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CHAPTER 3 FIELDS OF RESEARCH
PRINCIPLES FOR RECOGNISING FIELDS OF RESEARCH
The conceptual framework adopted for the development of the FOR uses R&D activities according to the field in which research is undertaken and based on the processes and techniques used in the R&D.
In the interests of international statistical comparisons, the FOR classification, as far as is practicable, aligns at the two digit Division level with the OECD's Fields of Science 2007 classification.
This development started with the ASRC 1998, and identified research categories that reported very little funding in the past three ABS R&D surveys were either merged with other categories or deleted, but only in consultation with experts in the respective fields. Alternatively, Divisions or Groups which are highly active, as judged by experts and evidenced in ABS surveys, and able to be split further have been disaggregated into new Groups and Fields allowing for greater detail of data to be collected. Additional fields of research identified by experts as emerging and significant have been added.
In parallel, research categories significant in New Zealand assembled by Statistics NZ from consultations with their stakeholders have been incorporated.
GUIDELINES FOR CLASSIFYING BY FIELDS OF RESEARCH
Consistent use of the following general procedures should ensure consistent and successful use of the classification among users.
A research project or research program is to be allocated to a FOR field in a hierarchical manner. This is achieved by:
Many R&D projects will be a homogeneous body of work in a specific field. These are more straightforward to categorise. However, the emergence of new interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary fields of research is a feature of the modern R&D environment, both within Australia and New Zealand and elsewhere in the world. The categorisation of such fields within a hierarchical and exclusive classification system can pose difficulties for users of the FOR. The use of multiple fields to classify a research project ensures that this research is accommodated within the classification structure.
If the project or program is sufficiently large or complex (in terms of research areas) then multiple fields should be selected and attributed with a proportion of resources relative to the project's or program's total R&D expenditure. If the disaggregation is difficult, consideration of relative importance may indicate a primary field only (whether a specific or more general subject focus).
Where a defined field cannot be identified within a group for a research project or research program, the 'not elsewhere classified' category at the field level is to be used.
FOR DIVISION CODES AND TITLES
02 Physical Sciences
03 Chemical Sciences
04 Earth Sciences
05 Environmental Sciences
06 Biological Sciences
07 Agricultural and Veterinary Sciences
08 Information and Computing Sciences
11 Medical and Health Sciences
12 Built Environment and Design
15 Commerce, Management, Tourism and Services
16 Studies in Human Society
17 Psychology and Cognitive Sciences
18 Law and Legal Studies
19 Studies in Creative Arts and Writing
20 Language, Communication and Culture
21 History and Archaeology
22 Philosophy and Religious Studies
At times it can be useful to view groupings of fields of research from alternative perspectives, which do not align with the FOR division structure.
ALTERNATIVE GROUPINGS OF FOR FIELDS
Besides the primary structure, alternative groupings are provided to aid the understanding of research from different cultural perspectives which are unique to Australia and New Zealand.
The following alternative groupings of selected FOR fields are provided here:
Definition of Pacific Peoples
Note: "Pacific peoples" are those people who identify with or feel they belong to one or more Pacific ethnicities. The term applies to a person who has emigrated from one of the lesser islands of the Pacific to Australia or New Zealand, or one of their descendants born in Australia or New Zealand. While the majority of these people originate from Polynesia, others come from Micronesia and Melanesia. This definition excludes Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders, and New Zealand Maori.
ABORIGINAL AND TORRES STRAIT ISLANDER STUDIES
080601 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Information and Knowledge Systems
080701 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Knowledge Management
110403 Traditional Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Medicine and Treatments
111701 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health
130301 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Education
160501 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Policy
169902 Studies of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Society
180101 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Law
190401 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Performing Arts
200201 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Cultural Studies
200319 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Languages
200501 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Literature
210101 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Archaeology
210301 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander History
080613 Maori Information and Knowledge Systems
110405 Traditional Maori Medicine and Treatments
111713 Maori Health
130104 Kura Kaupapa Maori (Maori Primary Education)
130107 Te Whariki (Maori Early Childhood Education)
130206 Kohanga Reo (Maori Language Curriculum and Pedagogy)
130310 Maori Education (excl. Early Childhood and Primary Education)
169904 Studies of Maori Society
170108 Kaupapa Maori Psychology
180201 Nga Tikanga Maori (Maori Customary Law)
180202 Te Maori Whakahaere Rauemi (Maori Resource Law)
180203 Te Tiriti o Waitangi (The Treaty of Waitangi)
180204 Te Ture Whenua (Maori Land Law)
180299 Maori Law not elsewhere classified
190405 Maori Performing Arts
200207 Maori Cultural Studies
200321 Te Reo Maori (Maori Language)
200504 Maori Literature
210109 Maori Archaeology
210309 Maori History
PACIFIC PEOPLES STUDIES
080614 Pacific Peoples Information and Knowledge Systems
111715 Pacific Peoples Health
130311 Pacific Peoples Education
169905 Studies of Pacific Peoples' Societies
190410 Pacific Peoples Performing Arts
200210 Pacific Cultural Studies
200320 Pacific Languages
200507 Pacific Literature
210106 Archaeology of New Guinea and Pacific Islands (excl. New Zealand)
210313 Pacific History (excl. New Zealand and Maori)
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