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Income approach (I)
7 GDP using the income approach is derived as the sum of factor incomes, consumption of fixed capital (depreciation) and taxes less subsidies on production and imports. Volume estimates are derived by deflating current price estimates by the implicit price deflator from the expenditure approach.
Expenditure approach (E)
8 GDP using the expenditure approach is derived as the sum of all final expenditures, changes in inventories and exports of goods and services less imports of goods and services. Volume estimates are derived for each of the components as well as for their sum.
Production approach (P)
9 GDP using the production approach is derived as the sum of gross value added for each industry, at basic prices, plus taxes less subsidies on products. Basic values represent the amounts received by producers, including the value of any subsidies on products, but before any taxes on products. The difference between the sum over all industries of gross value added at basic prices, and GDP at market (or purchasers) prices, is the value of taxes less subsidies on products.
FINANCIAL INTERMEDIATION SERVICES
10 In the national accounts, estimates are made for the output of banks and similar institutions who produce services through the provision of deposit and loan services. Often there is no single explicit charge for these services and instead the relevant financial institutions set interest rates such that a service margin can be earned. Thus, interest rates on loans are higher than would otherwise be the case if there were no service element provided and interest rates on deposits are lower than would otherwise be the case.
11 In order to appropriately account for this service component the output produced by these financial institutions is shown as being consumed by other units - households, non-financial corporations and government units. In the sector income accounts the effect of allocating the output to consuming sectors is that part of the interest flow is deemed a payment of service and the balance is shown as interest such that the net effect on saving is zero.
12 In interpreting the income accounts it is therefore necessary to regard the interest flow series as being a flow without a service element - i.e. a pure interest flow. In the case of loans the interest flow that is shown will be less than the observed interest payment made to the financial institution. In the case of deposits the interest flow that is shown will be greater than the observed interest payment made by the financial institution. For further information users should consult Chapter 22 of the Australian System of National Accounts: Concepts, Sources and Methods (cat. no. 5216.0).
13 The industry statistics in this publication are based on the Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC), 1993 (cat. no. 1292.0).
RELIABILITY AND FUTURE REVISIONS
14 National accounts estimates are prepared from a wide range of statistical sources, some of which are available quickly and some only with a delay of several years. Some are closely related to the desired national accounting basis, but others are not completely satisfactory in various respects, including coverage, concepts and timing. Most of the basic data derive from the general system of statistical surveys or as a by-product of government administrative processes. The frequency, detail and timeliness of these data sources are constrained by many factors, including the other purposes which they must serve. Any increase in timeliness of data is usually at the expense of detail, reliability or additional resources. Therefore, estimates for recent years may be subject to considerable revision as firmer data become available.
OTHER NATIONAL ACCOUNTS STATISTICAL PUBLICATIONS
15 This publication is part of a regular sequence of national accounts publications. The key national accounts publication is the quarterly national accounts released as Australian National Accounts: National Income, Expenditure and Product (cat. no. 5206.0) every three months approximately two months after the end of the reference period. The first estimates of national accounts for a particular financial year are released in the June quarter issue of cat. no. 5206.0, generally released in early September.
16 State estimates are compiled on a quarterly basis for the aggregate state final demand and its components. These results are published in cat. no. 5206.0. On an annual basis estimates of gross state product (GSP) and other relevant state data are made for each state and territory. These are released in the publication Australian National Accounts: State Accounts (cat. no. 5220.0) shortly after the release of this publication and are fully consistent with the Australian level estimates contained in this publication.
17 Input-output tables are compiled periodically. Input-output tables are available in Australian National Accounts: Input Output Tables (cat. no. 5209.0.55.001). Related to this release is the detailed commodity information contained in Australian National Accounts: Input-Output Tables (Product Details) (cat. no. 5215.0.55.001). As part of the supply use framework for compiling a set of national accounts, supply and use (S-U) tables are also compiled annually.
18 Tourism satellite accounts, which estimate the contribution of tourism to the Australian economy, are compiled annually. They are released in the publication Australian National Accounts: Tourism Satellite Account (cat. no. 5249.0), around 6 months after the release of cat. no. 5204.0, and are fully consistent with the estimates contained in cat. no. 5204.0.
OTHER SOURCES OF NATIONAL ACCOUNTS INFORMATION
19 Most commonly national accounts information (in the form of feature articles and technical notes) is released in either the quarterly publication or this annual publication. Where there is wider interest, other publication vehicles are used, including Spotlights on national accounts (cat. no. 5202.0), information papers, occasional papers, and the compendium publications Australian Economic Indicators (cat. no. 1350.0) and Year Book Australia (cat. no. 1301.0)., is included in the national accounts theme page.
20 A National Accounts home page is available on the ABS web site <https://www.abs.gov.au> select: Themes - Economy - National Accounts. This page provides direct links to all national accounts related data and publications, recent national accounts changes and forthcoming events, a full listing of feature articles published since December 1988, together with a listing of all occasional and information papers and links to relevant web sites and a range of other information about the Australian National Accounts.
OTHER ABS PUBLICATIONS
21 Current publications and other products released by the ABS are freely available from the ABS web site <https://www.abs.gov.au>. The ABS also issues a daily Release Advice on the web site which details products to be released in the week ahead.
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