5342.0 - Balance of Payments Statistics, Information Paper on Quality , 1996  
ARCHIVED ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 20/02/1996   
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    Abbreviations and references
    Chapter 1. Data quality concepts
      What is quality?
      The balance of payments conceptual framework
      What is meant by accuracy?
      Accuracy and reliability
      Factors influencing quality
    Chapter 2. Analysis of accuracy of the statistics
      Sample error
      Non-sample error
      Balancing item
      Contributions to the balancing item
      Consistent behaviour of time series
      Examination of residuals
      Comparison of data from different sources
      Partner country analysis
      Impact of statistical processes on quality
      Subjective assessment
      Summary of analysis of accuracy
    Chapter 3. Analysis of reliability of the statistics
      Sign convention
      Bias and dispersion
      Bias of the statistics
      Direction of one-year revisions
      Magnitude of one-year revisions
      Are revisions predominantly positive or negative?
      Do all revisions reduce error?
      Do revisions alter information provided by initial estimates?
      Summary of analysis of reliability
    Chapter 4. Initiatives to improve quality
    Appendix 1. Bias in balance of payments statistics
    Appendix 2. One-year revisions to initial estimates
    Appendix 3. Comparison of initial and latest period-on-period movements