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4 The following classifications and manuals were used in this publication:
5 ABS Sources:
6 Non-ABS Sources:
ABS AGRICULTURAL DATA
7 This publication contains final estimates for data items collected in:
8 This includes statistics on land use, crop and horticultural area and production and livestock numbers.
9 As noted in the publication Agricultural Census: Nature and Content, 2015-16 (cat. no 7100.1), the scope for the 2015-16 Agricultural Census was all agricultural businesses with an EVAO of $40,000 or greater. This is a change from previous ABS Rural Environment and Agricultural Collections, where a scope of EVAO of $5,000 or greater was used. The change in scope better aligns this collection with contemporary definitions of an agricultural business and reduces the overall reporting load for smaller agricultural businesses. It is proposed that only agricultural businesses with an EVAO of $40,000 or greater will be in scope for ABS rural environmental and agricultural commodity collections in 2016-17 and beyond.
10 As a result of the change in scope, the estimates from the 2015-16 Agricultural Census will not be directly comparable to previous published Agricultural Censuses or annual Rural Environment and Agricultural Commodity Survey outputs. To address this, additional estimates have been produced from a number of rural environment and agricultural commodity collections from 2010-11 to 2014-15 using an EVAO of $40,000 or greater. These estimates are now available at the national, state/territory levels and sub-state levels on the ABS website.
11 This publication has used the $40,000 EVAO scope throughout the entire time series using back-casted estimates from 2010-11 to 2014-15.
12 ABS Sources:
13 Non-ABS Sources:
14 Agricultural Commodities, Australia (cat. no. 7121.0) provided estimates for livestock holdings in the livestock asset accounts and the combined presentations and physical chicken egg production.
15 Value of Agricultural Commodities Produced, Australia (VACP) (cat. no. 7503.0) provided estimates for value of livestock products in the combined presentations.
16 Livestock Products, Australia (cat. no. 7215.0) provided estimates for:
17 Dairy Australia data provided physical milk production estimates in the livestock physical flow accounts and the combined presentation.
18 Imports and exports for meat production are presented in net weight for the products and are not directly comparable with the gross production estimates. The data was derived from the Harmonised Tariff Item Statistical Classification (HTISC 02) for “meat and edible meat offal” imports, and from the Australian Harmonised Export Commodity Classification for Exports (AHECC 02) for “meat and edible meat offal”. Preparations of meat, of fish or of crustaceans, molluscs or other aquatic invertebrates (HTISC 16) was not included.
19 Imports and exports for live animals are presented as number of head. For imports, the data was derived from the live animals from the Harmonised Tariff Item Statistical Classification (HTISC 01). For exports, live animals were sourced from the Australian Harmonised Export Commodity Classification for Exports (AHECC 01). For more information please refer to International Merchandise Trade, Australia: Concepts, Sources and Methods, 2015 (cat. no. 5489.0). Preparations of meat, of fish or of crustaceans, molluscs or other aquatic invertebrates (AHECC 16) was not included.
20 Output numbers for livestock (raising and breeding) in the livestock physical flow accounts represents the number of livestock which leave the farm for slaughter and exports. The sum of livestock slaughter estimates and live cattle exports were used as a proxy for the national level output estimates. This method is not able to be used for sub-national estimates, as live animal import and exports data is not currently available for regional geographic areas. Therefore, only livestock slaughter numbers were used for sub-national estimates.
21 In the combined presentations for gross production, milk production was converted to tonnes using a conversion factor of 1L/1.03 kg. Egg production was converted into tonnes using a conversion factor of 650 grams/dozen.
22 Meat production for the Burnett Mary NRM and South Australian Murray-Darling Basin NRM in tonnes were modelled using the regional and state VACP (cat. no. 7503.0) estimates as a proxy to derive regional physical production estimates from state estimates. This method applies to NRM level data for cattle, sheep, pigs and chickens. The same method was used to calculate livestock slaughter numbers, physical wool production and physical milk production for NRM level estimates.
CROPS AND PLANTATIONS
23 ABS Sources:
24 Agricultural Commodities, Australia (cat. no. 7121.0) provided estimates for:
25 The VACP provided estimates for the value of crops and plantations in the combined presentations.
26 International trade statistics are compiled by the ABS from information submitted to the Australian Border Force (previously known as the Australian Customs Service) by exporters and importers or their agents.
27 Imports in the physical flow accounts for crops were taken from the Harmonised Tariff Item Statistical Classification code. Exports in the physical flow account for crops were taken from Australian Harmonised Export Commodity Classification codes. For more information please refer to International Merchandise Trade, Australia: Concepts, Sources and Methods, 2015 (cat. no. 5489.0).
FOREST AND TIMBER PRODUCTS AND RESOURCES
28 Non-ABS Sources:
29 Data on plantations and native forests were obtained from the ABARES publications: Australian forest and wood product statistics, 2016 and the Plantations statistics update 2017. The Australian forest and wood products statistics are biannual reports containing comprehensive datasets relating to Australia's forestry sector, including a time series of data on forest and wood products resources, production, consumption, trade and employment. The ABARES Plantation statistics update 2017 was also utilised for up to date data on plantation areas and reasons for changes for 2015-16 accounting period. The Australia's State of the Forest Report provided estimates for native forest areas for the reference year 2010-11.
30 In the SEEA AFF, a distinction is made between natural and cultivated timber resources for the timber resources account. The reason for this is that the growth of natural timber resources is outside the production boundary. For the purpose of the accounts presented in this publication, only plantation forests are considered cultivated resources. While native forests are used for timber resources, these only enter the production boundary once harvested. It could be argued that multiple use public forests could constitute cultivated resources, however identifying the portion of multiple use public forests for timber harvesting would be difficult in practice. Some of these issues will be further discussed in a national approach to ecosystem accounting.
31 Net annual increment (natural growth of plantations) was modelled using standard growth rates to estimate the volume of growth for each year.
32 Intermediate consumption from the manufacturing industry was calculated by adding logs harvested and imports of roundwood, and subtracting exports of roundwood.
33 ABARES record roundwood harvest, exports and imports in volumes. For the combined presentation volume of roundwood was converted to tonnes using a density factor of 1,000 kg/m3.
FISH AND AQUATIC PRODUCTS AND RESOURCES
34 ABS Sources:
35 Non-ABS Sources:
Physical flow account
36 Fish and aquaculture tables in SEEA AFF record the physical supply and use of commercial fishery and aquaculture products within the Australian economy. Supply includes wild catch, aquaculture and imports of fishing and aquaculture products. Production data was obtained from the ABARES and trade data from the ABS trade statistics. ABARES data includes the commercial production of fisheries and aquaculture products. Fish caught and consumed by recreational anglers are considered as production, and within the scope of fisheries activity; however, this level of data was not available. Exports are reported using the Australian Harmonized Export Commodity Classification (AHECC) and imports are reported using the Harmonized Tariff Statistical Code (HTISC).
37 The ABARES adjusted the total output for fisheries and aquaculture to exclude Southern Bluefin Tuna caught in the Commonwealth Southern Bluefin Tuna Fishery and introduced into farms in South Australia. For the purpose of balancing the national physical flow account, the aquaculture total for tuna was also reduced by subtracting wild caught tuna from the adjusted total. In theory, this would be considered intermediate consumption of fish from the total output of capture fisheries. The current SEEA AFF framework could be extended to include these type of flows between fish stocks where there are transfers between capture fisheries and aquaculture stocks.
38 Classifications of fish, aquatic products and resources used in the source data have been found not to align. ABARES classification of fish, the AHECC and the HTISC use different collection methods and there are differing purposes for each dataset. While the SEEA AFF recommends product groupings based on the ISSCFC (freshwater fish; diadromous fish; demersal fish; tuna, bonito, billfish; other pelagic fish; other marine fish; crustaceans; cephalopods; other molluscs; aquatic mammals; other aquatic animals and aquatic plants and algae), in practice this was difficult to achieve due to data availability. A species approach was taken for selecting groups and where appropriate species were aggregated. As a consequence of this, categories like Other fish and Not Elsewhere Classified do not always include the same species. There is potential in the future to use the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO) 3 Alpha-code system to concord ABARES, AHECC and HTISC. The ABS is seeking feedback on selection of products shown in these accounts.
39 ABS international trade data were used to populate the physical flow account for fishing and aquaculture tables. They include data from the following imports and exports products:
40 The following products from imports and exports were not included due to measurement issues and correctly apportioning weights of the products:
41 Imports and exports data are presented in net product weights. Due to this they are not directly comparable to the whole live whole weights reported in the output data for fisheries and aquaculture production. Net weight excludes any outside packaging, inner containers or wrappings or any carrying medium (e.g. liquid) surrounding the goods. Live fish (HTISC 0301) and Ornamental fish (AHECC 03011) are reported in numbers of fish, not by weight, and are therefore not included. For consistency, “Live Atlantic and Pacific bluefin tunas (AHECC 3019404)” and “Live fish (AHECC 3011909)” were also not included from exports, as these were reported in numbers of fish for imports. These fish products accounted for a small proportion of imports and exports and did not greatly affect the totals.
42 For the purpose of balancing supply and use, all categories should be recorded in live weight equivalents. A transformation of data would be required to balance these tables and present totals for supply and use.
Physical asset account
43 A SEEA compliant asset account includes all aquatic resources subject to commercial activity either within Australia's exclusive economic zone (EEZ), or on the high seas over which the country holds ownership rights (SEEA CF 5.395). This includes both aquaculture (cultivated aquatic resources) and capture fisheries (natural or wild aquatic resources).
44 Data for the total allowable catch (TAC) asset account was obtained from the ABARES Fishery Status reports 2016 and 2017.
45 The TAC asset account is one potential method of measuring capture fisheries assets in Australia. It does not capture the full breadth of measurements recommended in the SEEA AFF of opening stock, closing stock, additions to stock and reductions to stock. Additionally, it also does not include aquaculture assets. More research and development is required to establish practical and scientifically robust methods to complete a SEEA compliant account.
46 ABS Sources:
47 Value of Agricultural Commodities Produced, Australia (VACP) (cat. no. 7503.0) refers to the average unit value of a given commodity realised in the marketplace.
48 Price data from the VACP (cat. no. 7503.0) refers to the average unit value of a given commodity realised in the market place. Price information for livestock slaughtering and wool is obtained from ABS collections. Price information for other commodities is obtained from non-ABS sources, including marketing authorities and industry sources. For more information please refer to Value of Agricultural Commodities Produced, Australia (VACP) (cat. no. 7503.0).
49 VACP provided estimates for all agricultural value estimates with the exception of the monetary supply and use table and the cross industry and activity perspectives combined presentation.
50 Australian National Accounts: Input-Output Tables (Product Details), 2013-14 (cat. no. 5215.0.55.001) was the main source of data for the monetary supply and use account in this SEEA AFF discussion paper. For this experimental account, a few categories from the original Input Output tables have been merged to more closely align to other data presented in this paper (including the combined presentation tables). Some commodities have been excluded due to the scope of this discussion paper. The full set of 2014-15 Input Output tables have now been released by ABS and these data may be incorporated in future SEEA AFF based releases.
51 Gross output estimates differ between these two sources due to difference in scope and methodology. Refer to the explanatory notes of the respective publications for more detail.
52 ABS Source:
53 The ABS Energy Account, Australia (EAA) (cat. no. 4604.0) is one of the set of environmental-economic accounts produced by the ABS based on the SEEA. It includes physical supply and use tables that identify physical volumes by industry and energy product.
54 Due to differences in methodologies, total supply and use for the Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing industries could not be computed at this stage. Data were obtained from the net energy flow accounts to populate the net use of energy in PJ of energy products. For full details on how the EAA is compiled, refer to the explanatory notes of the publication.
55 A complete physical energy account records flows in physical units of:
GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS
56 Non-ABS Sources:
57 Data was extracted from the AGEIS for the Agriculture sector and for the Land-use, Land-use change and Forestry (LULUCF) sector.
58 Greenhouse gas emissions are reported in Australia’s National Inventory Report, which is submitted by the Department of Environment and Energy under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Kyoto Protocol (KP). The Department of Environment and Energy estimate emissions by utilising the Australian Greenhouse Emissions Information System (AGEIS). For the Land-use, Land-use change and Forestry (LULUCF) sector, the Department of Environment and Energy estimate emissions by using the Full Carbon Accounting Model (FullCAM). Data reported against the UNFCCC Classification was utilised for this publication. "This includes emissions and removals from the energy, industrial processes and product use, agriculture and waste sectors and the following UNFCCC LULUCF sub-classifications: Forest Land, Land converted to Forest, Cropland, Grassland, Settlements and Wetlands” (DoEE, National Inventory Report 2015 Volume 1, 2017).
59 The Kyoto classification was utilised to generate an estimate for the plantation and forest land proportions of emissions from the Forest Land LULUCF. The pre-1990 plantations components of the Kyoto classification was subtracted from the Forest Land and added to Land Converted to Forest to derive this split.
60 A full description of the methodologies utilised to compile the National GHG emissions estimates are available from the DoEE National Inventory Report 2015, which is published in three volumes.
61 A split between Agriculture (ANZSIC A01), Fishing and Aquaculture (ANZSIC A02 & ANZSIC 04) and Forestry and Logging (ANZSIC A05) was not available. The UNFCCC classification does not apply ANZSIC. Instead, it distinguishes emissions using the following sectors: Energy, Industrial processes and product use, Agriculture, LULUCF and Waste.
62 Both fixed and mobile equipment contribute to estimates of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries energy emissions.
63 ABS Sources:
64 As noted in the publication Agricultural Census: Nature and Content, 2015-16 (cat. no 7100.1), the scope for the 2015-16 Land Management Practices Survey and the 2015-16 Agricultural Census was all agricultural businesses with an EVAO of $40,000 or greater. This is a change from previous ABS Rural Environment and Agricultural Collections, where a scope of EVAO of $5,000 or greater was used. The change in scope better aligns this collection with contemporary definitions of an agricultural business and reduces the overall reporting load for smaller agricultural businesses. It is proposed that only agricultural businesses with an EVAO of $40,000 or greater will be in scope for ABS Rural Environment and Agricultural Commodity collections in 2016-17 and beyond.
65 As a result of the change in scope, the estimates from the 2015-16 Land Management Practices Survey will not be directly comparable to previous published Land Management Practices Survey or Rural Environment and Agricultural Commodity outputs. To address this, additional estimates have been produced from a number of Rural Environment and Agricultural Commodity collections from 2010-11 to 2014-15, including the 2011-12 and 2013-14 Land Management Practices collections using an EVAO of $40,000 or greater. These estimates are now available at the national, state/territory levels and sub-state levels on the ABS website.
66 For the purposes of this survey a business (statistical unit) is identified as undertaking agricultural activity if any of the primary or secondary productive activities of that business fall within the Agriculture Subdivision (Subdivision 01), as defined by the 2006 edition of the Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC). For more information, please refer to Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC), 2006 (cat. no. 1292.0).
67 The physical flow account for fertilisers is incomplete as there were various data gaps in the areas required for compiling a SEEA compliant account. In summary, these are:
68 The SEEA AFF framework calls for data on pesticides in terms of active ingredients and weight of product, even though standard measurement across different products is yet to be developed for purposes of aggregate statistics. The weights of different active ingredients may not be a sound indication of effectiveness or potential environmental impact, which is an issue to consider when interpreting these data. There currently is no ABS data on the use of pesticides and weed control chemicals in order to complete the physical flow account for pesticides in the SEEA AFF framework.
69 The Natural Resource Management on Australian Farms (cat. no. 4620.0) was last produced in 2006-07. There are publications available from the Australian Academy of Technology and Engineering (ATSE) that address some of the requirements of the SEEA, for example Pesticide Use in Australia, A review undertaken by the Australian Academy of Technological Sciences and Engineering. However limited data are available.
70 At present no data is available to compile a soil asset table. The ABS seeks feedback on potential data sources and classifications that may be relevant for an SEEA AFF framework and analysis.
71 ABS Sources:
72 Land use and land cover accounts data were extracted from the above ABS publications for the South Australian Murray-Darling Basin and Burnett Mary NRM regions.
73 State government valuer-generals information is the data source for the land use accounts. The Australian Valuation Property Classification Codes are applied to the data to categorise land use.
74 A concordance between the land use account tables and the SEEA AFF suggested tables was produced. Agricultural land terminology was retained.
75 For land cover accounts the Dynamic Land Cover Dataset (DLCD), Geoscience Australia (GA), in collaboration with the Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics and Sciences (ABARES). The Dynamic Land Cover Dataset (DLCD) version 2 beta has been used in this publication. The DLCD is the first nationally consistent and thematically comprehensive land cover reference for Australia. It is the result of collaboration between GA and ABARES, and provides a base-line for identifying and reporting on change and trends in vegetation cover and extent.
76 The DLCD includes snapshots of vegetation greenness for each 250 by 250 metre grid cell with each layer based on 2 years of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. The classification scheme used to describe land cover categories in the DLCD conforms to the 2007 International Organization for Standardization (ISO) land cover standard (19144-2). The DLCD shows Australia's land cover grouped into 33 classes. These reflect the structural character of vegetation, ranging from cultivated and managed land covers (crops and pastures) to natural land covers such as forest and grasslands.
77 DLCD classifications were used in the SEEA AFF land cover account table. The classification "Wetlands" has been changed to "Land Under Water" to better reflect that land cover type and reduce confusion when comparing land covers with vegetation types.
78 Further information is available in Land Account: South Australia, Experimental Estimates, 2006 - 2011 (cat. no. 4609.4.55.001) and Land Account: Great Barrier Reef Region, Experimental Estimates, 2014 (cat. no. 4609.0.55.001).
79 Non-ABS Sources:
80 NRMs are administrative regions produced by the Department of the Environment and Energy. The 2010 NRMs were selected for reporting as they best approximate the regional boundary relevant to the data. For more information on these boundaries, please refer to the Department of the Environment and Energy website.
81 The land cover dataset was adapted from Version 4.2 of the NVIS Major Vegetation Groups, which was produced by the Department of Environment and Energy. It is important to note however, that NSW was the only state/territory that was updated in Version 4.2; the others were updated between 2009 and 2011 in Version 4.1. However, permission was granted for this data to be used in the 2016 version of the dataset. For further information, please refer to the Department of the Environment and Energy website.
82 The land use dataset was adapted from the latest version of the ABARES National Scale Maps (2010/11). While the 2016 Catchment-scale map is a more recent publication, it references data collected from 1995 to 2015 at a varied scale from 1:20,000 to 1:250,000. In contrast, the National Scale land use maps are updated annually and represent a static point in time i.e. 2010-11. For this reason it was determined to be the most appropriate dataset. For more information, please refer to the ABARES website.
83 The NVIS dataset was split into ‘Cleared, Non-Native Vegetation, Buildings’ or ‘Not Cleared’ by both the Burnett Mary and South Australian Murray-Darling Basin (SA MDB) NRMs.
84 NVIS 4.2 Major Vegetation Groups Aggregations:
85 The National Scale Land Use dataset was split into ‘Agricultural Land Uses’ or ‘Non-Agricultural Land Uses’ for both the Burnett Mary and SA MDB NRMs. This split was determined by considering the nature of the land use activities and determining if those activities were directly related to agriculture industry activities. For the purposes of this publication forestry activities are included as "Agricultural Land Uses". A list of secondary level land uses and the split between "Agricultural" and "Non-Agricultural" land uses are below.
86 National Scale Land Use Aggregation:
87 For both the land cover and land use datasets a ‘No Data’ classification was established. This classification combines the NRMs outside area of interest, along with the areas within the Burnett Mary and SA MDB NRMs where no data was available.
88 ABS Sources:
89 For detailed information about water concepts, refer to the explanatory notes of the Water Account, Australia (cat. no. 4610.0) and Water Use on Australian Farms (cat. no. 4618.0).
90 The physical flow accounts for water (supply and use tables) presented in this publication (Table 18) differ in format from those presented in the Water Account, Australia (cat. no. 4610.0). The tables presented in the Water Account, Australia are compiled, as far as possible, in accordance with the System of Environmental-Economic Accounting (SEEA), however they follow a traditional ABS-designed format that pre-dates the SEEA. The tables presented in this SEEA AFF publication align with the format presented in the SEEA AFF Framework, which is based on the SEEA CF format. Please note that the physical flow accounts for water presented in this publication present an industry perspective of water supply and use based on ANZSIC industry classifications. By contrast, the water use data that is presented in the combined presentations uses an activity based perspective of agriculture, consistent with the methodology used in Water Use on Australian Farms (cat. no. 4618.0).
91 ABS Sources:
92 Estimates on employment numbers in the combined presentations were obtained from the 2016 Census of Population and Housing. The Industry of Employment (INDP) classification was used. A person's industry of employment is classified based on responses to a range of questions, and in particular questions which ask for a description of the industry or business, and the main goods produced, or main services provided. Responses to the industry of employment related questions in the 2016 Census are classified using the Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC). For more information please refer to Census of Population and Housing: Census Dictionary, 2016 (cat. no. 2901.0).
93 Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS) approximation (NRMRs) of the Burnett Mary NRM and the South Australian Murray-Darling Basin NRM region are used for employment data. The NRMRs are Mesh Block approximations of the DoEE NRM regions. The ABS uses ASGS boundaries to ensure consistency between other social and economic datasets produced by the ABS.
94 The information in the combined presentations is largely being drawn from the underlying SEEA AFF base accounts. With the exception of gross value of production, gross value added and employment. The definitions of the data items have been classified in order to match with the base accounts as much as possible. As the data availability in the base accounts differs, some classifications adjustments where needed when compiling the combined presentation.
95 International trade statistics are compiled by the ABS from information submitted to the Australian Border Force (previously known as the Australian Customs Service) by exporters and importers or their agents by exporters and importers or their agents. There are approximately 3 million export transactions and 13 million import transactions recorded each year, many of which are of small value. Due to the sheer volume of transactions involved, and the limited resources available to undertake checks, the bulk of transactions included in international trade statistics are 'as reported to Customs'. The Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) quality assurance resources are predominantly focussed on editing large value records. These edits are designed to ensure the quality and integrity of international trade data to at least the six digit level of the Harmonized System (HS).
96 For more detail on trade data, refer to the publication International Merchandise Trade, Australia: Concepts, Sources and Methods, 2015 (cat. no. 5489.0).
97 Non-ABS Sources:
98 For determining the pollinators for key crops, data sources were examined for a range of both invertebrates and vertebrates which are known to pollinate the key crops of each NRM region. This included pollinators which are known to contribute to commercial crop pollination services, but are thought to be insignificant; pollinators which are known to be generalist pollinators, and groups of animals which are known pollinators of the crops outside Australia.
99 For determining the mammals in the species snapshot table, a selected group of insectivorous mammals were chosen based on a list in the Atlas of Living Australia for each NRM. The list included species which may occur on agricultural land, which had records of about 50 or more individuals reported, and excluded exotic species. For determining the birds in the species snapshot table, a selected group of insectivorous birds were chosen based on a list in the Atlas of Living Australia for each NRM. The list included species which may occur on agricultural land, which had records of about 100 or more individuals reported, and excluded exotic species.
100 For determining the threatened species account for this same group of selected insectivorous birds and mammals, each selected species was assessed on the IUCN Red List to determine whether they were considered threatened or not, and what their threat history since 1988 was.
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