government pensions, benefits or allowances are excluded from the ABS income data and do not appear in other income or total income. Pension recipients can fall below the income threshold that necessitates them lodging a tax return, or they may only receive tax free pensions or allowances. Hence they will be missing from the personal income tax data set. Recent estimates from the ABS Survey of Income and Housing (which records Government pensions and allowances) suggest that this component can account for 9 to 11% of total income.
87 Individuals may receive income from a number of sources. Also, net income from a specific source may be positive or negative. For example, an individual may have positive income from employee income yet negative net income from investment. The number of individuals for each income source includes all persons with either positive or negative net income from that source.
88 The total number of individuals in receipt of income from at least one source should not be confused with the sum of the individuals in each income category, since people can have more than one source of income in any given year.
89 Access to more detailed ATO information has enabled the production of median age of earners, main source of income and median income estimates for all income types. Gini coefficient, percentile ratios, quartiles, income share, and income distribution indicators are also available for total income.
90 Percentile ratios summarise the relative distance between two points in a distribution. When all persons in the tax form lodging population are ranked from the lowest to the highest based on total income, they can be divided into 100 equal sized groups or percentiles. The median or top of the 50th percentile is denoted as P50. P20, P50 and P80 denote the highest values in the 20th, 50th and 80th percentiles respectively. Ratios of values at the top of selected percentiles, such as P80/P20, are termed percentile ratios. For personal income tax data, the P80/P20 ratio was chosen to illustrate the magnitude of the range within which the income of the majority of people fall. The P80/P50 and P50/20 ratios focus on comparing the ends of the income distribution with the midpoint.
91 Main source of income is the source from which a person derives most of their income. In this publication, main source of earners is presented as a proportion of the population in that region. If a region is particularly reliant on one source, it may be susceptible to policy or economic changes that affect that income type - hence the inclusion. Where persons receive exactly the same amount across multiple sources of income, they have been excluded from the derivation of this indicator. Persons with negative or nil income total income have also been excluded. The non-lodger population has also been excluded from this calculation as the sources of income other than employee income cannot be captured.
92 Income share (% of income held by the top 1%, 5% and 10% of all earners, per region) has also been produced for total income. The aggregate income of the units in each percentile is divided by the overall aggregate income of the entire population to derive income shares.
93 Quartiles are groupings that result from ranking all persons who lodged tax returns in ascending order according to total income, and then dividing them into four equal groups, each comprising 25% of the reference population. In this publication Australia's quartile ranges are used to compare the income distributions of regions to Australia.
94 The Gini coefficient is a single statistic that lies between 0 and 1 and is a summary indicator of the degree of inequality in income between members of the tax form lodging population. Values closer to 1 represent greater inequality. The Gini coefficients shown in this publication are subject to under-coverage for certain income groups and are calculated from gross personal income rather than equivalised disposable income. They can be regarded as indicative but not definitive and are not directly comparable to apparently similar ABS information at state/territory level, as per Household Income and Wealth, Australia (cat no. 6523.0).
95 Further information on these statistics can be found in Estimates of Personal Income for Small Areas (cat. no. 6524.0.55.002).
Gross capital gains
96 These data are sourced from the Australian Taxation Office (ATO) and relate to the total current year capital gains as reported by taxpayers. Data are presented for the financial years of 2011-12 to 2015-16 inclusive. Lodgements are captured for a 16 month period after each financial year.
97 Capital gains is the profit that results from the sale of a capital asset, where the sales price exceeds the purchase price and attracts capital gains tax. Conversely, a capital loss can arise if proceeds from a sale are less than the original purchase price. Capital gains cover the sale of assets such as: land, units in a unit trust and other investment properties, company shares, licenses, rights, options and leases; various collectables (paintings, antiques, coins, jewellery and similar) with an original market value of over $500; and personal use assets such as boats, furniture and electrical goods with an original value of over $10,000. More ATO information on this topic is available from Capital Gains and Exemptions.
98 Capital gains are not part of the existing ABS investment income, other income or total income framework, but are presented here as supplementary information of interest.
Selected Government pensions and allowances
99 Data on the number of individuals receiving selected Government pensions and allowances have been obtained from the Department of Social Services (DSS), and the Department of Veterans' Affairs (DVA). In more detail:
100 Selected Government pensions and allowances data have been provided to the ABS on an aggregate basis (at LGA and SA2 level (SA3 level from DVA). Totals are also available for Australia, states and territories. All data have been provided to the ABS in confidentialised form.
101 Age Pension is a payment for persons who have reached Age Pension age and qualify to receive the Age Pension. Age Pension age depends on the individual's date of birth:
103 The purpose of Disability Support Pension (DSP) is to provide income support for people who have a permanent physical, intellectual or psychiatric impairment. DSP is designed to give people an adequate means of support if they are unable to work for at least 15 hours per week at or above the relevant minimum wage, independent of a program or support. DSP data have been provided by DSS and include overseas pension recipients and persons whose address could not be coded to a specific region in the total for Australia.
104 Carer Payment is for people who are unable to support themselves through participation in the workforce while caring for someone with a disability, severe medical condition, or who is frail and aged. Carer Payment data have been provided by DSS and include persons whose address could not be coded to a specific region in the total for Australia.
105 Newstart Allowance is a payment for people who are looking for work and allows them to participate in activities designed to increase their chances of finding work. In the period covered by these data, persons must have been aged 21 years or older but under Age Pension age to qualify. Newstart Allowance data have been provided by DSS.
106 Youth Allowance is a payment for young people who are studying, undertaking training or an Australian Apprenticeship, looking for work, or sick. Persons must be aged 15 to 24 years to qualify. Youth Allowance (Other) data as well as Youth Allowance data for apprentices and students have been sourced from DSS.
107 Parenting Payment is a payment for persons who are primary carers of children. Parenting Payment data have been provided by DSS.
108 Family Tax Benefit is paid to help with the costs of raising children. Around 75% of all families with at least one dependent child aged under 16 years are eligible to receive Family Tax Benefit. Family Tax Benefit data have been provided by DSS.
109 Family Tax Benefit Part A can be paid to a parent, guardian or an approved care organisation to help with the costs of raising children. There are eligibility requirements involving the age and educational status of the child, residency and income. Family Tax Benefit Part B is an extra payment for single parents and families with one main income to help with the costs of raising children. Part B is limited to families where the primary earner has an adjusted taxable income of $100,000 or less per financial year (from June 2015, previously was $150,000 or less). There are also additional eligibility requirements. Approximately three-quarters of FTB customers receive both Part A and Part B. Data presented in regard to Family Tax Benefit refer only to fortnightly instalment customers paid directly by Centrelink. The information excludes an additional 10% (approximately) who are paid by a lump sum which is claimable at the end of a financial year. The Family Tax Benefit data for 2016 are preliminary only; users should refrain from making direct comparisons with data from earlier years in past issues of Data by Region (formerly known as the National Regional Profile).
110 A Service Pension can be paid to veterans on the grounds of age or invalidity, and to eligible partners, widows and widowers. The Service Pension data have been provided by DVA.
111 Income Support Supplement is an income support pension paid to: eligible war widows and widowers under the Veterans’ Entitlements Act 1986 (VEA); and persons receiving wholly dependent partners’ compensation under the Military Rehabilitation and Compensation Act 2004 (MRCA). Income Support Supplement data have been provided by DVA.
112 Commonwealth Rent Assistance is a non-taxable income supplement payable to eligible people who rent in the private rental market or community housing. Pensioners, allowance recipients and those receiving more than the base rate of Family Tax Benefit Part A may be eligible for Rent Assistance.
113 All Government Pensions and Allowances shown in the Profile data refer to a point in time (i.e. the number of persons receiving payment as at the pay period closest to 30 June each year) and therefore do not represent all the customers in receipt of payments during the entire financial year. Customers who have been suspended or not paid at that point of time are not included in these data.
114 For privacy reasons, all administrative data from non-ABS sources has been confidentialised before being supplied to the ABS. The cells suppressed or altered through confidentialisation within Data by Region may differ to other publications that contain DSS data.
115 Where a person could not be allocated to a region within a state and territory, they have been included in the totals for the states and territories. Where a person could not be allocated to a state or territory, they have been included in the total for Australia.
116 More information about specific payments can be accessed from the Department of Social Services and the Department of Veterans' Affairs, or from data.gov.au.
Total personal income (weekly)
117 These data are from the Census of Population and Housing and are for all employed people aged 15 years and over. It indicates the total income that the person usually receives each week.
Equivalised total household income
118 These data are from the Census of Population and Housing.
119 Equivalised total household income is total household income adjusted by the application of an equivalence scale to facilitate comparison of income levels between households of differing size and composition. The 'modified OECD' equivalence scale is used.
120 Equivalised total household income can be viewed as an indicator of the economic resources available to a standardised household. For a lone person household it is equal to household income. For a household comprising more than one person, it is an indicator of the household income that would be needed by a lone person household to enjoy the same level of economic wellbeing.
Education and Employment
Early childhood - enrolment and attendance in preschool programs
121 This publication contains statistics on children aged 4 or 5 years who as at 1 July in the collection year were enrolled and attending preschool programs across Australia. These data are from the National Early Childhood Education and Care Collection. The Collection is derived from administrative data provided by state and territory and Australian government departments and the Catholic Education Office of the Archdiocese of Canberra and Goulburn.
122 For the purposes of the Collection, a preschool program is defined as a structured, play based learning program, delivered by a degree qualified teacher, aimed primarily at children in the year or two before they commence full-time schooling. This is irrespective of the type of institution that provides it or whether it is government funded or privately provided.
123 To be considered as enrolled, the child must have attended the preschool program for at least one hour during the reference period, or be absent due to illness or extended holiday leave and expected to return.
124 Care needs to be taken when interpreting Queensland child counts as there may be some duplication of children across different provider types. This is due to the inclusion of child aggregate data from some service providers.
125 Where the finer regional details of enrolments are not stated or unknown, these are included in the State/Territory totals but not shown separately elsewhere.
126 Further information on these statistics can be found in Preschool Education, Australia (cat. no 4240.0) and Microdata: Preschool Education, Australia (cat. no. 4240.0.55.003).
Higher Education Loan Program (HELP) repayments
127 These data are sourced from the Australian Taxation Office (ATO) and are a count of taxpayers who have made repayments on their HELP debt in the reference year.
128 Data is presented for the financial years of 2011-12 to 2015-16 inclusive. Lodgements are captured for a 16 month period after each financial year. Tax returns with a HELP repayment lodged after the 16 month cut off are excluded from this publication.
129 For the compulsory HELP repayments to be made, taxpayers must be earning above the minimum repayment income threshold. Further information on repayment income thresholds for other years, and repayment rates can be found on the ATO website.
130 These data are from the Census of Population and Housing. These data are for persons aged 15 years and over and show the level of education based on the highest completed non-school qualification of persons (e.g. bachelor degree, diploma).
131 The full classification for levels of education and fields of study, together with an explanation of the conceptual basis of the classification, can be found in the publication Australian Standard Classification of Education (ASCED), 2001 (cat. no. 1272.0).
Field of study
132 These data are from the Census of Population and Housing. These data describe the field of study of a person's highest completed non-school qualification (for persons aged 15 years and over who stated a completed qualification).
Highest year of school completed
133 These data are from the Census of Population and Housing and are for people aged 15 years and over. They relate to the highest level of primary or secondary schooling completed.
134 Data are coded using the Australian Standard Classification of Education (ASCED), 2001 (cat. no. 1272.0).
Occupation of employed persons
135 These data are from the Census of Population and Housing and are for employed people aged 15 years and over. Two occupation questions are used in the Census. The first of these asks for occupation title, while the second asks for the main tasks usually performed by the person in their occupation. Collecting both occupation title and task information ensures more accurate coding of occupations.
136 Occupations are coded using the Australian and New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations (ANZSCO) (cat. no. 1220.0). The Occupation code assigned is based on the main job held during the week prior to Census Night.
Youth engagement in work or study
137 These data are from the Census of Population and Housing. They relate to persons aged 15-19 years and are derived from questions about whether the person was working or attending a school or any other educational institution.
Jobs in Australia
138 These data are from Jobs in Australia, 2011-12 to 2015-16 (cat no. 6160.0) and are for all persons who either submitted an individual tax return (ITR) or individuals who had a payment summary issued by an employer and then remitted to the ATO.
139 The jobs file is constructed primarily from Pay As You Go (PAYG) payment summary data. PAYG payment summaries describe the payments made to an individual by an employer within a financial year. Payment period start and end dates are included with this information. Conceptually, payment summary data should include most employee-employer job relationships.
140 A person can hold several jobs during the year, either concurrently (as a multiple job-holder) or non-concurrently. For a person who is an employee of several employers, each relationship is listed as a separate job. Number of Employee Jobs by industry refer to jobs for which the occupant received remuneration in wages, salary, payment in kind, or piece rates. This excludes self-employment jobs held by owner managers of unincorporated enterprises.
141 These data are sourced from the Census of Population and Housing. Data are for persons aged 15 years or more, and are derived from the questions about whether the person had a job in the week before Census Night, whether they actively looked for work in the last four weeks before Census Night, and if they could have started work in the last week before Census night.
Health and Disability
142 The health data are modelled estimates based on random effects logistic regression models fitted to data from the 2011-12 and 2014-15 National Health Survey (NHS), 2011 Australian Census of Population and Housing, 2012 and 2015 Estimated Resident Population (ERP), and aggregated administrative data such as from the Department of Social Services.
143 This product presents the modelled count and percentage of persons living in private dwellings, with the following health characteristics:
144 These modelled estimates were originally produced as a consultancy for the Public Health Information Development Unit (PHIDU), applying ABS methods and quality standards.
145 Data has been produced for Statistical Area Level 3 regions.
146 These data are sourced from the Australian Taxation Office (ATO) and relate to taxpayers who report having private health insurance.
147 Lodgements are captured for a 16 month period after each financial year. Tax returns with a reported private health insurance lodged after the 16 month cut off are excluded from this publication.
148 As described above, the data included in this publication is limited to the taxpayer population. An estimate of how many adults in Australia have private health insurance can be obtained from the ABS National Health Survey - see Health Service Usage and Health Related Actions, Australia (cat. no. 4364.0.55.002).
Family and Community
Gifts/donations reported by taxpayers
149 These data are sourced from the Australian Taxation Office (ATO) and relate to gifts or donations reported by taxpayers.
150 Lodgements are captured for a 16 month period after each financial year. Tax returns with reported gifts or donations lodged after the 16 month cut off are excluded from this publication.
Method of travel to work
151 These data are from the Census of Population and Housing and are from the question about how the person got to work on the day of the Census.
152 These data are from the Census of Population and Housing and describe the type of household within a dwelling. Family households can contain non-family members (unrelated persons and visitors).
153 A maximum of three families can be coded to a household. Lone person households can contain visitors.
154 These data are from the Census of Population and Housing. Families have been classified in terms of the relationships that exist between a single family reference person and each other member of that family. Different types of families are distinguished based on the presence or absence of couple relationships, parent-child relationships, child dependency relationships or other blood relationships, in that order of preference.
155 The family type is derived from people enumerated in the household who usually reside there and who share a familial relationship. Partners and dependent children usually present but temporarily absent are also included in this derivation. Boarders and other non-family members are excluded.
Count of all children in family
156 These data are from the Census of Population and Housing. Counts the number of dependent and non-dependent children in the family. It includes up to three children who were temporarily absent from the household on Census night. Applicable to families with children in family households.
Social marital status & registered marital status
157 These data are from the Census of Population and Housing. Social marital status records a person's relationship status based on their current living arrangements - where a couple relationship exists in the household and the type of relationship is identified. All persons aged 15 years and over, who are usually resident and present in the household on Census night and who are not in a couple relationship are identified as 'Not married'.
158 Registered Marital Status records a person's formal registered marital status. If registered marital status is not stated it is imputed. Applicable to persons aged 15 years and over.
159 These data are from the Census of Population and Housing. Data on unpaid work show the proportion of persons usually resident in the region who did any voluntary work in the last twelve months, who provided unpaid child care, who provided unpaid assistance to a person with a disability, or who provided other unpaid care, help or assistance to others in the last two weeks (prior to completing the Census).
Access to internet at home
160 These data are from the Census of Population and Housing. Shows the proportion of occupied private dwellings in the region, where the internet was accessed from.
161 These data are from the Census of Population and Housing. This variable is a measure of housing utilisation based on a comparison of the number of bedrooms in a dwelling with a series of household demographics, such as the number of usual residents, their relationship to each other, age and sex. The criteria are based on the Canadian National Occupancy Standard. It can be used to identify if a dwelling is either under or over utilised. This is a new derived item for 2016. Applicable to occupied private dwellings.
162 These data are from the Census of Population and Housing. Records the structure type of private dwellings. Other Dwellings include caravan, cabin or houseboat, improvised home, tent, sleepers out, and house or flat attached to a shop or office etc.
163 These data are from the Census of Population and Housing. Describes whether a dwelling is owned, being purchased or rented. Applicable to private dwellings.
Rent and mortgage payments
164 These data are from the Census of Population and Housing and are household rent and mortgage payments including site fees if the dwelling is a caravan, or manufactured home in a caravan park, or a manufactured home estate.
165 These data are from the Census of Population and Housing. Household stress compares the rent and mortgage payments of households against the total household income, and determines whether the household is spending less than, or equal to or greater than 30 percent of their income. Applicable to occupied private dwellings.
166 These data are derived from the Census of Population and Housing. The population rates are presented as a rate per 10,000 of the total population. That is, the number of homeless persons per 10,000 persons based on their place of enumeration in the Census, excluding people at sea or in migratory or offshore regions and overseas visitors. Caution should be taken when interpreting data for smaller regions (i.e. regions with fewer than 10,000 persons).
167 The homelessness rate includes:
168 Further details can be found in the publication Census of Population and Housing: Estimating Homelessness, 2016 (cat no. 2049.0).
Commuting to work
169 Commuting distance provides a measurement of the distance travelled between a person's Mesh Block of Place of Usual Residence and Mesh Block of Place of Work. An assumption in the calculation of this data is that a person has followed the shortest path with no stops when commuting to work. Detailed information on the how commuting distances were calculated can be found on the Understanding the Census and Census Data (cat. no. 2900.0) page. Component data for Commuting to Work (i.e. distance by age and sex, and by industry) is only available at ASGS levels, and not at LGA level. LGA regions will only display whole Average and Median Commuting distance.
Socio Economic Indexes of Areas (SEIFA)
170 Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas (SEIFA) is an ABS product that ranks areas in Australia according to relative socio-economic advantage and disadvantage. The indexes are based on information from the five-yearly Census of Population and Housing.
171 SEIFA 2016 has been created from Census 2016 data and consists of four indexes: The Index of Relative Socio-economic Disadvantage (IRSD); The Index of Relative Socio-economic Advantage and Disadvantage (IRSAD); The Index of Education and Occupation (IEO); The Index of Economic Resources (IER). Each index is a summary of a different subset of Census variables and focuses on a different aspect of socio-economic advantage and disadvantage. Census of Population and Housing: Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas (SEIFA), Australia, 2016 (cat. no. 2033.0.55.001).
172 Deciles divide a distribution into ten equal groups. In the case of SEIFA, the distribution of scores is divided into ten equal groups. The lowest scoring 10% of areas are given a decile number of 1, the second-lowest 10% of areas are given a decile number of 2 and so on, up to the highest 10% of areas which are given a decile number of 10. The State deciles data compares the region with all the other regions in that State or Territory. The Australian deciles data compare every region across Australia.
Persons Born Overseas
Overseas born population
173 These data are from the Census of Population and Housing. Country of birth is the basis for determining if a person was born overseas. The Standard Australian Classification of Countries (SACC) (cat. no 1269.0) was used to classify responses for birthplace of individuals.
174 People are classified as Overseas-born on the Census of Population and Housing if it was stated:
175 For the 2016 Census, the definition of Australia includes the states and territories and the other territories of Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Jervis Bay Territory and Norfolk Island.
176 In 2011 and previous Censuses, Norfolk Island was not included in the definition of geographic Australia.
Year of arrival in Australia
177 These data are from the Census of Population and Housing. This item is applicable to those born overseas who will be in Australia for more than one year. Country of birth is the basis for determining if a person was born in Australia or overseas. The Standard Australian Classification of Countries (SACC) (cat. no 1269.0) was used to classify responses for birthplace of individuals.
178 The year 2016 refers to the period from 1st January 2016 to 9th August 2016 only.
179 The data shown exclude persons who did not state their country of birth and persons born in Australia (includes Other Territories).
180 These data are from the Census of Population and Housing and records whether a person has Australian citizenship and was born overseas.
181 These data for overseas born persons are from the Census of Population and Housing. The Australian Standard Classification of Religious Groups (ASCRG), 2016 (cat. no. 1266.0) was used to classify responses for a person's religious affiliation. Answering this Census question is optional.
182 This variable classifies a person's self-assessed proficiency in spoken English for persons who speak a language other than English at home.
183 These data are from the Census of Population and Housing. These data are for persons aged 15 years and over and born overseas. The data shows the level of education based on the highest completed non-school qualification of persons (e.g. bachelor degree, diploma).
184 The full classification for levels of education and fields of study, together with an explanation of the conceptual basis of the classification, can be found in the publication Australian Standard Classification of Education (ASCED), 2001 (cat. no. 1272.0).
Occupation of employed persons
185 These data are from the Census of Population and Housing and are for employed people aged 15 years and over and born overseas. Two occupation questions are used in the Census. The first of these asks for occupation title, while the second asks for the main tasks usually performed by the person in their occupation. Collecting both occupation title and task information ensures more accurate coding of occupations.
186 These data are sourced from the Census of Population and Housing. Data are for persons aged 15 years or more and born overseas, and are derived from the questions about whether the person had a job in the week before Census Night, whether they actively looked for work in the last four weeks before Census Night, and if they could have started work in the last week before Census night.
187 Occupations are coded using the Australian and New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations (ANZSCO) (cat. no. 1220.0). The Occupation code assigned is based on the main job held during the week prior to Census Night.
Total personal income (weekly)
188 These data are from the Census of Population and Housing and are for all employed people aged 15 years and over and born overseas. It indicates the total income that the person usually receives each week.
201 The Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS) is used by the ABS for the collection and dissemination of geographically classified statistics. The ASGS replaced the Australian Standard Geographic Classification (ASGC) from July 2011.
202 The ASGS is an essential reference for understanding and interpreting the geographic context of statistics published, not only by the ABS but also by other organisations, and its use enables comparability across datasets.
203 This issue of Data by Region uses ASGS 2016. Where available, data has been sourced for regions of the ASGS directly. In some cases, historical data has not been available on ASGS, and so has not been available to include in the profiles. Some data have been converted to ASGS 2016 regions using geographic correspondences. Data for Local Government Areas (LGAs) are presented at 2018 boundaries.
204 The use of geographic correspondences enables data to be converted from one type of geographic region to another. Geographic correspondences are usually provided as conversion factors based on relative population distributions and/or land area shares.
205 The application of correspondences allows:
206 When analysing data produced by correspondences, the following limitations need to be taken into account:
207 While care was taken in producing the correspondences the ABS cannot guarantee the accuracy of data produced by correspondences. ASGS correspondences are found on the Statistical Geography page of the ABS website.
208 The statistics in this product are presented according to the Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS), 2016. Under this classification, statistical areas below Australia and state or territory level are defined as follows:
209 For more information see the Statistical Geography page of the ABS website, or the following: Australian Statistical Geography Standard, Volume 1 - Main Structure and Greater Capital City Statistical Areas, July 2016 (cat. no. 1270.0.55.001); Australian Statistical Geography Standard, Volume 3 - Non-ABS Structures, July 2018 (cat. no. 1270.0.55.003). Maps of Statistical Areas 2-4 and GCCSA can be found in the Downloads tab of cat. no. 1270.0.55.001.
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