1307.8 - Australian Capital Territory in Focus, 2006  
Previous ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 12/09/2006   
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Contents >> Physical Environment

PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT


PHYSICAL FEATURES

Location

The Australian Capital Territory (ACT) lies at a latitude of between 35 degrees and 36 degrees south of the equator. Elevations range from 450 m above sea level to 1,911 m at the top of Mount Bimberi in the south. These features, plus the territory's distance of about 130 km from the coastline, are the principal determinants of the area's climate.


Our Indigenous heritage

Aboriginal people have lived in the region now known as the ACT for tens of thousands of years. The European colonisation of Australia disrupted Aboriginal traditional land use and has constrained the association of Aboriginal people with land. The ACT and wider region is still occupied by descendants of the Aboriginal people who lived in this area, and places of Aboriginal cultural heritage provide tangible reminders of their traditional land use.


Topography

According to the State of the Environment Report, the total area of the ACT is 2,358 square kilometres (about 236,000 ha), of which 60% is hilly or mountainous. The highest peak in the ACT is Mount Bimberi in the south ( 1,911 m). Timbered mountains, located in the south and west, and plains and hill country in the north are the ACT's main physical features. The ACT is situated within the upper Murrumbidgee River catchment, in the Murray-Darling Basin. The Murrumbidgee flows through the Territory from the south, and its tributary, the Molonglo, from the east. Other tributaries of the Murrumbidgee include the Cotter, Paddys, Naas and Gudgenby Rivers. The Molonglo River was dammed in 1964 to form Lake Burley Griffin.


The ACT is underlain by sandstone, limestone, siltstone and shales, all of which were formed from sediments deposited 460 million years ago, when the area was under sea. The ACT does not have any mineral-bearing rocks of economic significance, though deposits of base metals and gold are known to occur. A number of quarries provide materials such as crushed granite, gravel and sand for building.


Landscapes

The landscapes of the ACT reflect geological events, the long-term effects of weather and climate, and the influences of human settlement. The ACT has three broad landscape types: uplands, rolling or undulating country, and plains.


Uplands are areas at altitudes above 800 m. They occur mainly west of the Murrumbidgee River, and consist of a series of north-south parallel ridges, separated by stream valleys. The uplands lie mainly on erosion-resistant, ancient, sedimentary rocks and granites.


Rolling or undulating country occupies the north-eastern area of the ACT and the eastern parts of the Murrumbidgee Corridor to the south. These areas are formed across moderately weathered rocks at varying elevations, generally 600-900 m above sea level.


Plains occur at elevations of 550-650 m along many of the streams in the north of the ACT. The plains formed on top of readily weathered rocks and on stream sediment. They surround isolated hills and ridges of erosion-resistant rock, such as Black Mountain and Mount Ainslie.


Soils

The soils of the ACT are highly variable and generally infertile. The three principal types of soils are lithosols, gradational soils and texture contrast soils.


Lithosols are soils which are nutritionally poor and subject to erosion on steeper slopes where native vegetation is removed. They occur mostly in the south and west of the ACT.


Gradational soils are deep, relatively fertile soils which are the principal soil types under the Limestone Plains of old Canberra. Gradational soils occurring on the north-east plain are relatively resistant to erosion, however in the western ranges, where slope is a factor, they will erode if the land is cleared. They are characterised by a gradual increase in clay content with depth.


Texture contrast (or duplex) soils dominate the ACT and its settled areas. They are particularly vulnerable to erosion on the slopes in the south of the ACT, and in areas of urban development, where native vegetation has been cleared leaving the surface unprotected. The surface structure of these soils is fragile and become relatively impermeable and hard setting if they are cultivated or overgrazed. Much of the turbidity of Canberra's lakes after heavy rain is caused by erosion of these soils.



CLIMATE

The ACT's climate is essentially continental, with hot summers and cold winters. During 2005, the ACT's weather was wetter and warmer than average, with less fog and one less thunderstorm compared with long-term averages.


Rainfall and evaporation

The Bureau of Meteorology recorded 648.6 mm of rain at Canberra International Airport over 109 rain days during 2005, which were higher than the long-term averages of 625.2 mm over 105 days. The wettest month was September which recorded 100.6 mm, almost double the monthly average. The driest months were April and May during which only 6.8 mm and 0.8 mm were recorded respectively.


The wettest 24 hour total to 9 am occurred on 9 July, when 48 mm of rain was recorded. This was followed by 43.8 mm recorded on 8 November.


The evaporation of a total of 1753.6 mm for 2005 was higher than the long-term average of 1686.6 mm.

2.1 RAINFALL, ACT - 2005

Total rainfall
Average total rainfall(a)
Rain days
Average rain days(a)
Month
mm
mm
no.
no.

January
57.2
60.2
4
8
February
73.6
52.9
8
7
March
40.2
52.5
5
7
April
6.8
48.5
4
7
May
0.8
46.9
2
8
June
73.0
39.7
14
9
July
86.4
41.4
17
10
August
45.8
47.3
13
11
September
100.6
52.7
14
10
October
61.0
64.4
14
10
November
83.4
63.3
12
10
December
19.8
52.0
2
8
Total(b)
648.6
625.2
109
105

(a) Averages are based on all years of record.
(b) The monthly figures may not necessarily sum to the total due to rounding.
Source: Bureau of Meteorology, Canberra Airport Regional Office, Data available on request.


Thunderstorms

During 2005, the ACT recorded 22 days of thunderstorms, one less than the average. Three of these thunderstorms were classified as severe by the Bureau of Meteorology. The storms on 24 October and 26 November were severe due to large hail, and the storm on 2 December had damaging winds. The months of February and November both recorded five days of thunderstorms each, which were higher than the average of three days for each month. There was a total of eight hail days recorded at the Canberra International Airport during 2005.


Frosts and fogs

There was a total of 82 frosts recorded in the ACT during 2005, which was 17 days lower than the yearly average. Fifty of these frosts were recorded in winter, seven less than the season's average. The first frost of 2005 was recorded on 6 March, earlier than the median date of 9 April. The last frost of the year occurred on 12 October, also earlier than usual (the median date is 16 November). The coldest morning of 2005 was recorded on 2 June when the temperature dropped to minus 4.7 degrees Celsius.


There was a total of 18 fogs recorded in the ACT in 2005, which was a new record low at less than half the yearly average (44 fogs). The foggiest month was July which recorded five fogs, however still two below average for that month.

2.2 FROSTS AND FOG, ACT - 2005

Frost days
Average frost days(a)
Fog days
Average fog days(a)
Month
no.
no.
no.
no.

January
-
-
-
1
February
-
-
-
1
March
1
-
2
2
April
4
5
4
4
May
15
13
2
7
June
13
18
2
8
July
17
21
5
7
August
20
18
1
4
September
10
13
1
3
October
2
6
1
2
November
-
2
-
1
December
-
-
-
1
Total(b)
82
99
18
44

- nil or rounded to zero (including null cells)
(a) Averages are based on all years of record.
(b) The monthly figures may not necessarily sum to the total due to rounding.
Source: Bureau of Meteorology, Canberra Airport Regional Office, Data available on request.


Sunshine

During 2005, Canberra had an average of 8.2 hours of sunshine per day for that year, which was higher than the long-term mean (7.6 hours/day). February, June, September, October and November all recorded below average sunshine for their respective months. However, December set a new record high with 11.4 hours for that month.


Temperature

2005 was a warmer year than average for the ACT with a record high mean daily temperature of 14.2 degrees Celsius, higher than the long-term average 13.0 degrees Celsius. The mean annual daytime maximum temperature of 21.0 degrees Celsius was also above the long-term average of 19.6 degrees Celsius. The mean annual night time temperature was 7.2 degrees Celsius (the long-term average is 6.5 degrees Celsius). The warmest month was January, with an average daily temperature of 21.5 degrees Celsius, and the coldest month was July, with an average daily temperature of 7.1 degrees Celsius.


There were 48 days on which the temperature reached 30.0 degrees Celsius or more during 2005, compared with the average of 30 days. There were 12 days during 2005 when the temperature reached 35.0 degrees or more, which was more than double the average of five days for such high temperatures. The highest temperature recorded for 2005 was 39.4 degrees Celsius on 14 January, and the coldest day of the year was recorded on 11 August at 6.9 degrees Celsius. The highest average daily maximum by month was 29.1 degrees Celsius in January, and the lowest was 12.7 degrees Celsius in July.

2.3 AIR TEMPERATURE, ACT - 2005

Air temperature daily readings
Long-term average air temperature(a)
Mean max.
Mean min.
Mean max
Mean min.
Month
C
C
C
C

January
29.1
13.9
27.7
13.0
February
26.9
13.4
27.3
13.0
March
24.3
10.1
24.5
10.8
April
24.5
7.9
19.9
6.8
May
18.4
2.2
15.3
3.3
June
14.2
2.3
12.2
0.7
July
12.7
1.4
11.2
-0.4
August
14.3
0.5
12.9
1.0
September
16.3
4.6
15.9
3.2
October
20.3
8.1
19.4
6.1
November
22.8
10.8
22.6
8.8
December
28.8
12.2
26.0
11.2

(a) Long-term temperature averages are based on the 30 year period 1961-1990.
Source: Bureau of Meteorology, Canberra Airport Regional Office, Data available on request.


Wind

Wind run is the total distance travelled by the wind in a given period of time. It is measured on a daily (24 hour) basis using a cup anemometer at two metres above the ground.


The mean daily wind run for 2005 was 191.3 km per day, above the long-term average of 183.9 km per day. The windiest month was December with a wind run of 255 km per day, and the calmest was April, with 137 km per day. There were 25 strong wind days in the ACT in 2005, which meets the average. However, gales were recorded on five days, compared with the average of one day per year. The highest wind gust for the year was 100 km per hour on 2 December.



WATER STORAGE AND USE

There are two catchments supplying water to the ACT: the Cotter River catchment, which is located wholly within the ACT and is part of the Namadgi National Park; and the Googong catchment, located on the Queanbeyan River in NSW.


Storage and supply

The Cotter River Catchment has three reservoirs. The Cotter Dam, which was constructed in 1912, Bendora Dam, which was completed in 1961, and Corin Dam, which was completed in 1968. The Googong catchment has only one dam, Googong Dam which was completed in 1979. The total storage capacity of the four dams combined is 212 gigalitres (GL).


At 30 June 2005, the total combined reservoir storage of all four dams was at 46% of total capacity. Individually from the fullest, the Cotter Dam was at 91% of capacity, followed by the Bendora Dam (68%), the Corin Dam (63%), with the Googong Dam least full at 32% of capacity.


Water is piped via bulk mains from these four reservoirs to the water treatment plants at Mount Stromolo and Googong. After treatment it continues to a number of service reservoirs and then reticulated to water users through a network of pipes around 3,010 m in total length.


Water usage and restrictions

Between 2003-04 and 2004-05, total water consumption decreased by 543 ML, from 52,262 ML to 51,719 ML, while customer numbers increased from 131,893 to 134,020 over the same period. Maximum daily demand decreased by 56 ML, from 323 ML to 267 ML, and water usage per person fell from 156 u.c. to 144 u.c. The level of rainfall recorded was higher during 2004-05 (594 mm) than 2003-04 (463 mm), nearing the levels recorded prior to the low of 340 mm during 2002-03.


Mandatory water restrictions, which commenced in the ACT in December 2002, were mainly responsible for the 20% drop in total water consumption between 2002-03 and 2003-04. During 2003-04 and 2004-05, Stage 3 restrictions have applied for most of spring and summer in Canberra, and been relaxed to Stage 2 restrictions during autumn and winter. Twenty-two large water users committed themselves to Water Conservation Agreements in an effort to reduce water consumption during Stage 2 restrictions and Stage 3 restrictions.

2.4 WATER SUPPLY AND USAGE, ACT

2000-01
2001-02
2002-03
2003-04
2004-05

Customers no.
124 570
126 750
129 114
131 893
134 020
Maximum daily demand ML
392
416
367
323
267
Total consumption ML
62 834
65 904
65 567
52 262
51 719
Annual consumption per capita kL
186
194
206
156
144
Rainfall mm
618
633
340
463
594
Length of mains km
2 933
2 948
2 964
2 985
3 013

Source: ActewAGL Annual Report 2005.


Strategies for the drought

Besides water restrictions, a number of other strategies have been enacted in recent years in response to the drought. The Cotter reservoir, which had previously been held as an unused reserve in case of drought, was used to supply water to the ACT during 2004-05. However, the January 2003 bushfires damaged the Cotter catchment area leading to variations in water quality.


The Googong water treatment plant was commissioned in December 2004 to complement the Mount Stromolo plant, in an effort to ensure quality drinking water for Canberra and Queanbeyan. The Mount Stromolo water treatment plant supplied 90% of Canberra's water during 2004-05. The Googong treatment plant supplied water to Canberra from October to December 2004, and again during February 2005.


The Cotter Googong Bulk Transfer program commenced in December 2005. It works by supplying surplus water (up to 150 ML/day) from the reservoirs in the Cotter Catchment to the Googong reservoir, after the water has been treated at the Mount Stromolo plant and the needs of water users have been met. This attempts to address the problem of the Googong reservoir running low due to the drought and water usage during the 2003 bushfires.


A new pump station was also constructed on the Murrumbidgee River in case drought conditions led to the need to access water from the river.



PARKS AND RESERVES

The following paragraphs reflect information from the Environment ACT and Department of Urban Services websites.


Canberra Nature Park

Canberra Nature Park comprises 30 separate areas which range from bushland hills to lowland native grasslands, and includes many of the hills and ridges around Canberra, as well as parts of the Murrumbidgee Corridor. The Canberra Nature Park reserves also contain Yellow Box-Red Gum Grassy Woodland, (an endangered ecological community in Australia). The reserves are habitats for a number of threatened species including the Hooded Robin, Striped Legless Lizard, and the Button Wrinklewort. Canberra Nature Park is used by the ACT's residents for recreational activities.


Googong Foreshores

Googong Foreshores is situated 10 km south of Queanbeyan, and is managed as a water catchment area, recreation area, and also a significant Wildlife Refuge for native plants and animals including a number of threatened species. The Queanbeyan River, within Googong, is home to one of the few remaining wild populations of the threatened Macquarie Perch. The Pink-tailed Worm Lizard, listed as vulnerable in NSW, inhabits Googong’s native grasslands. Listed as vulnerable in NSW, Rosenberg’s Monitor is a Googong resident, laying its eggs in termite mounds. The Hooded Robin, Diamond Firetail, Brown Treecreeper and Speckled Warbler are all listed as vulnerable in NSW and are also found at Googong. A number of endangered plant species, such as the Silky Swainson-pea are also found here.


Jerrabomberra Wetlands

Located right in the centre of Canberra, on the edge of Lake Burley Griffin, the Jerrabomberra Wetlands are the largest wetlands in the ACT. They are home to a large range of waterbird, particularly when inland Australia is in drought. Some of these birds migrate from as far away as Japan and China. The wetlands are also home to a variety of other animals, including platypus and water rats.


Namadgi National Park

Named after the aboriginal word for the mountains to the south-west of Canberra, Namadgi National Park was declared in 1984 and covers 105,900 hectares.


Namadgi is the most northern part of the Australian Alps national parks. The Australian Alps are like a tiny island in a vast ocean. Alpine environments are rare in Australia and cover only 0.15% of the Australian continent. Fed by snowmelt from Australia's highest mountains, the continent's major rivers are born. Here, there are plants and animals found nowhere else in Australia.


There is much variety in the park, with habitats ranging from broad, grassy plains, to snowgum woodlands and alpine meadows on the mountain peaks distinguished by their bold outcrops of granite. Within a short walk vegetation and wildlife can change dramatically.


Namadgi also has a rich heritage of human history. Evidence of local indigenous people, including quarry sites where stone was gathered for tool making, ceremonial stone arrangements on the high peaks, campsites and rock art all feature in the park. Today the Aboriginal people retain a strong link with Namadgi.


Pastoralists settled in the southern end of the park in the 1830s, and the remains of fences, huts, their homesteads and yards can still be found.


The early 1960s to the early 1980s saw space tracking stations at Honeysuckle Creek and Orroral Valley in operation. They were instrumental in monitoring the Apollo space program, with the Honeysuckle Creek station providing the first pictures of man walking on the moon.


There are many recreational opportunities in Namadgi National Park. These include; bushwalking, camping, cycling, rock climbing and abseiling.


Murrumbidgee River Corridor

The Murrumbidgee River flows for 1600 km from its headwaters in Kosciuszko National Park to its junction with the Murray River near Balranald in NSW. The river and its catchment - part of the Murray-Darling Basin - supply water for people, agriculture and wildlife.


Some 66 km of the river’s journey lies in the ACT, from Angle Crossing in the south to Uriarra Crossing in the north. The river and a narrow strip of land on either side are managed as the ‘Murrumbidgee River Corridor’ (MRC), which includes several nature reserves, recreation reserves, a European heritage conservation zone and rural leases. The MRC also provides easily accessible opportunities for nature-based recreation close to Canberra.


Tidbinbilla Nature Reserve

Nestled between the Tidbinbilla and Gibraltar Ranges, Tidbinbilla Nature Reserve is a forty minute drive from the Canberra City centre along Tourist Drive 5. Visitors to Tidbinbilla will experience a valley rich in indigenous and natural heritage and discover many unique plants and animals.


Tidbinbilla Nature Reserve borders Namadgi National Park in the south east of the ACT and covers an area of approximately 5500 hectares. The reserve comprises a large valley floor, the Tidbinbilla mountain range and the Gibraltar range. The lower slopes and partly cleared valley floor reflect the history of Aboriginal and European use of the area, whereas ecosystems on the heavily forested and steep sides of the Tidbinbilla Valley are relatively undisturbed.


Tidbinbilla Nature Reserve and Namadgi National Park are joined to the northern section of Kosciusko National Park in NSW and together these parks and reserves form the northern part of the Australian Alps national park. Tidbinbilla also has boundaries with ACT Forests, rural leases and the Birrigai Outdoor Education Centre.


Tidbinbilla provides a habitat for a wide range of native fauna including one hundred and sixty four bird species; a variety of reptiles, fish and amphibians and a diverse range of mammals including several bat species. Broad habitats include wetlands, dry forests, wet forests and sub-alpine. Tidbinbilla also includes a site that serves as a shelter or staging site for the Bogong Moth in October to November.


Tidbinbilla is recognised as a highly significant Aboriginal place with the highest density of artefacts found in the ACT. Evidence of Aboriginal occupation in Tidbinbilla includes open artefact scatters, prehistoric rock shelters and other sites of significance. The most important sites are Birrigai Rock Shelter, Bogong Cave and Tidbinbilla Mountain.


Places of significance

Australia recognises the special features of natural, indigenous and historic environments by placing them on the Register of the National Estate. The Register is compiled by the Australian Heritage Council (from 1976 to 2003 the register was compiled by the Australian Heritage Commission). Once a site is listed, the actions of the Commonwealth Government are constrained in that it must consider the heritage value of a site before undertaking actions which could have potentially significant adverse affects.


The ACT (including Jervis Bay) had 30 natural places registered as at 30 June 2003. These range from large areas, such as the Murrumbidgee River Corridor (approximately 10,000 ha) and Jervis Bay Nature Reserve, to much smaller sites, such as the Pine Island Agglomerate (approximately 0.3 ha).


There are 30 Indigenous sites listed on the Register for the ACT (including Jervis Bay). Once again these are a diverse group of places, and range from large places to single trees, such as Murumbeeja Scarred Red Box No 1, located in Gilmore.


In addition, the ACT (including Jervis Bay) had 195 historic places listed on the Register of the National Estate. Some of these are well known landmarks, for example the Australian War Memorial. Others are less easily identified, for example the Cork Oak Tree, located in Duntroon.



WASTE MANAGEMENT

The ACT Government initiated the 'No Waste by 2010' strategy in 1996 as its way of managing waste in the ACT. The strategy utilises all unwanted material as a resource rather than sending it to landfill sites. The strategy targets prevention, reduction, reuse and recycling as ways of minimising waste.


The ACT government operates three waste management sites within the ACT. Parkwood Road Recycling Estate at Macgregor is specifically for recycling and does not accept garbage, whilst Mitchell Resource Management Centre and Mugga Lane Resource Management Centre accept both recyclable waste and garbage.


As part of the No Waste by 2010 strategy, the ACT government has commenced construction of the Hume Resource Recovery Estate. This will be located adjacent to the Mugga Lane Resource Management Centre and will include the facilities for separation and storage of recyclable waste, mixed solid waste reprocessing and a No Waste Education Centre.


Sewerage

According to the ActewAGL website, most of the wastewater and sewerage generated in Canberra is treated at the Lower Molonglo Water Quality Control Centre (LMWQCC). The centre, which is the largest in inland Australia, processes approximately 90 million litres of wastewater every day.


The Fyshwick Sewage Treatment Plant partially treats some of the wastewater generated at Fyshwick and surrounding suburbs. After partial treatment, the wastewater is returned to the sewer for full treatment at the LMWQCC.


The LMWQCC is located on the Molonglo river, one kilometre upstream from the junction with the Murrumbidgee River. After physical, chemical and biological treatment, the water is discharged into the Molonglo River.


Water quality in the river is extensively monitored, and ecological monitoring such as the Fish Monitoring Program plus counts of macroinvertebrates provides information on the river's health. Platypus are often seen near where the treated water re-enters the Molonglo River.


Solid material removed from the sewerage during treatment is incinerated at high temperatures. The ash which is created during this process is sold to farmers as a soil conditioner. Additionally, the LMWQCC uses treated effluent for irrigation for ovals and golf courses. Another recycling program called watermining occurs at the Southwell Park Watermining Facility. This is where wastewater is extracted from the sewer, treated to meet health and environmental standards then used for irrigation purposes.


Between 2003-04 and 2004-05, the number of sewerage customers increased by 1.5 percentage points from 128,446 to 130,355. Over the same period, the amount of sewerage treated decreased by 2.4 percentage points, from 27,959 ML to 27,293 ML. The amount of sewerage treated per person per year decreased from 87 KL to 84 KL.

2.5 SELECTED SEWERAGE STATISTICS, ACT

2000-01
2001-02
2002-03
2003-04
2004-05

Customers no.
121 618
123 641
125 784
128 446
130 355
Quantity of sewage treated ML
30 277
30 645
28 313
27 959
27 293
Sewerage treated per person per annum kL
97
98
89
87
84
Length of mains km
2 852
2 875
2 897
2 921
2 948

Source: ActewAGL, Annual Report 2005.



BIBLIOGRAPHY


NON-ABS

ActewAGL, Annual Report 2005, last viewed 13 August 2006, <http://www.actewagl.com.au/publications/corporate/annualReport.pdf>.

ActewAGL, Annual Drinking Water Quality Report 2004-05, last viewed 13 August 2006, <http://www.actewagl.com.au/publications/water/waterQualityReport.pdf>.

ActewAGL, Basic Statistics About Consumption and Storage, last viewed 13 August 2006, <http://www.actewagl.com.au/default.aspx?loc=/water/statistics.htm>.

ActewAGL, Water Catchment, last viewed 13 August 2006, <http://www.actewagl.com.au/default.aspx?loc=/water/catchment.htm>.

ActewAGL, Lower Molonglo Water Quality Control Centre, last viewed 14 August 2006, <http://www.actewagl.com.au/default.aspx?loc=/wastewater/treatment/default.htm>.

ACT NOWaste, The Strategy - A Waste Management Sysytem for Canberra, last viewed 14 August 2006, <http://www.tams.act.gov.au/live/Recycling_and_Waste>.

ACT NOWaste, Mitchell Resource Management Centre, last viewed 14 August 2006, <http://www.tams.act.gov.au/live/Recycling_and_Waste>.

ACT NOWaste, Parkwood Resource Management Centre, last viewed 14 August 2006, <http://www.tams.act.gov.au/live/Recycling_and_Waste>.

ACT NOWaste, Mugga Lane Resource Management Centre, last viewed 14 August 2006, <http://www.tams.act.gov.au/live/Recycling_and_Waste>.

ACT NOWaste, Hume Resource Recovery Estate, last viewed 14 August 2006, <http://www.tams.act.gov.au/live/Recycling_and_Waste>.

ACT Department of Urban Services, Googong Forshores, last viewed 14 August 2006, <http://www.tams.act.gov.au/>.

ACT Department of Urban Services, Namadgi National Park, last viewed 14 August 2006, <http://www.tams.act.gov.au/>.

ACT Department of Urban Services, Jerrabomberra Wetlands, last viewed 12 August 2006, <http://www.tams.act.gov.au/>.

ACT Department of Urban Services, Murrumbidgee River Corridor, last viewed 12 August 2006, <http://www.tams.act.gov.au/>.

ACT Department of Urban Services, Tidbinbilla Nature Reserve, last viewed 12 August 2006, <http://www.tams.act.gov.au/>.

ACT Department of Urban Services, Canberra Nature Park, last viewed 12 August 2006, <http://www.tams.act.gov.au/>.

Australian Heritage Council, The Register of the National Estate, last viewed 12 August 2006, <http://www.ahc.gov.au/>.

Australian Alps National Parks, Tidbinbilla Nature Reserve, last viewed 14 August 2006, <http://www.australianalps.deh.gov.au/parks/tidbinbilla.html>.

Australian Alps National Parks, Namadgi National Park, last viewed 14 August 2006, <http://www.australianalps.deh.gov.au/parks/namadgi.html>.

Bureau of Meteorology, Canberra Airport Regional Office, Data available on request.

Bureau of Meteorology, Annual Climate Summary - ACT, 2005, last viewed 13 August 2006, <http://www.bom.gov.au/announcements/media_releases/act/20060105.shtml>.

Environment ACT, Googong Guide, last viewed 12 August 2006, <http://www.tams.act.gov.au/live/environment>,

Environment ACT, Namadji Brief Guide, last viewed 12 August 2006, <http://www.tams.act.gov.au/live/environment>.

Environment ACT, Namadji Guide - Expand Your Horizons, last viewed 12 August 2006, <http://www.tams.act.gov.au/live/environment>.

Environment ACT, Tidbinbilla Nature Reserve - A Brief Guide, last viewed 12 August 2006, <http://www.tams.act.gov.au/live/environment>.

State of the Environment Reporting, 2000 State of the Environment Report - Australian Capital Territory, last viewed 22 August 2006, <
http://www.environmentcommissioner.act.gov.au/SoE/SoE2000/ACT/Index.htm>.


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