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Expenditures on individual and collective goods and services
14.329 In the SNA93, final consumption expenditure is incurred only by general government, NPISHs and households. All of households' consumption expenditure is incurred on their own behalf. Consumption expenditure by general government, on the other hand, is either for the benefit of the community at large (collective consumption) or for the benefit of individual households. By convention, all consumption expenditure by NPISHs is treated as being for the benefit of individual households. This distinction between collective and individual consumption expenditure is of considerable importance in the system of national accounts. Consumption expenditures by general government and NPISHs on behalf of households (their individual consumption expenditures) are undertaken for the purpose of making social transfers in kind. They cover the non-market output of both general government and NPISHs, which is delivered to households free or at prices that are not economically significant, as well as goods and services bought from market producers and provided to households free or at prices that are not economically significant. Social transfers in kind are recorded differently from other transfers in kind.
Individual goods or services
14.330 Individual goods and services are essentially 'private', as distinct from 'public' goods. They have the following characteristics:
14.331 The reference to a small, restricted group of persons is needed because certain services are provided to small groups of people simultaneously; for example, several persons may travel in the same bus, train, ship or plane or attend the same class, lecture, concert or live theatre performance. However, these are still essentially individual services if there is a restriction on the number of individuals who can consume them. Other members of the community are excluded and derive no benefit from them.
14.332 From a welfare point of view, the important characteristic of an individual good or service is that its acquisition by one household, person or group of persons brings no (or very little) benefit to the rest of the community. While the provision of certain individual health or education services (for example, vaccination or immunisation) may bring some external benefits to the rest of the community, in general the individuals concerned derive the main benefit. Thus, when a government unit incurs expenditures on the provision of individual goods or services, it must decide not only how much to spend in total but how to allocate, or distribute, the goods or services among individual members of the community. From the point of view of economic and social policy, the way in which they are distributed may be as important as the total amount spent.
14.333 Most goods can be privately owned and are individual in the sense used here. On the other hand, certain kinds of services can be provided collectively to the community as a whole. The characteristics of these collective services may be summarised as follows:
14.334 The collective services provided by government consist mostly of the provision of security and defence, the maintenance of law and order, legislation and regulation, the maintenance of public health, the protection of the environment, research and development, etc. All members of the community can benefit from such services. As the individual use of collective services cannot be recorded, individuals cannot be charged according to their use or the benefits they derive. There is no market to allocate collective services, and these services must be financed collectively - e.g. out of taxation or other government revenues.
The borderline between individual and collective services
14.335 Expenditures incurred by governments at a national level in connection with individual services such as health and education are treated as collective when they are concerned with the formulation and administration of government policy, the setting and enforcement of public standards, the regulation, licensing or supervision of producers, etc. For example, the expenditures incurred by Ministries of Health or Education at a national level are included in collective consumption expenditures as they are concerned with general matters of policy, standards and regulation. On the other hand, any overhead expenses connected with the administration or functioning of a group of hospitals, schools, colleges or similar institutions are included in individual expenditures. For example, if a group of private hospitals has a central unit which provides certain common services such as purchasing, laboratories, ambulances, or other facilities, the costs of these common services would be taken into account in the prices charged to patients. The same principle is followed when the hospitals are non-market producers: all the costs which are associated with the provision of services to particular individuals, including those of any central units providing common services, are to be included in the value of expenditures on individual services.
The classification of individual and collective government expenditures
14.336 COFOG (see paragraph 14.300) is a classification of transactions designed to apply to general government and its subsectors. This classification is used to help distinguish between expenditure by government on individual services and collective services. By convention, all government final consumption expenditures under each of the following headings are treated as expenditures on individual services, except for expenditures on general administration, regulation, research, etc.:
14.337 In addition, expenditures under the following subheadings should also be treated as individual when they are important:
Non-market services to enterprises
14.338 Many government expenditures benefit enterprises as much as households; examples are expenditures on the cleaning, maintenance and repair of public roads, bridges, tunnels, etc. including the provision of street lighting. These are individual services for which consumption can be monitored, and for this reason they are frequently provided on a market basis by charging tolls on road usage. However, it would be difficult to separate the services provided free to households from those provided free to enterprises and, by convention, all these expenditures are treated as collective final expenditure.