4719.0 - Overweight and Obesity in Adults, Australia, 2004-05 Quality Declaration 
Latest ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 25/01/2008  First Issue
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GLOSSARY

Age standardisation


A method of removing the influence of age when comparing populations with different age structures. Where appropriate, estimates in this publication are age standardised to the age composition of the total estimated resident population (ERP) of Australia as at 30 June 2001. The age standardised rate is that which would have prevailed if the studied population had the same age composition as the standard population. See Chapter 7, page 157 of the 2004-05 National Health Survey: Users' Guide (cat. no. 4363.0.55.001).


Alcohol consumption risk level


Alcohol risk levels were derived from the average daily consumption of alcohol in the seven days prior to interview and were grouped into relative risk levels as defined by the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) as follows:

ALCOHOL RISK LEVEL(a)

Consumption per day
Risk level Men Women

Low risk 50 mls or less 25 mls or less
Risky More than 50 mls, up to 75 mls More than 25 mls, up to 50 mls 
High risk More than 75 mls More than 50 mls

(a) One standard drink contains 12.5 ml of alcohol.


It should be noted that risk levels as defined by the NHMRC are based on regular consumption levels of alcohol, whereas indicators derived in the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey (NATSIHS) do not take into account whether consumption in the reference week was more, less or the same as usual.


Drinking status information was also collected for those who did not consume any alcohol in the 7 days prior to interview. Categorised as:

  • Last consumed more than one week to less than 12 months ago;
  • Last consumed 12 months or more ago; and
  • Never consumed.

Body Mass Index (BMI)


Calculated from reported height and weight information, using the formula weight (kg) divided by the square of height (m). To produce a measure of the prevalence of overweight or obesity in adults, BMI values are grouped according to the table below which allows categories to be reported against both the World Health Organisation (WHO) and NHMRC guidelines. Not stated categories in height and weight are excluded from estimates in this publication.

BODY MASS INDEX

2004-05

Underweight Less than 18.5
Normal range 18.5 to less than 25.0
Overweight 25.0 to less than 30.0
Obese 30.0 and greater


Circulatory conditions


This topic refers primarily to those persons ever told by a doctor or nurse that they have one or more heart or circulatory conditions, and who consider they currently have one or more such conditions.


The following predefined condition categories were included on the questionnaire, with provision for interviewers to record three additional write-in conditions if required:

  • Rheumatic heart disease;
  • Heart attack;
  • Stroke (including after effects);
  • Angina;
  • High blood pressure/hypertension;
  • Hardening of the arteries/atherosclerosis/arteriosclerosis;
  • Fluid problems/fluid retention/oedema;
  • High cholesterol;
  • Rapid or irregular heartbeat/tachycardia/palpitations;
  • Heart murmur/heart valve disorder;
  • Haemorrhoids; and
  • Varicose veins.

Further information can be found in the 2004-05 National Health Survey: Users' Guide (cat. no. 4363.0.55.001).


Conditions


See Long-term medical condition.


Current daily smoker


A current daily smoker is an adult who reported that they regularly smoked one or more cigarettes, cigars or pipes per day at the time of the survey.


The extent to which an adult was smoking at the time of interview, and refers to regular smoking of tobacco, including manufactured (packet) cigarettes, roll-your-own cigarettes, cigars and pipes, but excludes chewing tobacco and smoking of non-tobacco products.


Days away from work


Refers to days the respondent was away from work for at least half the day, due to illness or injury in the two weeks prior to the interview. For further information on days away see Chapter 5, page 115 and 116 of the 2004-05 National Health Survey: Users' Guide (cat. no. 4363.0.55.001).


Diabetes mellitus


A chronic condition in which blood glucose levels become too high due to the body producing little or no insulin, or not using insulin properly.


There are three main types of diabetes mellitus:

  • Type 1: is characterised by little or no insulin production and is likely to develop before 18 years of age. Treatment generally involves insulin injections and careful dietary control. It is also known as insulin-dependent diabetes.
  • Type 2: is characterised by resistance in the body's ability to use insulin and is likely to develop after 40 years of age. Lifestyle factors such as diet, obesity and exercise are strongly associated with Type 2 diabetes. It is also known as non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.
  • Gestational diabetes mellitus: occurs during pregnancy in about 3-8% of females not previously diagnosed with diabetes. This form of diabetes usually resolves after pregnancy. Unlike Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes, gestational diabetes is not defined as a long-term condition in the NHS and is excluded from the analysis of diabetes in this publication.

Exercise level


Based on frequency, intensity (i.e. walking, moderate exercise and vigorous exercise) and duration of exercise (for recreation, sport or fitness) in the two weeks prior to the interview. From these components, an exercise score was derived using factors to represent the intensity of the exercise. Scores were grouped into the following four categories:

EXERCISE LEVEL(a)

SCORES

Sedentary(b) Less than 100 (includes no exercise)
Low 100 to less than 1600
Moderate 1600-3200, or more than 3200 but less than 2 hours of moderate exercise
High More than 3200 and 2 hours or more of vigorous exercise

(a) See Chapter 4 of the 2004-05 National Health Survey: Users' Guide (cat. no. 4363.0.55.001) for more information.
(b) Sedentary refers to sitting in one place for extended periods of time.  


Fruit (usual daily serves)


Refers to the number of serves of fruit (excluding drinks and beverages) usually consumed each day, as reported by the respondent. A serve is approximately 150 grams of fresh fruit or 50 grams of dried fruit. The National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) has recommended a minimum of two serves of fruit per day.


Full-time workers


Employed persons who usually worked 35 hours or more a week (in all jobs) and those who, although usually working less than 35 hours a week, worked 35 hours or more during the reference week.


Health services


Refers to the following health-related services respondents reported they had used in the two weeks prior to interview:

  • Discharged from a stay in hospital (as an admitted patient);
  • Visit to casualty/emergency units at hospitals;
  • Visit to outpatients department at hospital;
  • Visit to day clinics;
  • Consultation with general practitioner (GP) and/or specialist;
  • Dental consultation; and
  • Consultation with other health professionals (OHP): see separate entry in this Glossary.

Household


A household is defined as one or more persons, at least one of whom is at least 15 years of age, usually resident in the same private dwelling. This publication reports proportions for persons aged 18 years and older.


Household income


Derived as the sum of the reported personal cash incomes of all household members aged 15 years and over. Household incomes were then divided into quintiles; 1st quintile lowest income, 5th quintile highest income. Cases where household income could not be derived are excluded before quintiles are created.


Inadequate fruit or vegetables


Refers to the intake of less than two serves of fruit or less than five serves of vegetables per day for adults. See 'fruit (usual daily serves)' and 'vegetables (usual daily serves)' in the Glossary.


Index of disadvantage


This is one of four Socio Economic Indexes for Areas (SEIFAs) compiled by ABS following each Census of Population and Housing. The indexes are compiled from various characteristics of persons resident in particular areas; the index of disadvantage summarises attributes such as low income, low educational attainment, high unemployment and jobs in relatively unskilled occupations. As shown in this publication Quintile 1 refers to the most disadvantaged group, while Quintile 5 refers to the most advantaged group. For further information on SEIFA 2001 see Chapter 6 of the 2004-05 National Health Survey: Users' Guide (cat. no. 4363.0.55.001).


Injury event


An accident, harmful incident, exposure to harmful factors or other incident which resulted in an injury. The injury must have occurred in the four weeks prior to the survey and have resulted in one or more of the following actions being taken:

  • consultation with a health professional;
  • sought medical advice;
  • received medical treatment;
  • reduced usual activities; and
  • other treatment of injury (i.e. took medications, used a bandage/band aid, or heat or ice pack).

Labour force status


Persons aged 15-64 years who were actively employed in the four weeks prior to the survey. Proportions in this publication represent persons aged 18-64 years who are employed full-time, employed part-time, unemployed (see also Unemployed) and not in the labour force (see also Not in the labour force).


Living arrangements


Refers to the composition of the household to which the respondent belonged. Households are categorised as single person, couple only, one adult and child(ren), couple and child(ren), other households.


Long-term medical condition


A medical condition (illness, injury or disability) which has lasted at least six months, or which the respondent expects to last for six months or more. Some reported conditions were assumed to be long-term, including asthma, arthritis, cancer, osteoporosis, diabetes, rheumatic heart disease, heart attack and stroke.


Musculoskeletal system and connective tissue


Diseases of the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue manifest in many forms of joint problems and disorders of the bones and muscles and their attachments, including arthritis, osteoporosis, rheumatism, back pain and disc disorders. Persons reporting arthritis and osteoporosis were asked if they were told by a doctor or nurse, all other conditions were not. Conditions included in Musculoskeletal system and connective tissue were:

  • Arthritis;
  • Gout;
  • other arthropathies;
  • Rheumatism;
  • Other soft tissue disorders;
  • Sciatica;
  • Back disorders;
  • Back pain;
  • Curvature of the spine;
  • Osteoporosis;
  • Other diseases of the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue; and
  • Symptoms of the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue.

Further information can be found in the 2004-5 National Health Survey: Users' Guide (cat. no. 4363.0.55.001).


Not in the labour force


Persons aged 18-64 years who are not employed or unemployed as defined, including persons who:

  • are retired;
  • no longer work;
  • do not intend to work in the future;
  • are permanently unable to work; and
  • have never worked and never intend to work.

Other health professionals


Includes consultation, for own health reasons, in the two weeks prior to interview with one or more of the following:

  • Aboriginal health worker;
  • Accredited counsellor;
  • Acupuncturist;
  • Alcohol and drug worker;
  • Audiologist/audiometrist;
  • Chemist;
  • Chiropodist/podiatrist;
  • Chiropractor;
  • Dietitian/nutritionist;
  • Herbalist;
  • Hypnotherapist;
  • Naturopath;
  • Nurse;
  • Occupational therapist;
  • Optician/optometrist;
  • Osteopath;
  • Physiotherapist/hydrotherapist;
  • Psychologist;
  • Social worker/welfare officer;
  • Speech therapist/pathologist; and
  • Traditional healer.

Part-time workers


Employed persons who usually worked less than 35 hours a week (in all jobs) and either did so during the reference week, or were not at work in the reference week


Private health insurance


Refers to the private health insurance status at the time of the survey. The category 'With cover' includes those with hospital and/or ancillary cover, and those with cover but the type of cover was unknown.


Psychological distress


Derived from the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale - 10 items (K10). This is a scale of non-specific psychological distress based on 10 questions about negative emotional states in the 4 weeks prior to interview. The K10 is scored from 10 to 50, with higher scores indicating a higher level of distress; low scores indicate a low level of distress. In this publication, scores are grouped as follows:

  • Low 10-15;
  • Moderate 16-21;
  • High 22-29; and
  • Very high 30-50.

Self-assessed health status


A person's general assessment of their own health against a five status point scale from excellent through to poor.


Skim or reduced fat milk


Levels of fat in milk products are as follows:

  • whole milk 8 g of fat;
  • 1% reduced milk: 4.5 g of fat;
  • 2% reduced milk: 2.5 g of fat; and
  • skim milk: 0.9 g of fat.

Type of conditions


All reported long-term medical conditions were coded to a classification developed by the ABS for use in the National Health Survey, which is based on the tenth revision of the International Classification of Diseases and Health Related Problems (ICD-10). Further information can be found in the 2004-05 National Health Survey: Users' Guide (cat. no. 4363.0.55.001).


Unemployed


Persons aged 15-64 years who were not employed and actively looking for work in the four weeks prior to the survey, and were available to start work in the week prior to the survey. See also Labour force status.


Vegetables (usual daily serves)


Refers to the number of serves of vegetables (excluding drinks and beverages) usually consumed each day, as reported by the respondent. A serve is approximately half a cup of cooked vegetables or one cup of salad vegetables - equivalent to approximately 75 grams. The National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) has recommended a minimum of five serves of vegetables per day.


Year of arrival


The year in which a person, reporting a country of birth other than Australia, first arrived in Australia to live for a period of one year or more.