1301.0 - Year Book Australia, 2007
ARCHIVED ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 24/01/2007
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CONSTITUTIONAL BASIS OF GOVERNMENT
The national Constitution is found in the Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act 1900 (Cwlth), a British Act that became law in July 1900 and came into force on 1 January 1901.
Any proposed law for the alteration of the Commonwealth Constitution must be passed by an absolute majority of each house of the Commonwealth Parliament (except in circumstances specified in section 128 of the Constitution which permits a referendum to proceed if passed by only one chamber). It must also be submitted to a referendum of the electors in each state and territory. An amendment must be approved by a majority of the voters in a majority of the states and by a majority of all voters.
Since 1901, 44 proposed amendments have been submitted to referenda. The consent of the electors has been given in regard to eight matters:
1906 - election of senators
1910 - state debts
1928 - state debts
1946 - social services
1967 - Aboriginal people
1977 - Senate casual vacancies
1977 - retirement age for federal judges
1977 - the right of territory electors to vote in constitutional referenda.
Each state and territory has its own constitution found in legislation. Where a law of a state is inconsistent with a law of the Commonwealth, the latter law prevails and the former law is, to the extent of the inconsistency, invalid.