4363.0.55.001 - National Health Survey: Users' Guide, 2001  
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Contents >> Chapter 6 - Population Characteristics

CONTENTS

    Demographic and socioeconomic characteristics

    Demographic characteristics
    Education
    Employment
    Income
    Private health insurance

    Health cards

    Housing

    Household, family and income unit characteristics

    Geographic classifications


    DEMOGRAPHIC AND SOCIOECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS
      Note: Except where indicated, or in reference to the Indigenous output data item list, respondents from the 2001 NHS(I) provided the same information as the 2001 NHS(G) although sparse NHS(I) had less content. Data in this chapter only refer to the 2001 NHS(G) sample and do not include the 2001 NHS(I) sample.
        In addition to the specific health information collected, the 2001 NHS obtained a range of information describing the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the survey population. These characteristics can be linked with the health data obtained in the survey to analyse the health status and other health characteristics of particular groups in the community e.g. migrants, the aged, low income earners, etc. For presentation in this publication the characteristics obtained have been grouped under the following headings: demographics, education, employment, income, health insurance, housing and family/household/income unit.

        Only the main output items available from the survey are outlined below; for a full list of demographic and socioeconomic variables available see the output categories for the 2001 NHS(G) and 2001 NHS(I) in the ABS web site, through links provided in the Health and Indigenous theme pages.

        In considering the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics available, there are some general points about aspects of the sampling within households, collection methodology, definitions and processing arrangements which need to be borne in mind, because they effect the data recorded for these characteristics:
        • within the 2001 NHS(G) households, one adult was enumerated, one child aged 7-17 years and all children aged 0-6 years. Within non-sparse NHS(I) households, one adult was enumerated and up to two children. Within sparse NHS(I) households, one adult was enumerated and up to one child aged 0-17 years.
        • the selected adult was selected solely on the basis of proximity of next birthday. Therefore in households with parents and adult children, the selected adult may have been one of those children.
        • in households with children, an adult was nominated by the household to respond about the children - this person is referred to as the child proxy. This may have been the selected adult or may have been another adult member of the household. Only one child proxy was used per household except on rare occasions.
        • where the child proxy was not the selected adult, language, education, and labour force details were recorded separately about the proxy. These were recorded on the first child's questionnaire at interview, and copied to each other child record in the household during processing. Where the proxy was a spouse/partner of the selected adult, income details were not separately collected from the proxy (as details had already been obtained on the selected adult questionnaire). Where the proxy was not a spouse/partner of the selected adult, income details, including income of their spouse/partner were separately collected.
        • where the child proxy was the selected adult, housing, language, education, labour force and income details were copied from the selected adult record onto the first child's record during processing, and then to each other child record in the household.
        • derivations were run after items had been copied between records and retained on the record from which the derivation was produced. Edits were performed to ensure there was consistency between records from within the same household as appropriate.
        • however, where the selected adult/or child proxy was not a parent or step-parent of the child, the sources and $ amount of income unit income were recorded as 'not stated', since the children in those cases belonged to a different income unit, and hence those variables were not considered appropriate. All other characteristics of the selected adult/child proxy were retained on children's records, regardless of their relationship to the child(ren).

        Partly as a result of the complexities of the arrangements outlined above, and partly due to differences in the range of data or data collection methods used within questionnaires for different populations, not all the data items described below are available for all adults, child proxy's or children enumerated. The availability of items is summarised at the end of each section.

        DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS

        Sex

        Male or female as reported.


        Age

        Age as reported was recorded in single years and single months if aged less than two years. Date of birth was recorded for children, which, in conjunction with date of interview, enabled exact age to be derived for infants. Date of birth is not available as an output item from the survey. Where discrepancies occurred between derived and reported age for children, reported age was used where appropriate since this was the age on which respondents were sequenced through the questionnaire. Date of birth was not recorded in sparse NHS(I).

        Standard output categories differ according to the topic to which the data relates; for example children's immunisation data relate to the age group 0 to 6 years. However, age in five or ten year groups is most commonly used in survey output. Other non-standard groupings are available on request.


        Registered marital status

        Registered marital status was recorded for persons aged 15 years and over, as reported, and was classified as: Never married, Widowed, Divorced, Separated but not divorced, Married.

          Social marital status

          Social marital status was derived for persons aged 15 years and over, and was classified as:
          • Married - if living with another person in a couple relationship, which was reported as either a registered marriage or a defacto marriage. Included are persons living with a person of the same sex in a couple relationship.
          • Not married - if not living with another person in a couple relationship. Includes persons living alone, with other family members, in shared accommodation. Included are persons in a registered or defacto marriage but whose partners are not usually resident in the household.


          Country of birth

          Classified from reported country of birth, to the Standard Australian Classification of Countries (SACC), which is a hierarchical classification based on the concept of geographic proximity. The abbreviated classification used in most standard output is shown in Appendix 7; other groupings are available on request. This information was not collected in the 2001 NHS(I) sample.


          Year of arrival in Australia

          This item refers to the year in which a person, reporting a country of birth other than Australia, first arrived in Australia to live for a period of one year or more. Individual year of arrival was recorded and can be grouped as required for output. This information was not collected in the 2001 NHS(I) sample.


          Indigenous status

          Refers to whether the person is of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander origin, as identified by an adult spokesperson within each household i.e. not necessarily self-identification. The information was collected only in households where at least one resident had been identified as Australian born.

          Status is classified as Aboriginal, Torres Strait Islander, both Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander, and neither Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander. Persons identified as of Kanak descent, from Papua or New Guinea or other Pacific Island origin are recorded as neither Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander.


          Language other than English spoken at home

          Obtained for adults only, as reported. If more than one language other than English was reported as spoken at home, the language spoken most often at home (as identified by the respondent) was recorded. Language was classified at the finest level of the Australian Standard Classification of Languages; the abbreviated classification used in most standard output is shown in Appendix 8.

          Note that the language reported may be used instead of English, or used in conjunction with English. This item should be used in conjunction with the proficiency in English item below.


          Proficiency in spoken English

          Adults who reported they spoke a language other than English at home were asked how well they spoke English. Responses were recorded as reported by respondents against the categories very well, well, not well, not at all. This information was not collected in the 2001 NHS(I) sample.


          Main English speaking countries

          Main English speaking countries are classified as follows:
          • Australia
          • Other main English speaking countries
            1. 1201 - New Zealand,
            2. 2102 - England,
            3. 2105 - Scotland
            4. 2106 - Wales
            5. 2104 - Northern Ireland
            6. 2101 - Channel Islands
            7. 2103 - Isle of Man
            8. 2201 - Ireland
            9. 8102 - Canada
            10. 8104 - United States of America
            11. 9225 - South Africa
          • All other countries


          Relationship to child

          This item was collected for each child enumerated in the survey, and refers to the relationship of the child to the adult reporting for the child (selected adult or other child proxy), as reported by that adult. The collection and output categories are: mother, step mother, father, step father, grandparent, other relative, other.


          Demographic items: Summary

          The table below summarises the availability of the demographic items for the various populations

          TABLE 6.1: Demographics

          Availability

          Selected adult 18 years and over
          Child proxy 18 years and over
          Child 0-17 years
          Topic/item
          Selected adult
          Other adult

          Sex
          x
          x
          x
          x (all)
          Age
          x
          x
          x
          x (all)
          Registered marital status
          x
          x
          -
          x (15+)
          Social marital status
          x
          x
          x
          Country of birth
          x
          x
          x
          x (all)
          Year of arrival
          x
          x
          x
          x (all)
          Indigenous status
          x
          x
          x
          x (all)
          Language other than English spoken at home
          x
          x
          x
          -
          Proficiency in spoken English
          x
          x
          x
          -
          Relationship to child
          -
          x
          x
          -



          The table below summarises the availability of the demographic items for the geographic populations in the 2001 NHS(I) (please also refer to the table above for the specific population for which the items are available.)

          TABLE 6.2: Demographic data availability - remote/non-remote areas

          Availability

          Topic/item
          Remote Areas
          Non-Remote Areas

          Sex
          x
          x
          Age
          x
          x
          Registered marital status
          x
          x
          Social marital status
          x
          x
          Country of birth
          -
          -
          Year of arrival
          -
          -
          Indigenous status
          x
          x
          Language other than English spoken at home
          x
          x
          Proficiency in spoken English
          -
          x
          Relationship to child
          x
          x



          EDUCATION

          Children aged 6-14 years were assumed to be attending school.
          For persons aged 15 years and over information was obtained about study at school or another educational institution and the highest level of post-school educational qualification attained.


          Whether currently studying

          Includes study at school, university, TAFE or other educational institution. Current study includes persons currently enrolled full or part-time, including apprentices attending one day a week or on block release. Enrolment in adult education courses, hobby and recreation courses are excluded.

          Current study is further split by whether full-time or part-time study. This is determined by how their enrolment is classified by the education institution they are attending; if uncertain, the respondent's reported status was recorded. Apprentices who attend one day per week or on block release are classified as in part-time study.

          Output categories for children 15 to 17 years: Studying full-time, studying part-time/not studying.
          Output categories for adults: Studying full-time, studying part-time, Not studying.


          Age left school

          Obtained for adults only, and refers to the age the respondent most recently left a recognised primary or secondary school (including correspondence school and private tuition). However, this does not include study of school subjects at a post-school institution. For persons who left school at an early age and returned to continue studies at primary/secondary schools, the age at which they most recently left school was recorded.

          Categories are: never went to school, 13 years and under, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21 years and over, still at school.


          Highest year of primary or secondary school completed

          Obtained for adults only, and may include persons aged 18 years and over currently at school, but excludes the study of school subjects at a post-school institution. For years up to and including Year 11 the term 'completed' means to attend for the full school year such that progression to the following year of school is enabled; for Year 12, completed requires only attendance for the full year. Further details of the definitions used are available on request.

          Categories are: Year 12 or equivalent, Year 11, Year 10, Year 9, Year 8 or lower.


          Highest level of post-school qualification

          Adult respondents who had left school were asked whether they had completed a trade certificate, diploma, degree or other educational qualification since leaving school, and the name of the highest qualification completed.

          Information about duration of study to complete the course, and additional information about reported nursing and teaching qualifications was collected to enable more accurate classification of the qualification to level of attainment where possible.

          Information relating to field of study of post-school qualifications is not available from this survey.


          Education items: Summary

          The table below summarises the availability of the demographic items for the various populations.

          TABLE 6.3: Education

          Availability

          Selected adult 18 years and over
          Child proxy 18 years and over
          Child 0-17 years
          Topic/item
          Selected adult
          Other adult

          Whether currently studying
          x
          x
          x
          x (15+)
          Age left school
          x
          x
          x
          -
          Highest year of school completed
          x
          x
          x
          -
          Level of highest educational qualification
          x
          x
          x
          -



          EMPLOYMENT

          Information about employment was obtained about persons aged 15 years and over. The questions used in the 2001 NHS are a short-form version of the redesigned labour force standard minimum standard, introduced into the ABS Monthly Labour Force Survey in April 2001. Use of the reduced set of questions may have resulted in small differences in classification of labour force status and full-time/part-time employment, compared with the results that would have been derived had the full standard question module be used.

          Some of the employment items below (e.g. occupation, industry, working arrangements) relate to the respondent's main job. For those respondents had more than one job at the time of the interview, main job was defined as the paid job in which they usually worked the most hours .

          In sparse NHS(I), whether the respondent was participating in a community development employment program (CDEP) was included in these questions.


          Labour force status

          Persons were classified as either employed, unemployed or not in the labour force based on criteria relating to whether the person had a job in the week prior to interview, whether those who did not have a job were actively seeking work, and whether those actively seeking work were available to start work.
          • Employed persons were those who reported that in the preceding week they had worked in a job, business or farm for one hour or more or who had a job but were absent during that week.
          • Unemployed persons were those who were not employed in the reference week, and who actively looked for work some time during the previous four weeks and were available to start, or waiting to start within the following four weeks.
          • Persons who were neither employed nor unemployed as defined above were classified as not in the labour force.

          Labour force status as defined for this survey also incorporates the characteristic of whether full-time or part-time work is involved, as follows:
          • Employed full-time if they usually work 35 hours or more a week (in all jobs).
          • Employed part-time if they usually worked less than 35 hours a week (in all jobs).
          • Unemployed actively seeking full-time work in last 4 weeks.
          • Unemployed actively seeking part-time work only in last 4 weeks.

          Labour force status is categorised as: employed full-time, employed part-time, unemployed looking for full-time work, unemployed looking for part-time work, not in the labour force.


          Status in employment

          This item refers to a respondent's position in relation to the main employment (job) in the enterprise in which he or she works and is determined the following criteria:
          • whether a person operates his/her own economic enterprise or engages independently in a profession or trade, and hires one or more employees;
          • whether a person operates his/her own economic enterprise or engages independently in a profession or trade and hires no employees; . whether a person works for a public or private employer and receives remuneration; and
          • whether a person works in an economic enterprise operated by a relative without remuneration.
            Four output categories are available:
            • Employee: A person who works for a public or private employer and receives remuneration in wages, salary, a retainer fee by their employer while working on a commission basis, tips, piece-rates or payment in kind, or a person who operates his or her own incorporated enterprise with or without hiring employees.
            • Employer: A person who operates his or her own unincorporated economic enterprise or engages independently in a profession or trade, and hires one or more employees.
            • Own Account Worker: A person who operates his or her own unincorporated economic enterprise or engages independently in a profession or trade and hires no employees.
            • Contributing Family Worker: A person who works without pay in an economic enterprise operated by a relative.

            This information was not collected in sparse NHS(I).


            Working arrangements

            This item refers to the working or payment arrangements of the respondent in their current main job.

            Data are recorded as reported by respondents against the following categories: Unpaid voluntary work; Contractor/sub-contractor; Own business/partnership; Commission only; Commission with retainer; Family business without pay; Payment in kind; Paid by piece/item produced; Wage/salary earner; Other

            This information was not collected in sparse NHS(I).


            Occupation

            Office coded to the Australian Standard Classification of Occupations (ASCO) from the respondent’s description of their occupation in their main job or business and of the main tasks or duties performed. Occupation was classified to the full four-digit level of ASCO, and details can be made available at this level on request (although for many categories observations in the survey are relatively few, and therefore the reliability of the data will be significantly reduced).

            For most output purposes occupation classified to the eight major groups (see below) or sub-major group level (see Appendix 9) are the most detailed levels suitable.

            ASCO Major Groups: Managers and administrators; professionals; paraprofessionals; tradespersons; clerks; salespersons and personal service workers; plant and machine operators and drivers; and labourers and related workers.


            Industry of employment

            Office coded to the Australia and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC) based on the description provided by the respondent of the business or activity carried out by their business/employer where they work, and the name of the business/employer. Industry was classified to the 3 digit "Group" level of ANZSIC, and details can be made available at this level on request (although for many groups observations in the survey are relatively few, and therefore the reliability of the data will be significantly reduced).

            For most output purposes industry classified to the 17 Divisions of the classification is the most detailed level suitable. These divisions are: Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing; Mining; Manufacturing; Electricity, Gas and Water Supply ; Construction; Wholesale Trade; Retail Trade; Accommodation, Cafes and Restaurants; Transport and Storage; Communication Services; Finance and Insurance; Property and Business Services; Government Administration and Defence; Education; Health and Community Services; Cultural and Recreational Services; Personal and Other Services. See also Appendix 10.

            This information was not collected in sparse NHS(I).


            Industry sector

            This item was office coded for respondents who were wage and salary earners or owners of a limited liability company in their current main job, and refers to the sector - Government, Private or Australian Defence Forces, in which their business/employer operates.

            This information was not collected in sparse NHS(I).


            Hours worked

            Refers to reported hours usually worked (in all jobs) per week by persons currently employed.

            Hours in single units are recorded, but are grouped for standard outputs, as follows:
            No hours or less than 1, 1-15 hrs, 16-24 hrs, 25-34 hrs, 35-39 hrs, 40 hrs, 41-48 hrs, 49 hrs or more.


            Type of shift work

            Recorded for employed persons who reported doing any shift work in their main job, in the 4 weeks prior to interview. Categories available are:
            • Rotating shift which changes periodically
            • Regular evening, night or graveyard shift
            • Regular morning shift
            • Regular afternoon shift
            • Irregular shift
            • Split shift (2 distinct periods per day)
            • On call
            • Other
            This information was not collected in sparse NHS(I).


            Duration of unemployment

            Derived for persons classified as unemployed at the time of the survey. This item refers to the period from the time a person began looking for work or was stood down, to the end of the survey reference week. For persons who began looking for work while still employed, the item refers to the period from the time the person last worked full time for two weeks or more until the end of the reference week. The item is a continuous variable, measured in completed weeks.

            For standard output periods are grouped as follows:

            Less than 4 weeks, 4 to less than 8 weeks, 8 to less than 13 weeks, 13 to less than 26 weeks, 26 to less than 52 weeks, 52 weeks or more.

            Long-term unemployment is defined as unemployment for a period of 52 weeks or more.

            This information was not collected in sparse NHS(I).


            Labour force items: Summary

            The table below summarises the availability of the demographic items for the various populations.

            TABLE 6.4: Labour force

            Availability

            Selected adult 18 years and over
            Child proxy 18 years and over
            Child 0-17 years
            Topic/item
            Selected adult
            Other adult

            Labour force status
            x
            x
            x
            x (15+)
            Status in employment
            x
            x
            x
            x (15+)
            Working arrangements
            x
            x
            x
            x (15+)
            Occupation
            x
            x
            x
            -
            Industry/sector
            x
            x
            x
            -
            Hours worked
            x
            x
            x
            x (15+)
            Type of shift work
            x
            x
            x
            x (15+)
            Duration of unemployment
            x
            x
            x
            x (15+)



            The table below summarises the availability of the demographic items for the geographic populations in the 2001 NHS(I) (please also refer to the table above for the specific population for which the items are available.)

            TABLE 6.5: Labour force data availability - remote/non-remote areas

            Availability

            Topic/item
            Remote areas
            Non-remote areas

            Labour force status
            x
            x
            Status in employment
            -
            x
            Working arrangements
            -
            x
            Occupation
            x
            x
            Industry/sector
            -
            x
            Hours worked
            x
            x
            Type of shift work
            -
            x
            Duration of unemployment
            -
            x


            INCOME

            In the 2001 NHS, income information was obtained for all selected persons aged 15 years and over, and was collected using an abridged version of the ABS standard module of questions. The data relates primarily to regular/recurring cash income.

            Information was collected about the personal income of the selected adult and selected child aged 15-17 years (where applicable) in each sampled dwelling. Selected adults were also asked about the income of their spouse/partner, enabling the derivation of gross income unit income in most cases. Because the survey did not necessarily collect information about the income of all people in selected dwellings, household level income is not available from this survey, except in the case of single family households. In cases where income was not reported, values were not imputed and missing data appears as not stated values in survey output.


            Source(s) of cash income

            Using a prompt card, persons were firstly asked whether they had received income from the following sources in the last financial year:
            • profit or loss from own unincorporated business or share in partnership (excluding wages/salary drawn from own limited liability company(s));
            • profit or loss from rental property; or
            • dividends or interest, including dividends from own limited liability business as well as other companies, but excludes bonus share values received with or in lieu of dividends.

            Income from share trading, where the respondent was a registered dealer, was recorded as business income. In other cases, income from share trading was recorded as 'other regular income' - see below.

            Also using a prompt card. persons were then asked whether they currently received income from:
            • wages or salary, includes wages, salary or fees paid to owner of limited liability company, but excludes payments received under Newstart or youth training allowance;
            • a government pension or allowance (including payments from overseas governments);
            • child support or maintenance (cash only payments);
            • superannuation or annuity, excluding lump sum payments and government benefits; or
            • or any other regular source, where regular was defined as at least once per year.

            Persons were recorded against each source of income they reported, as appropriate, and all sources identified above are available in survey output.

            Respondents who reported income from more than one source were asked to identify their main source of income; this is available as a separate output item.

            As noted above, respondents with a spouse/partner were asked about the income of their spouse/partner. For this purpose, a single question about the source of income was used, with reduced categories, as follows: wages and salary; profit or loss from a business or rental property; government pension, benefit or allowance; any other regular source.

            Information about the main source of spouse/partner income was not collected. As a result, at the income unit level, all sources of income can be identified (at the lower level of detail at which spouse/partner income was recorded), but main source of income unit income cannot be determined, except for single income units where the selected adult respondent was the source of that income.

            In sparse NHS(I), instead of the above questions respondents were asked only if they currently received income from:
            • CDEP
            • Wage or salary
            • Government family payment
            • Some other government pension, benefit or allowance
            • Any other regular source.

            The same information was collected for spouse or partner.


            Type of pension, benefit or allowance

            Respondents who reported they currently received income from a government pension or allowance were asked the type of pension, allowance or benefit received. Prompt cards were used to assist respondents. Information was recorded against two lists:

            TABLE 6.6: Pensions/benefits/allowances

            List AList B

            Australian age pensionWar widow's pension
            Newstart allowanceDisability pension (DVA)
            Mature age allowanceChild disability allowance
            Service pension (DVA)Overseas pensions/benefits
            Disability support pension (Centrelink)Parenting payment
            Wife pensionOther
            Carer pension
            Sickness allowance
            Widow allowance (Widow B pension)
            Special benefit
            Partner allowance
            Youth allowance



            Respondents could report one only from list A, but as many as applied from list B. Categories from both lists are combined for output.

            This information was not collected in sparse NHS(I).


            Gross cash income

            Gross cash income refers to total cash income from all sources before tax or anything else (except business expenses) is taken out.

            Respondents were asked to report cash $ income they received in two parts:
            • income received last financial year from profit or loss from own unincorporated business or share in partnership, profit or loss from rental property or from dividends or interest. Provision was made to record nil income, and whether profit or loss.
            • usual income from wages or salary, a government pension or allowance, child support or maintenance, superannuation or annuity, or any other regular source. The period to which that reported income related was also recorded.

            For output, these two incomes are combined and are usually expressed in annual or weekly income ranges. Incomes in reported $ amounts are stored on the data file, enabling data to be grouped as required to meet individual data needs.

            In sparse NHS(I), respondents were asked how much they received from CDEP, wage or salary, government family payment, other government pension, benefit or allowance or any other regular source, and how often they were paid these amounts.

            $ income of spouse/partner was also recorded (where applicable) as outlined above, enabling the total $ cash income of income units to be derived in most cases.


            Income items: Summary

            The table below summarises the availability of the demographic items for the various populations.

            TABLE 6.7: Income summary

            Availability

            Selected adult 18 years and over
            Child proxy 18 years and over
            Child 0-17 years
            Topic/item
            Selected adult
            Other adult

            Sources of cash income
            x
            x
            x
            x (15+)
            Type of pension benefit
            x
            x
            -
            -
            Gross cash income
            x
            x
            x
            x (15+)



            The table below summarises the availability of the income items for the geographic populations in the 2001 NHS(I) (please also refer to the table above for the specific population for which the items are available.)

            TABLE 6.8: Income data availability - remote/non-remote areas

            Availability

            Topic/item
            Remote areas
            Non-remote areas

            Sources of cash income
            x
            x
            Type of pension benefit
            -
            x
            Gross cash income
            x
            x



            PRIVATE HEALTH INSURANCE

            Definition

            Private health insurance is cover additional to that provided under Medicare, offered by private health organisations registered under the National Health Act to reimburse all or part of the cost of hospital and/or ancillary services. Information was obtained about the private health insurance arrangements current at the time of the survey.

            Cover provided or arranged through employers was included. Ambulance only cover, and cover arranged under Veteran's Affairs or other government health benefits cards was excluded.


            Methodology

            Respondents were asked if they were currently covered by private health insurance, the type of cover and type of membership they had, and how long they had private cover. Persons with private cover were also asked the reasons they had cover, and those without cover were asked the reasons why not. Interviewers prompted respondents in both these 'reasons' questions, to ensure that all reasons were recorded.

            Type of cover refers to whether persons were covered for hospital expenses, expenses for ancillary services, for both hospital and ancillary or had no private health insurance. Private insurance for hospital expenses provides cover for the costs of accommodation in private hospitals and private accommodation in public hospitals. Ancillary cover includes services such as dental, physiotherapy, optical, acupuncture, etc. The range of services and the level of cover provided for each service may vary.

            Type of membership refers to whether the respondent was covered under a family, couple, single parent or single person membership. See Q751 to Q756 in 2001 NHS(G) Adult form.


            Population

            All persons aged 15 years and over. This information was not collected in the sparse NHS(I).


            Data items
            • whether currently covered by private health insurance
            • type of insurance cover
            • type of membership
            • time covered by private health insurance
            • reasons covered by private health insurance
            • reasons not covered by private health insurance.

            Output categories for the 2001 NHS(G) and 2001 NHS(I) are available from the ABS web site, through links provided in the Health and Indigenous theme pages to the respective output data items lists.


            Interpretation

            Points to consider in interpreting data for this topic include:
            • while efforts are made to ensure that only legitimate private health insurance was reported, some respondents may have reported life, accident or other forms of insurance.
            • overall results from this survey show average reported insurance levels in 2001, and reflect people's perception of their insurance cover which may not correspond to their actual cover. As a result the data from this topic are not directly comparable with statistics on health insurance levels compiled from fund membership information and published quarterly by the Private Health Insurance Administration Council.
            • depending on the person in the household chosen as the selected adult, they may have been unaware of their coverage/or lack of coverage under another person's (e.g. a parent's) private health insurance.
            • the type of insurance held is only available at the very broad level of hospital only, ancillary only, both hospital and ancillary. Within each of these categories, the actual type and level of cover provided can differ significantly. This needs to be borne in mind when aggregating these data for population groups.
            • the length of time insured relates to the current episode of insurance - previous periods of insurance which have lapsed or been terminated are excluded. In addition, the item relates simply to period insured, and does not necessarily refer to the type of cover or membership currently reported.


            Comparability with 1995

            Major changes have occurred in private health insurance in the period 1995 to 2001, impacting the levels of community awareness of private health insurance, the types of insurance cover available, and the levels of cover across the population. These differences were reflected in quite different questions being asked in the 2001 NHS compared with those in the 1995 survey. However, it is felt that comparisons can be made in terms of the levels of private insurance cover (e.g. overall, and within population groups), and the broad types of cover held (hospital only, ancillary only, both hospital and ancillary).

            The comparability issues outlined above for NHS(G) also apply to non-remote NHS(I). For other general comparability issues between 1995 NHS and the 2001 NHS(I) refer to Chapter 7.

            HEALTH CARDS

            Definition

            This topic refers to coverage by specific government - issued cards which entitle the card holder, and in some cases their dependents, to a variety of health and benefits or concessions (e.g. medical care, hospital treatment/accommodation, supply of pharmaceuticals, free of charge or at reduced rates). Cards are provided primarily to recipients of Commonwealth government pensions or benefits.

            The specific cards covered in the 2001 NHS were:
            • any cards from the Department of Veterans' Affairs (DVA),
            • Health Care Card,
            • Pensioner Concession Card
            • Commonwealth Seniors Health Card.

            Readers should contact the relevant authority for details of the persons eligible for these cards (or coverage under these cards) and the range of entitlements available to card holders.


            Methodology

            Respondents were asked whether they have a DVA Treatment Entitlement Card, and the colour of the card; gold, white, other. Respondents were also asked if they were covered by a range of (other) government health concession cards. Multiple cards could be reported. A picture prompt card showing examples of the 3 card types listed above was shown to respondents to assist them in reporting. See Q757 to Q759 in 2001 NHS(G) Adult form.

            Interviewers were supplied with supplementary information about the cards to assist if queried by respondents.


            Population

            Information was obtained for all persons aged 15 years and over. This information was not collected in the sparse NHS(I).


            Data items
            • Whether currently has DVA card
            • Colour of DVA card
            • Whether currently covered by other Government health card
            • Type(s) of other Government health card

            Output categories for the 2001 NHS(G) and 2001 NHS(I) are available from the ABS web site, through links provided in the Health and Indigenous theme pages to the respective output data items lists.


            Interpretation

            Points to be considered in interpreting data for this topic;
            • although picture prompt cards were used some respondents may have incorrectly reported other types of cards in answer to these questions; for example State Seniors Cards which provide access to non-health services or entitlements (e.g. transport)
            • depending on the person in the household chosen as the selected adult, they may have been unaware of their coverage under another person's (e.g. a parent's) card.


            Comparability with 1995

            At the broadest level of whether has/covered by a DVA or other Government Health Card, the data are considered directly comparable between surveys. However in making comparisons consideration should be given to changes which may have occurred between 1995 and 2001 in terms of eligibility for cards.

            The types of cards available, and the types of entitlements they offer have changed significantly since 1995, such that data at this lower level are not regarded as comparable between the 1995 and 2001 surveys.

            The comparability issues outlined above for NHS(G) also apply to non-remote NHS(I). For other general comparability issues between 1995 NHS and the 2001 NHS(I) refer to Chapter 7.

            HOUSING

            Definition

            This topic refers to the dwelling type and number of bedrooms of the dwelling in which respondents were enumerated - i.e. their usual place of residence in most cases.

            Methodology

            Dwelling type refers to the structure in which the household resides, as recorded by interviewers and based on their observations at the time of the interview. Information was recorded against the following categories;
            • Separate house
            • Semi-detached/row or terrace house/town house - one storey; two or more storeys
            • Flat attached to house
            • Other flat or apartment - in 1 or 2 storey block; in 3 storey block; in 4 or more storey block
            • Caravan, tent, cabin in caravan park or houseboat in marina
            • Caravan or houseboat not in caravan park or marina
            • Improvised home/camper out
            • House or flat attached to shop, office, etc.

            Dwelling type was recorded by interviewers on the selected adult questionnaire, and copied during processing to the record of each child enumerated at that dwelling.

            The selected adult was asked to report the number of bedrooms in the dwelling. The item refers to the number of rooms recorded on the dwelling plans as bedrooms, even though they may be currently used for other purposes.

            Information from both these questions was recorded by interviewers on the selected adult questionnaire only, and copied during processing to the record of each child enumerated at that dwelling. See Q18 and Q57 in 2001 NHS(G) Adult form.


            Population

            All persons


            Data items
            • Dwelling type
            • Number of bedrooms

            Output categories for the 2001 NHS(G) and 2001 NHS(I) are available from the ABS web site, through links provided in the Health and Indigenous theme pages to the respective output data items lists. The Indigenous output data items list indicates whether each item is available for non-remote only or both non-remote and remote.


            Interpretation

            Points to be considered in interpreting data for this topic include:
            • some respondents may not be aware of the designated usage of rooms specified in building plans, and hence may report other rooms currently used as bedrooms in some cases
            • some care should be taken in relating the health characteristics of respondents with their housing characteristics, since information is not available from the survey to indicate their length of residence in that dwelling.

            Comparability with 1995 Although there have been some minor changes to the type of dwelling classification from that used in the 1995 survey, data for dwelling type and number of bedrooms is considered directly comparable between the 2001 and 1995 surveys. Information about housing tenure and landlord type available from the 1995 NHS was not collected in the 2001 survey.

            The comparability issues outlined above for NHS(G) also apply to non-remote NHS(I). Data are not available for remote areas in the 1995 NHS so time series comparisons are only possible for non-remote areas. For other general comparability issues between 1995 NHS and the 2001 NHS(I) refer to Chapter 7.

            HOUSEHOLD, FAMILY AND INCOME UNIT LEVEL CHARACTERISTICS

            In addition to data obtained about individual respondents in the survey, other data are available about the families, households or income units to which they belong. This information is important to understanding the situation in which people live, and which may impact their health and related characteristics.

            In the 2001 NHS(G), information was collected about selected people in each household; one adult, one child aged 7 to 17 years (if applicable) and all children aged 0 to 6 years (if applicable). In the 2001 NHS(I), information was also collected about selected people in each household; in non-sparsely settled areas one adult and up to two children aged 0 to 17 years; in sparsely settled areas one adult and up to one child aged 0 to 17 years. As a result, unlike previous NHSs, it is not possible to bring together the records for all household members to determine household, family or income unit characteristics. Instead a range of these characteristics was collected or derived from other data collected and these are contained on each person record from the survey. These characteristics are outlined below.

            While this approach enables the health characteristics of individuals and populations of individuals to be analysed in terms of their household, family or income unit characteristics, data from this survey are not available compiled for households, families or income units.


            Household characteristics

            A household is defined as either:
            • a group of two or more related or unrelated people who usually reside in the same dwelling, who regard themselves as a household and who make common provision for food or other essentials for living, or
            • a person living in a dwelling who makes provision for his or her own food and other essentials for living, without combining with any other person.

            A household can contain more than one family and more than one income unit. The particular household characteristics available from the 2001 survey are described below;


            Household type

            As used in this survey, this item simply describes households on the basis of the number of families present: i.e.
            • single person household
            • single family household
            • multiple family, or mixed family and non-family household
            • type not classifiable,

            where a family is two or more related people who usually live together - see Family characteristics below. The item is derived from reported household composition and family number information.

            This item is less detailed than the ABS standard Household Type item, because data to support the standard item were not collected in the survey.


            Household composition

            This item refers to the composition of the household, as recorded by interviewers, based on the information about the residents of the household provided by the initial contact within the household. This information is recorded on the questionnaires for all persons enumerated. Categories are:
            • person living alone
            • couple only
            • couple with unmarried children aged 15 yrs and over
            • couple with children aged 0-14 yrs
            • couple with children aged 0-14 yrs and unmarried children aged 15 yrs and over
            • one person with unmarried children aged 15 yrs and over
            • one person with children aged 0-14 yrs
            • one person with children aged 0-14 yrs and unmarried children aged 15 yrs and over
            • all other households


            Relationship in household

            This item was office coded from information recorded by interviewers on each respondent's questionnaire, and relates to persons for whom household composition was recorded as 'all other households'. This item describes the position of the respondent in the household, relative to other household members. Further details of the input coding can be made available on request. For output, the following categories are available:
            • husband, wife or partner
            • lone parent
            • child less than 15 yrs
            • dependent student
            • non-dependent child
            • other related person
            • non-family member
            • visitor
            • not classifiable, not known


            Number of persons in household

            This refers simply to a count of persons who are usual residents of the household dwelling and members of the household to which the respondent belongs. This information is office coded from information recorded on the Household Form by interviewers. Number of persons in household is available for age groups as follows:

            0-6 yrs, 7-14 yrs, 15 to 17 yrs, 18 yrs and over (adults), All ages (persons).


            Number of regular smokers in household

            As reported by the selected adult respondent- see Smoking, in Chapter 5, Health Risk Factors.


            Family characteristics

            A 'family' is defined as two or more persons, one of whom is at least 15 years of age, who are related by blood, marriage (registered or de facto), adoption, step or fostering, and who are usually resident in the same household. The basis of a family is formed by identifying the presence of a couple relationship, lone parent-child relationship or other blood relationship. Some households therefore contain more than one family.

            This is a more restrictive definition than the ordinary notion of the term 'family' which generally includes relatives whether they live together or not. This is a reflection of the fact that for survey-based research it is necessary to place some physical bound on the extent of family for the purposes of being able to collect family data.

            Two family characteristic items are available; number of families, and family type:


            Number of families

            This is simply a count of families in the household, office coded from
            information obtained on the Household Form


            Family type

            Due to the methodology used in this survey, categories available for this item are less detailed than the ABS standard classification, and the item is only available for people in single family households. Persons in multi-family households are classified to the category ' family type not known'. The item is derived from household composition, relationship, family number and the age and student status of family members in the household. Categories are:
            • couple family with dependent children *
            • couple family with non-dependent children only
            • couple only family
            • one parent with dependent children*
            • one parent with non-dependent children only
            • person living alone
            • family type not known

            *Note: These categories may also include non-dependent children.

            For the purposes of this and following items, a child is considered to be dependent if they are living with (a) parent(s), are aged less than 15 years of age, or are aged 15-24 but are unmarried, have no children of their own and are a full-time student.


            Characteristics of income units

            An income unit may comprise one person, or a group of related persons, within a household, whose command over income is shared (or is assumed to be shared). The relationships allowed for in the definition of income unit, are restricted to those of marriage (registered or de facto) and of parent/dependent child. Income units can therefore include the partner (for couples), all children aged less than 15 years, and unmarried children who are full-time students aged 15-24 years who don't have children of their own. All other persons were considered to be non-dependent and hence to form their own separate income units. Each household and each family unit can contain numerous income units.


            Income unit type

            Derived from household composition and relationship in household together with information on the age and student status of children, and classified as follows:
            • Couple with dependent child(ren)
            • Couple without dependent child(ren)
            • Single person with dependent child(ren)
            • Single person
            • Not known.


            Income of Income unit

            Derived from reported personal income and income of spouse/partner as appropriate and taking account of income unit type as specified above.

            Income of income unit is calculated in $ amounts, and is contained on each respondent's record. Standard output groupings are shown in the Output Data Items List. Data can be compiled in different groups to suit individual data needs if required. Income unit income is also available grouped by decile (not available for the 2001 NHS(I) sample). It should be noted that small discrepancies may occur between unit and personal incomes (in single adult income units) due to rounding; in some cases this may result in respondents falling in a different income group, or income decile. Such cases are rare and should not impact analysis of the data.

            Income unit income is not available for all respondents, partly as a result of the sampling methodology within households, and partly as a result of income (either personal or spouse/partners income) not being reported in some cases. These situations are outlined below;
            • The sampling methodology within households meant that any adult could be chosen as the 'selected adult'; for example, in a household comprising parent(s) and a child or children aged 18 years and over, a parent or an adult child may have been selected. While income unit type could be established in most cases, regardless of who the selected adult respondent was, the income data collected about persons in that household will differ depending on that selection. For example, if an adult child was selected the income data available will be only about that child, irrespective of whether or not the child belongs to his/her parent's income unit.
            • Conceptually the income of children aged 15 years or more who belong to their parent's income unit, forms part of the income of that income unit. However, in the 2001 NHS because only one child 7-17 years was enumerated, and possibly no children 18 years and over, in some cases the income of children was unknown. Rather than include this income where known and exclude in other cases, the approach has been adopted to exclude children's income from all income unit income (except as described below). Because children in this age group by definition have to be full-time students to belong to a parents' income unit, the absence of child's income is expected to make minimal difference to the overall income of the income unit, in most cases. Child income was included in income unit income if the child was a spouse/partner in a couple only or couple with child(ren) unit.
            • Personal income was not reported by 7.1% of adult respondents, and spouse/partner income was not reported by 6.7% of eligible adult respondents. These, together the fact that it was not possible to determine income unit type for 9.2% of adults has meant that (as shown below) for 18.7% of adults it has not been possible to derive $ income of the income unit to which they belong. The extent to which unit income is not known differs between income unit types, and should be considered in interpreting data incorporating unit income.

            TABLE 6.9: Income unit income

            Income unit type
            Percent of adults in unit type
            Percent of adults for whom income unit income could not be determined.
            Percent of children in unit type
            Percent of children for whom income unit income could not be determined.

            Couple with dependent child(ren)
            26.0
            12.5
            74.5
            10.3
            Couple without dependent child(ren)
            28.9
            12.5
            -
            -
            Single person with dependent child(ren)
            6.3
            9.4
            15.9
            6.3
            Single person
            29.5
            6.9
            1.7
            4.0
            Type of unit not known
            9.2
            100.0
            7.9
            100.0
            All income units
            100.0
            18.7
            100.0
            16.7



            As noted above, income unit income is also available grouped by decile; for this purpose persons with unit income not stated were removed. Deciles were calculated in two ways;
            • persons are counted separately into deciles but based on income unit income; the unit income of units in which more people were enumerated is more highly represented in the calculation of deciles than the income of say single person units under this approach.
            • deciles are created at the unit level and the decile of the unit is then recorded on each unit member's record. The unit income of all units regardless of size are equally represented in the calculation of deciles under this approach.


            Equivalised income

            Differences in household types and compositions and their requirements relative to income can be taken into account by the application of equivalence scales. These scales are a set of ratios which when applied to the income of different household or income unit types, produce standardised estimates of income which reflect the households’ relative standards of living.

            There are various scales in general use throughout the world. The Henderson Simplified Equivalence Scales were used to derive equivalent income of income units in the 1995 and 1989-90 NHSs. However it is not possible to use this scale for the 2001 NHS. Because only one adult was enumerated household in the 2001 NHS, the labour force data to support use of the Henderson scale in the 2001 survey are not available. Similarly the sampling methodology has meant that for many households information about household income was not collected.

            As a result of these factors, equivalised income has been derived for the 2001 NHS at the income unit level, using the simpler OECD scale, which requires only information about unit composition. Using the OECD scale, equivalised income in the 2001 NHS was calculated by multiplying income unit income by a factor obtained by dividing 2.1 by the sum of the points applicable to the income unit. The points applicable to the unit is the sum of:
            • one point for the first adult,
            • 0.5 points for each other person aged 15 years and over, and
            • 0.3 points for each child aged less than 15 years.

            The figure of 2.1 is the sum of points applicable to a "standard" income unit of two adults and two children under the age of 15 (1 + 0.5 + 0.3 + 0.3). Thus the equivalised income value for an income unit is expressed in terms of the income required to provide the same standard of living as for the 'standard' unit. For example, the income of a household comprising only one person will be multiplied by 2.1, whereas the income of a household comprising three adults and three children under the age of 15 will be multiplied by 0.724 (2.1 divided by 2.9).

            As a result of the different scale used, care should be taken in making comparisons using equivalised income from the 2001 NHS with those from previous NHSs. Also, application of the equivalised scale to income unit income, rather than household income, as is more commonly used, will impact the level of comparability between the equivalised income data from the NHS with those from other sources.

            Equivalised income is available by decile, calculated in two ways as described above for income unit income. As equivalised income is derived from income unit income, it is not available for 18.7% of adults, and 16.7% of children aged 0-17 years.


            Socioeconomic Indexes for Areas (SEIFAs)

            From information collected in the Census of Population and Housing, the ABS constructs indexes for geographic areas, based on a variety of underlying social and economic characteristics of those areas. There are five indexes, each summarising a different aspect of the socioeconomic conditions of an area. These indexes are:
            • Urban Index of Relative Socioeconomic Advantage (urban centres with a population of 1,000 or more)
            • Rural Index of Relative Socioeconomic Advantage
            • Index of Relative Socioeconomic Disadvantage
            • Index of Economic Resources, and
            • Index of Education and Occupation.

            All five SEIFAs are available for the 2001 NHS(G) (but not for the NHS(I)) for use in analysis with information collected in the survey. It is emphasised however, that these indexes relate to the area in which the survey respondent lived, and were not necessarily indicative of an individual respondent's socioeconomic status. The Index scores are compiled at the Census Collection District (CD) level.


            SEIFA quintiles

            Most commonly, SEIFAs are used to group survey respondents into quintiles (or deciles) of a particular index. Comparisons can then be made between respondents living in areas based on SEIFA quintiles (or deciles) across a range of health-related characteristics such as self-assessed health status.

            The Index of Relative Socioeconomic Disadvantage is the SEIFA index most frequently used in this way in health analysis. The particular attributes summarised by this index include low income, low educational attainment, high unemployment and jobs in relatively unskilled occupations. As SEIFAs are area-based indexes, SEIFA quintiles do not divide the survey population into 5 equally sized groups.


            Interpretation

            Confusion can arise about the ordering of the quintiles (or deciles) created from SEIFA indexes. ABS constructs all five indexes so that relatively disadvantaged areas (e.g. areas with few high income recipients) have low index values, and relatively advantaged areas (e.g. areas with many high income recipients) have high index values. Correspondingly, in ABS publications and output, SEIFA quintiles are numbered from quintile 1 (low index scores) to quintile 5 (high index scores). Deciles are labelled similarly. This applies to all the indexes, irrespective of whether they are named as indexes of advantage or disadvantage.

            For the Index of Relative Socioeconomic Disadvantage, in ABS output, Quintile 1 refers to the most disadvantaged group, while Quintile 5 refers to the most advantaged group. Care needs to be taken in comparing SEIFA analysis undertaken by different agencies, as quintiles or deciles may be labelled in reverse order to the standard ABS order.

            For further information about SEIFAs, how they are calculated, what they mean, etc see the ABS Information Paper Socioeconomic Indexes for Areas (cat, no. 2039.0).


            Future update

            Owing to the timing of the NHS and the availability of results from the 2001 Census of Population and Housing, the SEIFAs included on the 2001 NHS(G) data file are based on the 1996 Census. It is anticipated that these will be updated to reflect results of the 2001 Census when available.

            GEOGRAPHIC CLASSIFICATIONS

            Geographic information available from the 2001 NHS relates to the location of the sampled dwelling at which respondents were enumerated. As a result of the scope rules applied for this survey most respondents were surveyed at their place of usual residence.

            Several standard classifications of geographic area are available for use in output from this survey, based on the July 2001 edition of the Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC) (cat. no. 1216.0). The ASGC is a hierarchical system for the classification of statistical units by geographic areas. The basic spatial unit of the classification is the Census Collector's District (CD). Statistical Local Areas (SLAs) are the next level of the classification, and comprise one or more CDs; they are similar in size to local government areas (i.e. Legal LGAs). Under the hierarchical system of the ASGC, SLAs can be further grouped into larger units called Statistical Sub-Divisions, then still larger Statistical Division units. At each level of the classification the units in aggregate cover the whole of Australia without gaps or overlaps. The ASGC defines 65 Statistical Divisions across Australia. The ASGC also contains units based on populations and remoteness from services.

            Further details of the units defined in the ASGC and of the areas covered by them are contained in the publication Australian Standard Geographical Classification (cat. no. 1216.0) which is available on-line or from any office of the ABS.

            The standard classifications of geographic area available for the 2001 NHS(G) are:
            • States, ACT and Australia. The Northern Territory was included in the survey, with a sample sufficient to contribute to national estimates, but not large enough to support separate estimates for the NT
            • Capital cities/remainder of State, For each State where the capital city is defined as the area covered by the relevant city Statistical Division
            • Section of State, Comprises the following categories:
              Major urban: 3 categories with populations:
                  100,000-249,000,
                  250,000 to 999,999 and
                  1 million or more
              Other urban; 5 categories with populations:
                  1,000-4,999,
                  5,000-9,999,
                  10,000-19,999,
                  20,000-49,999, and
                  50,000-99,999
              Bounded locality; 2 categories with populations:
                  200-499 and
                  500-999.
              Rural; Remainder of State/Territory.
            Although each record is classified to the most detailed Section of State level, based on the CD in which they resided (and were enumerated), for most output purposes some level of aggregation of categories will be necessary.
            • Remoteness, The ASGC Remoteness classification, which is based on the Accessibility/Remoteness Index of Australia (ARIA), and classified to the following categories:

            TABLE 6.10: ARIA values

            ARIA categoryIndex values

            Major cities of Australia0 up to and including 0.2
            Inner regional AustraliaGreater than 0.2 up to and including 2.4
            Outer regional Australia Greater than 2.4 up to and including 5.92
            Remote AustraliaGreater than 5.92 up to and including 10.53
            Very remote AustraliaGreater than 10.53



            Each respondent is classified to the full 5 category classification above, based on the CD in which they resided (and were enumerated). For standard output purposes, a three level classification applies i.e.
            • Major cities of Australia,
            • Inner regional Australia, and
            • Outer regional/remote/very remote Australia.

            Although provision has been made to compile statistics from the survey in respect of geographic areas within States and Territories, there are limits to the extent to which survey data can usefully be compiled for those areas, particularity in those with smaller populations. The ability of the survey to provide reliable estimates for sub-State areas varies from area to area according to the number of persons in the area which were included in the sample and the level of data disaggregation (e.g. number of variables cross-classified, level of detail required for each variable) attempted.

            In addition to the geographic classifications outlined above, data from the 2001 NHS(G) may be compiled in respect of other geographic units (to suit individual user requirements) on request. Such requests will be considered on a case-by-case basis in terms of sampling, data reliability and confidentiality issues and the additional costs to the user involved in programming to create the units. It is recommended that any such units be of a similar size to Statistical Divisions, and that the areas be defined in terms of component CDs or SLAs.

            The only standard classification of geographic area available from the 2001 NHS(I) is:
            • Remoteness - the ASGC Remoteness classification, which is based on the Accessibility/Remoteness Index of Australia (ARIA), and classified to the categories presented above. For standard output purposes, the following two level classification applies because of the relatively small sample size:
                • non-remote (major cities, inner regional, outer regional), and
                • remote (remote, very remote).



            Chapter 1 - Introduction

            Chapter 2 - Survey Design and Operation

            Chapter 3 - Health Status Indicators

            Chapter 4 - Health Related Actions

            Chapter 5 - Health Risk Factors

            Chapter 6 - Population Characteristics

            Chapter 7 - Data Quality and Interpretation of results

            Chapter 8 - Data Output and Dissemination
            Appendix 1 - Glossary of Terms Used

            Appendix 2 - Sample Counts and Weighted Estimates

            Appendix 3 - Classification of Long-term Medical Conditions: Based on ICD-10

            Appendix 4 - Classification of Long-term Medical Conditions: Based on ICD-9

            Appendix 5 - Classification of Long-term Medical Conditions: ICPC Based

            Appendix 6 - Classification of Type of Medication

            Appendix 7 - Classification of Country of Birth

            Appendix 8 - Classification of Language Spoken at Home
            Appendix 9 - Classification of Occupation

            Appendix 10 - Classification of Industry of Employment

            Appendix 11 - Classification of Types of Alcoholic Drinks

            Appendix 12 - Standard Errors

            Appendix 13 - Content of the 2001 National Health Survey (Indigenous)

            Appendix 14 - List of Abbreviations



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