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2 Results in this publication are from a combined data file of both the NATSIHS and NATSINPAS (referred to as the AATSIHS Core) and therefore differ from previously published data from the 2012–13 AATSIHS. The combined sample size (12,947 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people) is around 1.4 times the 2012-13 NATSIHS sample and may therefore produce more accurate estimates. However, the AATSIHS Core sample only contains those data items common to both NATSIHS and NATSINPAS, and therefore does not provide the full spectrum of data items from the AATSIHS. For more information about the structure of the AATSIHS, see: The Structure of the AATSIHS.
3 Information from the AATSIHS, included in this and future releases, will provide a platform for a range of new research into health determinants and patterns. This will be achieved by combining the results of objective biomedical tests with self-reported, survey-based results for a range of health conditions such as circulatory disease, diabetes and kidney disease. It is well recognised that such diseases are responsible for shortening the lives of many Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. By enabling comparisons with data for the general population, this survey will support critical assessment of progress in 'Closing the Gap' health outcomes.
4 The 2012–13 NATSIHS was conducted throughout Australia from April 2012 to February 2013. The previous NATSIHS was conducted in 2004–05 (cat. no. 4715.0). Some comparable content was also collected in the 2008 and 2002 National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Surveys (NATSISS) (cat. no 4714.0). The NATSINPAS was conducted from August 2012 to July 2013. The NATSINPAS has not previously been conducted.
5 This publication contains information about:
6 Throughout this release, the term 'Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people' refers to all persons who identified themselves as being of Aboriginal, Torres Strait Islander, or both Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander origin. An Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander household refers to a household with at least one Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander usual resident.
7 Where appropriate, additional comparisons between the 2012–13 AATSIHS Core and 2004–05 NATSIHS and 2008 and 2002 NATSISS have been included in the summary text.
8 This release also includes data cubes that enable comparisons to the non-Indigenous population of the 2011–12 Core component of the 2011–13 Australian Health Survey (AHS).
9 Explanations of terms and concepts are provided in the Glossary and a list of data items currently available from the survey can be found in the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey: Users' Guide, 2012-13 (cat. no. 4727.0.55.002), referred to throughout this publication as the 'Users' Guide'. Further information to assist in the interpretation of the survey will be progressively added to the Users' Guide in the second half of 2014.
SCOPE AND COVERAGE OF THE SURVEY
10 The 2012–13 AATSIHS Core contains a sample of 8,237 private dwellings across Australia. Private dwellings are houses, flats, home units and any other structures used as private places of residence at the time of the survey. People usually resident in non-private dwellings, such as hotels, motels, hostels, hospitals, nursing homes, and short-stay caravan parks were not in scope.
11 The scope of the 2012–13 AATSIHS was all Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people who were usual residents of private dwellings in Australia. Usual residents are those who usually live in a particular dwelling and regard it as their own or main home.
12 Further scope exclusions for this survey were:
13 The survey excluded visitors to private dwellings, except for those that had been resident six months or longer. Visitors who were a usual resident of another dwelling and were in-scope of the survey may be selected in the survey only at their usual residence dwelling, or if not selected, would have been represented by similar persons who were selected in the survey.
14 The 2012–13 AATSIHS was conducted in remote and non-remote areas in all states and territories of Australia, including discrete Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities.
15 Coverage exclusions apply to those people who were part of the in-scope population, but who were not included in the sampling frame. The sample was based on where Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander households were identified in the 2011 Census of Population and Housing. Coverage exclusions applied to manage enumeration costs included:
16 These coverage exclusions result in an estimated undercoverage of approximately 4% of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander persons in Australia. Although these areas were not enumerated, the final sample was weighted to population benchmarks to account for these exclusions. Further information on undercoverage is provided in paragraph 59 and more information on the scope and coverage of the survey will be provided in the Users' Guide.
17 The estimated resident Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population aged 2 years and over living in private and non-private dwellings at 30 June 2011 was 636,945. Excluding persons in non-private dwellings, there were 606,915 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people aged 2 years and over estimated in the 2012–13 AATSIHS.
18 Population benchmarks, which align with the survey scope, are based on the most recently released Estimated Resident Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Population (ERP), which in this case are for 30 June 2011. The ERP data are based on the 2011 Census of Population and Housing, adjusted by the 2011 Post-Enumeration Survey (PES). More information about the Estimated Resident Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Population can be found in Estimates of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, June 2011 (cat. no. 3238.0.55.001).
19 The 2012–13 AATSIHS Core sample was designed to produce reliable estimates for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people for the whole of Australia, for state and territory, for the Torres Strait, and for remote and non-remote areas.
20 In order to achieve the design objectives the in-scope Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population was divided (as far as possible) into persons residing in discrete Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities, referred to as the community frame, and the remainder of the in-scope population, referred to as the non-community frame. For both NATSIHS and NATSINPAS, samples were drawn from both the community frame and the non-community frame using different sample designs. This approach was taken because of operational and sampling issues. Further information on sample design is provided in the Users' Guide.
21 Funding was received from the Australian Government Department of Health as well as the National Heart Foundation of Australia.
22 NATSIHS and NATSINPAS combined approached 10,362 households, after sample loss. Of these, 8,237 (or 79.5%) were fully or adequately responding, yielding a total sample for the survey of 12,947 persons (aged 2 years and over).
23 More information on response rates is available in the Users' Guide.
24 After screening households in non-community areas, approximately 2.8% were identified as having an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander usual resident.
25 Some survey respondents provided most of the required information, but were unable or unwilling to provide a response to certain data items. The records for these persons were retained in the sample and the missing values were recorded as 'don't know' or 'not stated'. No attempt was made to deduce or impute for these missing values.
26 ABS interviewers undertook personal interviews at selected private dwellings. Interviews were predominantly conducted using a Computer-Assisted Interviewing (CAI) questionnaire. CAI involves the use of a notebook computer to record, store, manipulate and transmit the data collected during interviews.
27 Prior to enumeration, ABS interviewers participated in cultural awareness training, which provided information specifically developed for surveys involving Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. The training outlined the ABS protocol for conducting surveys in community areas and described cultural considerations for interviewers.
28 To take account of language and cultural differences in community areas, the collection method varied for remote and non-remote areas. Some questions for remote areas were reworded to enhance respondent understanding of the concepts. Additionally, the survey content in remote areas excluded topics for which data quality was considered problematic to collect or not applicable.
29 In communities, where possible, ABS interviewers were accompanied by local Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander facilitators who assisted in conducting interviews. The facilitators explained the purpose of the survey, introduced the interviewers, assisted in identifying usual residents of a household and in locating residents who were not at home. They may have also assisted respondents to understand the survey questions. A Community Information Form (CIF) was also used to collect general information from the Community Council Office to assist in the conduct of interviews in community areas.
30 Since the survey content sometimes differed in remote/non-remote areas, not all data items are available for the total Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population. In the data item list, data collected in non-remote areas only or in remote areas only is noted as such. For more information, refer to the Users' Guide.
31 One person in the household, aged 18 years and over, provided basic household information, including Indigenous status, age, sex and relationships, for all household members. This person, or an elected household spokesperson, also answered some questions about the household's financial situation, such as income and food security.
32 Personal interviews were conducted with selected Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander persons aged 15 years and over. Exceptions occurred where the selected person:
33 Where consent for interview was not given by a parent or guardian of an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander person aged 15–17 years, a personal interview was not conducted.
34 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander persons aged 15–17 years could choose to have their interview completed by a parent or guardian. 37% of interviews were conducted by proxy for this age group.
35 More information on data collection and a copy of the survey questionnaire are provided in the Users' Guide.
36 Broadly, the 2012–13 AATSIHS Core sample contains information on a range of demographic and health characteristics of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, including:
37 A full list of data items from the survey is included in the Users' Guide.
38 The survey was developed in consultation with numerous stakeholders, including the representatives from Commonwealth and State/Territory government agencies, non-government organisations and relevant academic institutions.
39 A combination of clerical and computer-based systems were used to process data from the 2012–13 AATSIHS Core sample. The content of the data file was checked to identify unusual values which may have significantly altered estimates and also to assess illogical relationships not previously identified by edits. More information on data processing is provided in the Users' Guide.
WEIGHTING, BENCHMARKING AND ESTIMATION
40 Weighting is the process of adjusting results from a sample survey to infer results for the total in-scope population. To do this, a 'weight' is allocated to each sample unit corresponding to the level at which population statistics are produced, e.g. person or household level. The weight can be considered an indication of how many population units are represented by the sample unit. For the 2012–13 AATSIHS Core sample, person weights only were applied. Household weights were not developed.
41 The first step in calculating weights for each person is to assign an initial weight, which is equal to the inverse of the probability of being selected in the survey. For example, if the probability of being selected in the survey was 1 in 45, then the person would have an initial weight of 45 (that is, they would represent 45 people).
42 After calculating the initial person weights, an adjustment was incorporated into the weighting to account for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander persons not covered by the sample. Paragraph 59 provides information on undercoverage.
43 The person and household weights were separately calibrated to independent estimates of the population of interest, referred to as 'benchmarks'. Weights calibrated against population benchmarks ensure that the survey estimates conform to the independently estimated distributions of the population rather than to the distribution within the sample itself. Calibration to population benchmarks helps to compensate for over or under-enumeration of particular categories (e.g. age, sex, state), which may occur due to either the random nature of sampling, non-response, non-identification or various other undercoverage factors. This process can reduce the sampling error of estimates and may reduce the level of undercoverage bias. More information on undercoverage is provided in paragraph 59.
44 A standard approach in ABS household surveys is to calibrate to population benchmarks by state, part of state, age and sex. In terms of the effectiveness of 'correcting' for potential undercoverage bias, it is assumed that the characteristics being measured by the survey for the covered population are similar to the uncovered population within weighting classes, as determined by the benchmarking strategy. Where this assumption does not hold, biased estimates may result.
45 For this survey, person weights were simultaneously calibrated to the following population benchmarks:
46 The survey was benchmarked to the estimated Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander resident population living in private dwellings at 30 June, 2011. As people in non-private dwellings (e.g. hotels) are excluded from the scope of the survey, they have also been excluded from the survey benchmarks. Therefore, the 2012–13 AATSIHS Core estimates do not (and are not intended to) match estimates for the total resident Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population obtained from other sources.
47 Estimates of counts of persons are obtained by summing person weights of persons with the characteristic of interest. The estimates presented in this release are based on benchmarked person weights.
48 More information on weighting, benchmarking and estimation is provided in the Users' Guide.
RELIABILITY OF ESTIMATES
49 All sample surveys are subject to error which can be broadly categorised as either sampling error or non-sampling error.
50 Sampling error occurs because only a small proportion of the total population is used to produce estimates that represent the whole population. Sampling error can be reliably measured as it is calculated based on the scientific methods used to design surveys.
51 Non-sampling error may occur in any data collection, whether it is based on a sample or a full count (e.g. Census). Non-sampling error may occur at any stage throughout the survey process. For example, persons selected for the survey may not respond (non-response); survey questions may not be clearly understood by the respondent; responses may be incorrectly recorded by interviewers; or there may be errors in coding or processing survey data.
52 Sampling error is the expected random difference that could occur between the published estimates, derived from using a sample of persons, and the value that would have been produced if all persons in scope of the survey had been enumerated. One measure of the sampling error for a given sample estimate is provided by the standard error (SE). Another measure is the relative standard error (RSE), which is obtained by expressing the SE as a percentage of the estimate. Another measure is the Margin of Error (MoE), which describes the distance from the population value (the figure obtained if all dwellings had been enumerated) of the estimate at a given confidence level, and is specified at a given level of confidence. Confidence levels typically used are 90%, 95% and 99%. For example, at the 95% confidence level the MoE indicates that there are about 19 chances in 20 that the estimate will differ by less than the specified MoE from the population value. The 95% MoE is calculated as 1.96 multiplied by the SE. For more information refer to the Data Quality and Technical Note sections of the Users' Guide.
53 In this release, estimates with relative standard errors (RSEs) of 25–50% and greater than 50% have been annotated. Estimates with RSEs of 25–50% should be used with caution and those with RSEs greater than 50% are considered too unreliable for most purposes.
54 MoEs, calculated at the 95% confidence level, are provided for all proportion estimates to assist users in assessing the reliability of these types of estimates. Users may find this measure more convenient to use than the RSE, in particular for small and large proportion estimates. The estimate combined with the MoE defines a range which is expected to include the true population value with a given level of confidence. This is known as the confidence interval. This range should be considered by users to inform decisions based on the estimate.
55 Every effort was made to minimise other non-sampling error by:
56 An advantage of the Computer-Assisted Interview (CAI) used for this survey is that it potentially reduces non-sampling errors by enabling edits to be applied as the data are being collected. These edits allow the interviewer to query respondents and resolve issues during the interview. Sequencing of questions is also automated so that respondents are asked only relevant questions and only in the appropriate sequence, eliminating interviewer sequencing errors.
57 Analysis was also undertaken to compare the characteristics of respondents to the 2012–13 AATSIHS with a number of ABS collections to ascertain data consistency. Sources for comparison included:
58 Further information on undercoverage and non-response is provided in the following paragraphs. More detailed information on non-sampling error is provided in the Users' Guide.
59 Undercoverage is one potential source of non-sampling error and is the shortfall between the population represented by the achieved sample and the in-scope population. It can introduce bias into the survey estimates. However, the extent of any bias depends upon the magnitude of the undercoverage and the extent of the difference between the characteristics of those people in the coverage population and those of the in-scope population.
60 Undercoverage rates can be estimated by calculating the difference between the sum of the initial weights of the sample and the population count. If a survey has no undercoverage, then the sum of the initial weights of the sample would equal the population count (ignoring small variations due to sampling error). For more information on weighting refer to paragraph 40.
61 In the 2012–13 AATSIHS there was a relatively large level of undercoverage when compared to other ABS surveys. There was also an increase in undercoverage compared to previous ABS Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander surveys. The overall 2012–13 AATSIHS coverage rate was approximately 37% of the in-scope population at the national level. The estimated coverage in the 2004–05 NATSIHS and the 2008 NATSISS was 58% and 47% respectively.
62 The overall undercoverage rate was approximately 63% of the population at the national level. This rate varies across states and territories, with Vic (73%), NSW and SA (both 66%) recording the highest rates of undercoverage compared with the lowest undercoverage rates in Tas (37%) and Qld (59%). Of the national rate, 6% is due to planned frame exclusions and overlap with the Monthly Population Survey where analysis has shown that the impact of any bias is minimal. More information on these exclusions is provided below.
63 Given the high undercoverage rate, the analysis undertaken to ensure that results from the 2012–13 AATSIHS were consistent with other data sources was more extensive than usual. Examples of the sources used for consistency checks are outlined in paragraph 57 and more information on the validation of survey data are provided in the Users' Guide.
64 Briefly, potential bias due to undercoverage was addressed by the application of adjustments to the initial weights. Weights were calibrated to population benchmarks to account for the undercoverage at the various calibration levels.
65 More information on the measures taken to address potential bias is provided in the Users' Guide.
66 Undercoverage may occur due to a number of factors, including:
67 Each of these factors are outlined in more detail in the following paragraphs. To assist interpretation, a diagrammatical representation of the potential sources of undercoverage is denoted below.
68 Frame exclusions were incorporated into the 2012–13 AATSIHS to manage the cost of enumerating areas with a small number of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander persons.
69 Non-response may occur when people cannot or will not cooperate, or cannot be contacted. Unit and item non-response by persons/households selected in the survey can affect both sampling and non-sampling error. The loss of information on persons and/or households (unit non-response) and on particular questions (item non-response) reduces the effective sample and increases both sampling error and the likelihood of incurring response bias.
70 To reduce the level and impact of non-response, the following methods were adopted in this survey:
71 In the 2012–-13 AATSIHS non-response accounts for a portion of overall undercoverage. The two components of non-response were:
Non-identification as an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander household
72 Non-identification of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander households during the screening process may have occurred due to:
73 Known undercoverage, due to other issues arising in the field, included sample being excluded due to:
74 The 2012–13 NATSIHS was enumerated from April 2012 to February 2013 and NATSINPAS was enumerated from August 2012 to July 2013. When considering survey results over time or comparing them with data from another source, care must be taken to ensure that any differences between the collection periods take into consideration the possible effect of those differences on the data, for example, seasonal differences and effects of holidays.
Interpretation of results
75 Care has been taken to ensure that the results of this survey are as accurate as possible. All interviews were conducted by trained ABS officers. Extensive reference material was developed for use and intensive training was provided to interviewers. There remain, however, other factors which may have affected the reliability of results, and for which no specific adjustments can be made. The following factors should be considered when interpreting these estimates:
76 Every effort has been made to minimise such bias through the development and use of a culturally appropriate survey methodology.
77 For a number of survey data items, some respondents were unwilling or unable to provide the required information. Where responses for a particular data item were missing for a person or household they were recorded in a 'not known', 'not stated' or 'refusal' category for that data item. In some instances, 'not stated' categories have been included in the publication tables, to enable users to determine the suitability of the data for their purposes. In some instances, 'not stated' categories are not explicitly shown in the tables, but are included in the total or are grouped with another output category. These groupings are indicated by footnotes. Tables presenting proportions include 'not known' or 'not stated' categories in the calculation of these proportions.
78 The employment component of the 2012–13 AATSIHS is based on a reduced set of questions from the ABS monthly Labour Force Survey.
Comparability with other ABS data sources
79 To aid comparability with other ABS data sources, where possible, questions from existing surveys were used in the 2012–13 AATSIHS. However, due to the number of topics included in this survey, it was not always possible to adopt the full question modules used in other surveys. In addition, some modules were further modified or omitted in remote areas because they were not relevant or not able to be effectively administered for the AATSIHS within these areas. Where possible, the 2012–13 AATSIHS used standard ABS 'shortened' question modules, designed to maximise comparability with the full question modules.
80 Results from the 2012–13 AATSIHS may differ from other ABS surveys which collect information on the same topics as the information is based on a sample of the population and are subject to sampling variability (or sampling error). For example, results from this survey may differ from the figures that would have been obtained from an enumeration of the entire population (e.g. Census).
81 Differences may also exist in the scope and/or coverage of this survey compared to other surveys. For example, the 2012–13 AATSIHS includes Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people living in private dwellings across Australia, including very remote areas, whereas the 2011–12 National Health Survey includes people living in private dwellings across Australia, excluding very remote areas. Another example is the monthly Labour Force Survey, which includes people aged 15 years and over who live in private dwellings, but also includes a sample of people resident in non-private dwellings (e.g. hotels), which the 2012–13 AATSIHS does not include.
82 Differences in estimates may also occur as a result of different collection methodologies. For example, if the information was:
83 Differences may also result from the context in which questions are asked (e.g. ordering of the questions or the type of survey being conducted). Additionally, self-identification of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status may vary, depending on the collection methodology (e.g. face-to-face interview compared to a self-completed form).
Comparability with previous Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Surveys
84 The ABS previously conducted the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey (NATSIHS) in 2004-05. Also, the National Health Survey that was conducted in 2001 included an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander sample (known as the NHS(I)). Extensive information on the differences between the 2004-05 and 2001 surveys is provided in the Explanatory Notes of the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey, 2004-05 (cat. no. 4715.0).
85 Understanding the extent to which data from the 2012–13 AATSIHS and the 2004–05 NATSIHS can be compared is essential to interpret apparent changes over time. The 2012-13 AATSIHS and the 2004–05 NATSIHS largely employ the same methodology and survey content for comparability purposes over time. A key difference in 2012–13, however, was the standardisation of Computer-Assisted Interviewing for all questions administered to respondents in remote and non-remote areas. Information on the comparability of the 2012–13 AATSIHS and 2004–05 NATSIHS is provided in the Users' Guide.
86 Between 2006 and 2011 the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population increased by 30%, or 153,000 people. When comparing estimates from the 2012–13 AATSIHS with previous Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander surveys, users should be aware of the large increase in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population and consider the impact this may have when interpreting change over time.
87 This release contains selected data from the 2008 and 2002 NATSISS. Data have been limited to items where there is a sufficient level of comparability between the surveys.
88 Long-term health conditions described in this publication are classified to a classification developed for use in the NHS (or variants of that classification), based on the International Classification of Diseases (ICD). The classification of data from the 2001, 2004-05, 2007–08 and 2011–13 surveys are based on the 10th revision of the ICD.
89 Descriptions for data items such as Body Mass Index and blood pressure are included in the Glossary to this publication.
90 Geography data, including Remoteness Area, was classified according to the Australian Statistical Geographical Standard (ASGS), July 2011 (cat. no. 1270.0.55.001).
91 For the purposes of the 2012–13 AATSIHS Core, Australia was divided into five Remoteness Area categories:
93 Estimates presented in this publication have been rounded. As a result, sums of components may not add exactly to totals.
94 Proportions presented in this publication are based on unrounded figures. Calculations using rounded figures may differ from those published.
PRODUCTS AND SERVICES
95 Further Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey (AATSIHS) publications are planned for release. Results from the NATSINPAS and the NATSIHMS will be released in the second half of 2014. For more information, see 2012-13 Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey: Release Schedule.
96 A copy of the survey questionnaire and prompt cards are provided with the Users' Guide.
97 Information from the 2012–13 AATSIHS will be returned to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people through the ABS State and Territory Statistical Services (STSS) Program and collaborations with other organisations.
98 Special tabulations based on the data from this survey are available on request. Subject to confidentiality and sampling variability constraints, tabulations can be produced from the survey to meet individual requirements. These can be provided in electronic or printed form.
100 The 2012–13 AATSIHS was dependent on the high level of cooperation received from Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples and their communities. Without their continued cooperation, the wide range of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander statistics published by the ABS would not be available. Information received by the ABS is treated in strict confidence as required by the Census and Statistics Act 1905.
101 Other ABS publications which may be of interest are shown under the 'Related Information' tab of this release.
102 Current ABS publications and other products available from the ABS website include:
Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey: First Results, Australia (cat. no. 4727.0.55.001)
Life Tables for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, 2010–2012 (cat. no. 3302.0.55.003)
Estimates and Projections, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, 2001 to 2026 (cat. no. 3238.0)
The Health and Welfare of Australia's Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples, 2010 (cat. no. 4704.0)
National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey, 2004–05 ( cat. no. 4715.0)
National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey: Users' Guide, 2004-05 ( cat. no. 4715.0.55.004)
National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Survey, 2008 (cat. no. 4714.0)
National Health Survey, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Results, Australia, 2001 (cat. no. 4715.0)
National Health Survey: Users' Guide, 2001 (cat. no. 4363.0.55.001)
National Health Survey (Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people): Expanded Confidentialised Unit Record File, Information Paper, 2001 (cat. no. 4715.0.55.002)
Hospital Statistics, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, 1999–2000 (cat. no. 4711.0)
National Health Survey: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Results, Australia, 1995 (cat. no. 4806.0)
National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Survey 1994: Detailed Findings, 1994 (cat. no. 4190.0)
Cigarette Smoking among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, 1994 (cat. no. 4701.0)
Overweight and Obesity, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, 1994 (cat. no. 4702.0)
Self-Assessed Health Status, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, 1994 (cat. no. 4707.0)
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