8221.0 - Manufacturing Industry, Australia, 2003-04  
ARCHIVED ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 05/07/2006   
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1 This publication, Manufacturing Industry, Australia, 2003-04 (cat. no. 8221.0), presents data of the economic and financial performance of the manufacturing industry.

2 Manufacturing, as specified in Division C of the 1993 edition of the Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC) (cat. no. 1292.0), broadly relates to the physical or chemical transformation of materials or components into new products, whether the work is performed by power-driven machines or by hand.

3 The manufacturing collection is conducted annually as a component of the ABS's Economic Activity Survey (EAS):

  • A sample of approximately 8,800 manufacturing businesses were asked by the ABS to provide employment details and data obtained from their financial statements, mainly via mail out questionnaires. (The sample comprised all businesses classified to the manufacturing industry and which were above a certain cut-off (see Technical Note 1).)
  • Key financial data, representing approximately 120,600 manufacturing businesses below the $500,000 cut-off, which had been supplied by them to the Australian Taxation Office (ATO) on business income tax returns (BIT data), were then drawn upon to supplement the ABS's directly collected information. Section 16(4)(ga) of the Income Tax Assessment Act 1936 provides for the ATO to pass information to the Australian Statistician for the purposes of the Census and Statistics Act 1905.


4 Statistical units are those entities from which statistics are collected, or about which statistics are compiled. In ABS economic statistics, the statistical unit is generally the business. All businesses in the EAS are recorded on the ABS Business Register (ABSBR).

5 The ABS uses an economic statistics units model on the ABSBR to describe the characteristics of businesses, and the structural relationships between related businesses. Within large and diverse business groups, the units model is used also to define reporting units that can provide data to the ABS at suitable levels of detail.

6 This units model allocates businesses to one of two sub-populations:

  • Most businesses and organisations in Australia need to obtain an Australian Business Number (ABN). The vast majority of these businesses are simple in structure and are allocated to the population which is maintained by the ATO. These are termed (by the ABS) ABN units.
  • The remaining businesses are in the ABS maintained population, and are termed type of activity units, or TAUs.

7 Together, these two sub-populations (of ABN units and TAUs) make up the ABSBR population, from which the EAS samples are taken.

8 For details about the ABSBR and how ABN units and TAUs contribute to the industry statistics in this publication, see Technical Note 1.


9 The scope of the 2003-04 manufacturing collection comprises all businesses (including non-employing businesses) on the ABSBR at time of selection, whose industry is classified to ANZSIC Division C Manufacturing. For details of the structure of this division, users should consult the 1993 edition of the Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC) (cat. no. 1292.0), which is also available through the ABS web site <https://www.abs.gov.au> (using the Home page Search facility to find Division C).

10 The ANZSIC-based industry statistics presented in this publication are compiled differently from activity statistics. Each ABN unit or TAU on the ABSBR has been classified (by the ATO and the ABS respectively) to a single industry irrespective of any diversity of activities undertaken. The industry class allocated is the one which relates to those activities that provide the main source of income. A manufacturing business is one predominantly engaged in manufacturing activities, but the data collected for it cover all activities of the business (including non-manufacturing activities). Conversely, there are some businesses predominantly engaged in non-manufacturing activities which also undertake limited manufacturing activities; these are excluded from the collection.

11 Some manufacturing businesses engage, to a significant extent, in activities which are normally carried out by different industries. For example, a predominantly manufacturing business may also undertake significant amounts of wholesaling. Similarly, a manufacturing business may produce significant volumes of goods which are normally produced in different manufacturing industries. However, where a business makes a significant economic contribution to industries classified to different ANZSIC subdivisions, the ABS includes the business in the ABS maintained population, and 'splits' the TAU's reported data between the industries involved. Significance is determined using total income.

12 A TAU's reported data will be split if the inclusion of data relating to the secondary activity in the statistics for the industry of the primary activity distorts (by overstating or understating) either the primary or secondary industry statistics at the ANZSIC subdivision level by:

  • 3% or more, where the industries of the primary and secondary activities are in the same ANZSIC division
  • 2% or more, where the industries of the primary and secondary activities are in different ANZSIC divisions.

13 Unincorporated joint ventures (UJVs) within the manufacturing industry are arrangements which allow the sharing of expertise, resources and risk associated with specific projects. This occurs through the participation of a number of organisations (by investment) in a specific operation. Some of these organisations may not otherwise be involved in that industry.

14 The manufacturing collection includes such businesses which are operators and/or participants in UJVs. Generally, each participant supplies data of its share of income, while the operator reports all expenses and employment.

15 The ABS attempts to maintain a current understanding of the structure of the large, complex and diverse business groups that form the ABS maintained population on the ABSBR, through direct contact with those businesses. Resultant changes in their structures on the ABSBR can affect:

  • the availability of such businesses (or units within them) for inclusion in the annual economic collections
  • the delineation of the units, within those groups, for which data are to be reported.

16 The ABS attempts to obtain data for those businesses which ceased operation during the year, but it is not possible to obtain data for all of them.


17 The period covered by the collection is, in general, the 12 months ended 30 June. Where businesses are unable to supply information on this basis, an accounting period for which data can be provided is used for data other than that relating to employment. Such businesses make a substantial contribution to some of the estimates presented in this publication. As a result, the estimates can reflect trading conditions that prevailed in periods outside the twelve months ended June in the relevant year. In particular, this should be taken into account when considering those measures expressed as values per person employed.

18 Financial data presented incorporate all units in scope of the manufacturing collection that were at the production stage at any time during the year. They also include any temporarily inactive units, i.e. those units which were in the development stage or which were not in production, but which still existed and held assets and liabilities and/or incurred some non-operating expenses (e.g. depreciation, administration costs).


19 For information about this subject, see Technical Notes 2 and 3.


20 State and territory summary estimates for manufacturing subdivisions are presented in table 3.1. To enable the production of these estimates for each year, selected businesses which received the mail out questionnaire (and which were considered to operate in more than one state and/or territory) were also asked to report data for employment, wages and salaries, and sales of goods and services for each state and/or territory in which they operated, if more than one.

21 The relevant data for all other businesses, including those whose contribution was sourced from BIT data, were allocated to their state/territory of operations as recorded on the ABSBR.

22 The design of the manufacturing collection does not take into account the state/territory in which businesses are based or in which they operate. As a result, these state and territory estimates are particularly subject to variation from year to year because of rotation of businesses into and out of the sample.


23 Data classified by the employment size of individual manufacturing businesses are presented in table 2.2. Similarly, estimates of exports of goods produced classified by the broad employment size of individual manufacturing businesses are presented in table 4.1. The statistics in these two tables relate only to those manufacturing businesses which operated at 30 June 2004. As such, the data presented relate to a slightly different population from those presented in the other tables in this publication. These other tables include data for manufacturing businesses which operated at any time during the year ended 30 June 2004.

24 The treatment of unincorporated joint ventures (UJVs) under the ABS economic statistics model has an effect on data classified by employment size. This is because each of the joint venture participants reports details of its share of the sales of goods and services, but generally they have few or no employees or operating expenses. The labour for such operations is usually employed and paid for by the joint venture operator. Similarly, the operating expenses are usually reported by the joint venture operator. The number of UJVs in manufacturing industry is small, and at the aggregate level all activity is covered in the statistics.

25 However, this treatment does affect the employment size tables 2.2 and 4.1, as UJV participants with potentially significant sales of goods and services are included in the 0-4 persons category. These impacts are particularly evident in the Metal product manufacturing industry.


26 All businesses which received an ABS mail out survey were asked whether they exported and, if so, what percentage of their sales of goods produced was exported by the business or by an agent on its behalf. Because the ATO data do not contain this information, businesses whose contribution to manufacturing estimates was sourced from BIT data do not contribute to the export tables included in this publication. The effect of the exclusion of these businesses is likely to be minimal, in view of their small contribution to overall estimates.

27 The data presented in table 4.1 are derived by applying the percentage of exports reported for each exporting unit and then aggregating that figure. These data also exclude any contribution by those businesses which operated during 2003-04, but were not operating at 30 June 2004.

28 For the purposes of table 4.2, manufacturing businesses have been categorised by the extent (if any) of their involvement in exporting. For each such category, the tables present its share (relative to total Australian manufacturing) of the four key data items: employment at end of June, sales and service income, wages and salaries, and industry value added.

29 The statistics presented in table 4.1 relating to the value of exports by manufacturers or their agents are not intended to be directly comparable with the value of exports classified by manufacturing industry of origin as published by the ABS in international trade statistics. These latter statistics are intended to measure total exports regardless of which business or organisation does the exporting (and to identify the probable industry from which the goods originated), whereas the statistics in this publication's tables only relate to exports directly undertaken by the manufacturer or by its agent. The data in table 4.1 showing these exports can, therefore, be expected to show a much lower value than the exports data from the international trade series. The main reason is that for many exports of goods manufactured in Australia, the actual exporting activity is undertaken by a business other than the manufacturer.

30 Also, the value of goods produced on a commission or fee basis for non-manufacturing businesses and which are then exported is not included in any of these data. Examples of relevant commission arrangements are the slaughtering fee charged by an abattoir for processing livestock owned by a meat exporter, and the tolling fee charged by an aluminium smelter to process ores owned by other (e.g. mining) businesses. Also excluded from these tables are any exports by manufacturers of goods which were not produced by that manufacturer. These and other goods exported (e.g. re-exports) are included in the international trade data. Finally, differences in valuation of exports arise because the value of exports in the international trade series would include the value to the manufacturer plus profit margins for the exporter and for any intermediaries between the manufacturer and the exporter.


31 Data in this publication have been adjusted to allow for lags in processing new businesses to the ABSBR. The effect of these adjustments on the Australian total manufacturing estimate of sales and service income is an increase of 0.8%.

32 Most states and territories and most industries were affected to a similar degree.


33 ABS publications draw extensively on information provided freely by individuals, businesses, governments and other organisations. Their continued cooperation is very much appreciated: without it, the wide range of statistics published by the ABS would not be available. Information received by the ABS is treated in strict confidence as required by the Census and Statistics Act 1905.


34 The ABS produces industry estimates for a range of selected industries (including manufacturing) and these results are to be available in Australian Industry, 2003-04 (cat. no. 8155.0), expected to be released later in July 2006. National estimates of employment, income, expenditure and associated ratios will be available at the ANZSIC division level (with a greater range of data available via the ABS web site in spreadsheet form). Some data presenting greater detail are considered experimental at this stage, while the methodology used to produce them is reviewed and improved. These consist of national estimates of income, expenses, operating profit before tax (OPBT), and wages and salaries, at the ANZSIC class level, and state/territory estimates of these items at the ANZSIC division level.

35 The following publications and electronic releases also contain information about the manufacturing industry:
Australian Bureau of Statistics Business Register, Counts of Businesses - Summary Tables
, cat. no. 8161.0.55.001, released on 7 October 2005 - Annual release
Australian Industry, 2001-02 and 2002-03
, cat. no. 8155.0, released on 7 February 2005 - Annual publication
Australian Labour Market Statistics,
cat. no. 6105.0 - Quarterly publication
Australian National Accounts: National Income, Expenditure and Product
, cat. no. 5206.0 - Quarterly publication
Australian National Accounts: State Accounts, 2004-05
, cat. no. 5220.0, released on 9 November 2005 - Annual publication
Australian System of National Accounts: Concepts, Sources and Methods, 2000
, cat. no. 5216.0, released on 21 December 2000 - Irregular publication
Business Indicators, Australia
, cat. no. 5676.0 - Quarterly publication
Environment Protection, Mining and Manufacturing Industries, Australia, 2000-2001
, cat. no. 4603.0, released on 4 September 2002 - Irregular publication
Information Paper: ABS Statistics and The New Tax System, 2000
, cat. no. 1358.0, released on 26 April 2000 - Irregular publication
Information Paper: Improvements in ABS Economic Statistics [Arising from The New Tax System]
, cat. no. 1372.0, released on 6 May 2002 - Irregular publication
International Trade in Goods and Services, Australia
, cat. no. 5368.0 - Monthly publication
International Trade Price Indexes, Australia
, cat. no. 6457.0 - Quarterly publication
Job Vacancies, Australia
, cat. no. 6354.0 - Quarterly publication
Labour Costs, Australia, 2002-03
, cat. no. 6348.0.55.001, released on 11 June 2004 - Irregular electronic publication
Labour Price Index, Australia
, cat. no. 6345.0 - Quarterly publication
Manufacturing, Australia, 2002
, cat. no. 8225.0, released on 2 April 2003 - Final issue
Manufacturing Indicators
, cat. no. 8229.0, released on 21 November 2005 - Quarterly electronic publication
Manufacturing Industry, New South Wales, 2001-02
, cat. no. 8221.1.55.001, released on 21 November 2005 - Quinquennial electronic publication
Manufacturing Industry, Victoria
, 2001-02, cat. no. 8221.2.55.001, released on 21 November 2005 - Quinquennial electronic publication
Manufacturing Industry, Queensland, 2001-02,
cat. no. 8221.3.55.001, released on 21 November 2005 - Quinquennial electronic publication
Manufacturing Industry, South Australia, 2001-02
, cat. no. 8221.4.55.001, released on 21 November 2005 - Quinquennial electronic publication
Manufacturing Industry, Western Australia
, 2001-02, cat. no. 8221.5.55.001, released on 21 November 2005 - Quinquennial electronic publication
Manufacturing Industry, Tasmania
, 2001-02, cat. no. 8221.6.55.001, released on 21 November 2005 - Quinquennial electronic publication
Manufacturing Production, Australia
, cat. no. 8301.0.55.001 - Quarterly electronic publication
Private New Capital Expenditure and Expected Expenditure, Australia
, cat. no. 5625.0 - Quarterly publication
Producer Price Indexes, Australia
, cat. no. 6427.0 - Quarterly publication
Research and Experimental Development, Businesses, Australia, 2003-04
, cat. no. 8104.0, released on 28 September 2005 - Annual publication
Year Book Australia, 2006
, cat. no. 1301.0, released on 20 January 2006 - Annual publication

36 Current publications and other products released by the ABS are listed in the Catalogue of Publications and Products (cat. no. 1101.0). The catalogue is available from any ABS office or the ABS web site <https://www.abs.gov.au>. The ABS also issues a daily Release Advice on the web site which details products to be released in the week ahead.


37 As well as the statistics included in this and related publications, the ABS may have other relevant data available on request and for a charge. Inquiries should be made to the National Information and Referral Service on 1300 135 070.


38 For the 2000-01 manufacturing collection, information was collected from manufacturing management units. (See Appendix 3 of Manufacturing Industry, cat. no. 8221.0 for 2001-02 and 2002-03 for information about bridged ABN unit / TAU estimates also available for that year.)

39 The 1999-2000 manufacturing collection was the last to collect information primarily from manufacturing establishments, as well as collecting limited data from a relatively small sample of manufacturing management units.

40 A considerable volume of data (primarily manufacturing establishment based data but some manufacturing management unit based data) is available from past annual manufacturing collections. Firstly, a range of manufacturing industry statistics publications is available for previous years. In addition, more detailed information to satisfy individual user requirements may be available on request and for a charge. In general, this consists of finer industry dissections of manufacturing establishment data than that previously presented in the manufacturing series of publications. Additional data may also be available from the 2003-04 collection. As a guide, a list of data items included on the 2003-04 manufacturing survey forms and a selection of data variables that can be derived from them are shown in Appendix 1.

41 For management units, chain volume measures of IVA are available from 1995-96 to 2000-01. For establishments, chain volume measures on a true ANZSIC basis are only available from 1989-90; however, chain volume measures of IVA on an ANZSIC basis are available back to 1984-85. They were compiled by converting estimates for earlier years onto an ANZSIC basis using the relationships that applied between the previous Australian Standard Industrial Classification (ASIC) and ANZSIC in the years 1990-91 and 1991-92. These estimates are available for Australia back to 1984-85. It should be noted that the relationships that applied in 1990-91 and 1991-92 are less likely to apply the earlier the reference year.

42 However, it is important to remember that the data as contained in this publication are not comparable with earlier years' data. This is due to the introduction of the new statistical infrastructure with the 2001-02 collection.


43 Where figures have been rounded, discrepancies may occur between totals and the sums of the component items. Due to data being adjusted for lags in processing new businesses to the ABS Business Register (see paragraph 31), this 'rounding rule' also applies to employment estimates.

44 Proportions, ratios and other calculated figures shown in this publication have been calculated using unrounded estimates and may be different from, but are more accurate than, calculations based on the rounded estimates.