4363.0 - National Health Survey: Users' Guide, 2014-15  
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GLOSSARY

This document presents definitions for some of the terms used in this Users' Guide. Further definitions are contained in the individual topic sections. It should be noted that the definitions used in the 2014-15 National Health Survey are not necessarily the same as those used for concepts or data items in other collections, and care should be taken when comparing data from different sources to ensure they are similarly defined.

Adequate consumption of fruit and vegetables

A balanced diet, including sufficient fruit and vegetables, reduces a person's risk of developing conditions such as heart disease and diabetes. The National Health and Medical Research Council's (NHMRC) 2013 Australian Dietary Guidelines recommend a minimum number of serves of fruit and vegetables each day, depending on a person's age and sex, to ensure good nutrition and health. Adequacy of intake (consumption) is based on whether a respondent's reported usual daily intake in serves of fruit or vegetables meets or exceeds each recommendation. More information about the guidelines can be found under Usual daily intake of fruit and Usual daily intake of vegetables.

Adult

A respondent aged 18 years or over.

Age standardisation

Age standardisation is a way of allowing comparisons between two or more populations with different age structures, in order to remove age as a factor when examining relationships between variables. For example, the age structure of the population of Australia is changing over time. As the prevalence of a particular health condition (for example, arthritis) may be related to age, any increase in the proportion of people with that health condition over time may be due to real increases in prevalence or to changes in the age structure of the population over time or to both. Age standardising removes the effect of age in assessing change over time or between different populations.

Proportions quoted in commentary in the National Health Survey: First Results, 2014-15 (cat. no. 4364.0.55.001) are not age-standardised, however, proportions presented in Tables 1 and 2 include age standardised rates. Data are age standardised to the 2001 Australian population.

Alcohol consumption risk level

Alcohol consumption risk levels in the National Health Survey: First Results, 2014-15 (cat. no. 4364.0.55.001) have been assessed using the 2001 and 2009 National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) guidelines for the consumption of alcohol.

Risk in the longer term (2001 guidelines) and lifetime risk (2009 guidelines) was assessed using average daily consumption of alcohol for persons aged 15 years and over, derived from the type, brand, number and serving sizes of beverages consumed on the three most recent days of the week prior to interview, in conjunction with the total number of days alcohol was consumed in the week prior to interview.

Risk in the short term (2001 guidelines) and single occasion risk (2009 guidelines) was assessed using questions on the number of times in the last 12 months a person's consumption exceeded specified levels.

2001 NHMRC GUIDELINES


Low Risk
Risky
High Risk

Minimising risk in the longer term
Males (on an average day)
up to 4 standard drinks
5–6 standard drinks
7 or more standard drinks
Females (on an average day)
up to 2 standard drinks
3–4 standard drinks
5 or more standard drinks
Minimising risk in the short term
Males (on any day)
up to 6 standard drinks
7–10 standard drinks
11 or more standard drinks
Females (on any day)
up to 4 standard drinks
5–6 standard drinks
7 or more standard drinks

2009 NHMRC GUIDELINES(a)


Does Not Exceed Guidelines
Exceeds Guidelines

Guideline 1 - Lifetime risk
up to and including 2 standard drinks on average
more than 2 standard drinks on average
Guideline 2 - Single occasion risk
up to and including 4 standard drinks
more than 4 standard drinks

(a) For both males and females.


Alcohol consumption status information was also collected for persons who did not consume any alcohol in the 7 days prior to interview, categorised as:
  • Last consumed more than one week to less than 12 months ago;
  • Last consumed 12 months or more ago
  • Never consumed.

For more detailed information on the 2001 NHMRC guidelines, see the Australian Alcohol Guidelines: Health Risks and Benefits and for the 2009 guidelines, see the Australian Guidelines to Reduce Health Risks from Drinking Alcohol and Frequently Asked Questions.

For a detailed explanation of the method used to measure alcohol consumption in ABS health surveys, see Alcohol Consumption in Australia: A Snapshot, 2007-08 (cat. no. 4832.0.55.001).

Arthritis

Arthritis is characterised by an inflammation of the joints often resulting in pain, stiffness, disability and deformity.

Asthma

A chronic disease marked by episodes of wheezing, chest tightness and shortness of breath associated with widespread narrowing of the airways within the lungs and obstruction of airflow. To be current, symptoms of asthma or treatment for asthma must have occurred in the last 12 months.

Accessibility/Remoteness Index of Australia


Accessibility/Remoteness Index of Australia (ARIA) was developed by the Commonwealth Department of Health and Ageing (DoHA) and the National Key Centre for Social Applications of GIS (GISCA). ARIA measures the remoteness of a point based on the physical road distance to the nearest Urban Centre in each of five size classes. For more information on how ARIA is defined see Information Paper: ABS Views on Remoteness, 2001 (cat. no. 1244.0) and Information Paper: Outcomes of ABS Views on Remoteness Consultation, Australia, Jun 2001 (cat. no. 1244.0.00.001). Also refer to Census Geography Paper 03/01 - ASGC Remoteness Classification - Purpose and Use, available from the ABS web site.

ASGC and ASGS Remoteness Structure

The Remoteness Structure for the Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC) 2006 and the Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS) 2011, has 5 categories based on an aggregation of geographical areas which share common characteristics of remoteness, determined in the context of Australia as a whole. The criteria for these categories are based on the Accessibility/Remoteness Index of Australia (ARIA). For more details, see Accessibility/Remoteness Index of Australia definition above and the Geographical Classifications subtopic in this Users’ Guide.

Australian Dietary Guidelines


The National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) 2013 Australian Dietary Guidelines use the best available scientific evidence to provide information on the types and amounts of foods, food groups, and dietary patterns that aim to:
  • Promote health and wellbeing
  • Reduce the risk of diet-related conditions
  • Reduce the risk of chronic disease.

The Guidelines are for use by health professionals, policy makers, educators, food manufacturers, food retailers and researchers.

The content of the Australian Dietary Guidelines applies to all healthy Australians, as well as those with common diet-related risk factors such as being overweight. They do not apply to people who need special dietary advice for a medical condition, or to the frail elderly.

See Usual daily intake of fruit and Usual daily intake of vegetables.

Australian Health Survey (AHS)

The Australian Health Survey 2011-13 is composed of three separate surveys:
  • National Health Survey (NHS) 2011-12
  • National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (NNPAS) 2011-12
  • National Health Measures Survey (NHMS) 2011-12.

In addition to this, the AHS Survey contains a Core dataset, which is produced from questions that are common to both the NHS and NNPAS. See Australian Health Survey Core Dataset for details.

Australian Health Survey (AHS) Core Dataset

The AHS Core Dataset is produced from the question sets that are common to both NHS and NNPAS. The questions set include the following topics:
  • Self-assessed health
  • Self-assessed body mass
  • Smoking
  • Physical measurements (height, weight and waist circumference)
  • Adult physical activity
  • Dietary behaviour
  • Blood pressure
  • Female life stages
  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Diabetes
  • Kidney disease.

Australian Register of Therapeutic Goods (ARTG) classifications

The ARTG identification numbers fall into two different types of classifications:
  • AUST R medicines - these include all prescription medications and many over the counter products such as those used for pain relief, coughs and colds and antiseptic creams
  • AUST L medicines - these are much lower risk self-medication products which include sunscreens, vitamins, minerals, and herbal and homoeopathic products.
Back problems

In the National Health Survey: First Results, 2014-15 (cat. no. 4364.0.55.001) 'Back problems (dorsopathies)' have been redefined to include sciatica, disc disorders, back pain/problems not elsewhere classified and curvature of the spine. Data for all years presented in the National Health Survey: First Results, 2014-15 (cat. no. 4364.0.55.001) use this definition, while previous publications defined 'Back problems' as including only disc disorders and back pain/problems not elsewhere classified.

Blood pressure

See High blood pressure, Diastolic blood pressure and Systolic blood pressure.

Bodily pain

Indication of the severity of any bodily pain that the respondent had experienced (from any and all causes) during the last 4 weeks. This is a self-assessment from the SF36 international instrument. Data was collected from respondents aged 18 years and over.

Body Mass Index (BMI)

Body Mass Index (BMI) is a simple index of weight-for-height that is commonly used to classify underweight, normal weight, overweight and obesity. It is calculated from height and weight information, using the formula (kg) divided by the square of height (m). To produce a measure of prevalence of underweight, normal weight, overweight or obesity in adults, BMI values are grouped according to the table below


Separate BMi classifications were produced for children. BMI scores were created in the same manner described above but also took into account the age and sex of the child. There are different cutoffs for BMI categories (underweight/normal combined, overweight or obese) for male and female children. These categories differ to the categories used in the adult BMI classification and follow the scale provided in Cole TJ, Bellizzi MC, Flegal KM and Dietz WH, Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: international survey, BMJ 2000; 320.

For a detailed list of the cutoffs used to calculate BMI for children see Appendix 4: Classification of BMI for Children.
Cancer (malignant neoplasms)

Cancer is a condition in which the body's cells grow and spread in an uncontrolled manner. A cancerous cell can arise from almost any cell, and therefore cancer can be found almost anywhere in the body.

Child

A person aged 0-17 years.

Child proxy

See Proxy.
Chronic diseases

Tables 18 and 19 of the National Health Survey: First Results, 2014-15 (cat. no. 4364.0.55.001) present data on a subset of long-term health conditions, referred to as chronic diseases. These consist of:
    • Arthritis
    • Asthma
    • Back problems
    • Cancer (malignant neoplasms)
    • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
    • Diabetes
    • Diseases of the circulatory system
    • Mental and behavioural conditions.

and are selected for reporting because they are common, pose significant health problems, have been the focus of recent population health surveillance efforts, and action can be taken to prevent their occurrence. Chronic kidney disease is not included due to the relatively small numbers reported in the NHS.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a serious long-term lung disease, is the occurrence of chronic bronchitis or emphysema, a pair of commonly co-existing diseases of the lungs in which airways become narrowed. It mainly affects older people and is often difficult to distinguish from asthma.

Comorbid conditions

In this survey, comorbid conditions refers to two or more medical conditions, which a respondent has reported as current long-term conditions they have. See also Comorbidity.

Comorbidity


In this survey, comorbidity is a term used to describe the occurrence of two or more conditions. Some comorbidity (self report) data items have been produced for specific combinations of conditions to aid this type of analysis.

However, it is possible to utilise the available condition data in the ICD-10 data items to undertake analysis of additional combinations of health conditions. Different restrictions (for example whether a condition is diagnosed, or whether a condition is current) can also be applied to individual conditions when undertaking analysis.

For more information on the comorbidity data items available and the definitions used for the conditions within these items, see Comorbidity (Self Report).

Conditions/Type of condition
Health conditions reported by respondents in the 2014-15 NHS are presented using a classification originally developed for the 2001 NHS by the Family Medicine Research Centre, University of Sydney, in conjunction with the ABS. The classification is based on the 10th revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) and is used for all years from 2001 to 2014-15. See also Long-term health condition.
Condition status

Condition status brings together information about whether or not a person has ever been told by a doctor or nurse they have a condition, whether a condition was current at the time of the survey, and, if current, whether the condition was long-term (i.e. had lasted or was expected to last for 6 months or more).

Current daily smoker

A current daily smoker is a respondent who reported at the time of interview that they regularly smoked one or more cigarettes, cigars or pipes per day. See also Smoker status.

Deafness

Includes partial or total loss of hearing.

Diabetes mellitus

A chronic condition in which blood glucose levels become too high due to the body producing little or not insulin, or not using insulin properly.
In the National Health Survey: First Results, 2014-15 (cat. no. 4364.0.55.001), data on diabetes refers to persons who reported having been told by a doctor or nurse that they had diabetes, irrespective of whether the person considered their diabetes to be current or long-term. This definition was first used for estimates of diabetes in Australian Health Survey: Updated Results, 2011-12 (cat. no. 4364.0.55.003). Estimates of diabetes for all years the National Health Survey: First Results, 2014-15 (cat. no. 4364.0.55.001) are presented using this definition. In earlier publications, persons who had reported having diabetes but that it was not current were not included.

Diastolic blood pressure

Measures the pressure in the arteries as the heart relaxes before the next beat. It is the lower number of the blood pressure reading.

Disability status

A disability or restrictive long term health condition exists if a limitation, restriction, impairment, disease or disorder, has lasted, or is expected to last for six months or more, and restricts everyday activities.

It is classified by whether or not a person has a specific limitation or restriction. Specific limitation or restriction is further classified by whether the limitation or restriction is a limitation in core activities or a schooling/employment restriction only.

There are four levels of core activity limitation (profound, severe, moderate and mild) which are based on whether a person needs help, has difficulty, or uses aids or equipment with any of the core activities (self care, mobility or communication). A person's overall level of core activity limitation is determined by their highest level of limitation in these activities.

Employed

Persons aged 15 years and over who had a job or business, or who undertook work without pay in a family business for a minimum of one hour per week. Includes persons who were absent from a job or business. See also Unemployed and Not in the labour force.

Equivalised income

Equivalisation is a process whereby reported household income is adjusted to take account of the size and composition of the household. For further details see Household and Family Characteristics.

Exercise level


Based on frequency, intensity (that is, walking, moderate exercise or vigorous exercise) and duration of exercise (for fitness, recreation or sport) in the one week prior to interview. From these, an exercise score was derived using factors to represent the intensity of the exercise.

For more information see Appendix 6: Classification of Adult Physical Activity and Appendix 7: Classification of Child Physical Activity.

Family

Two or more persons, one of whom is at least 15 years of age, who are related by blood, marriage (registered or de facto), adoption, step or fostering; and who are usually resident in the same household. The basis of a family is formed by identifying the presence of a couple relationship, lone parent-child relationship or other blood relationship. Some households will, therefore, contain more than one family.

Family composition


The differentiation of families based on the presence or absence of couple relationships, parent-child relationships, child dependency relationships or other blood relationships, in that order of preference.

Fat content of milk


An indication of intake of fat. Categorised as:
  • Whole/full cream (3% fat or more)
  • Reduced fat (around 1 or 2%)
  • Skim (less than 1%)
  • Does not drink milk
  • Does not know fat content.

HbA1c test

The HbA1c test provides an indication of the presence and management of diabetes. Also referred to as glycated haemoglobin, it measures the amount of glucose in the blood that binds to the haemoglobin present in red blood cells. If glucose amounts are below 7% and stable then tests should be performed every 6 months; if they are higher than that then tests should be performed every 3 months.

Hayfever and allergic rhinitis

An allergic inflammation of the nasal airways occurring when an allergen, such as pollen or dust, is inhaled by an individual with a sensitised immune system. When caused specifically by grass pollens it is known as 'hayfever'.
Heart, stroke and vascular conditions (Heart disease)

In the National Health Survey: First Results, 2014-15 (cat. no. 4364.0.55.001), data on heart, stroke and vascular disease refers to persons who reported having been told by a doctor or nurse that they had any of a range of circulatory conditions comprising:
    • Ischaemic heart diseases (angina, heart attack and other ischaemic heart diseases)
    • Cerebrovascular diseases (stroke and other cerebrovascular diseases)
    • Oedema
    • Heart failure
    • Diseases of the arteries, arterioles and capillaries.

and that their condition was current and long-term; that is, their condition was current at the time of interview and had lasted, or was expected to last, 6 months or more.

Persons who reported having ischaemic heart diseases and cerebrovascular diseases that were not current and long-term at the time of interview are also included, for the first time. Estimates of heart, stroke and vascular disease for 2007-08, 2011-12 and 2014-15 in the National Health Survey: First Results, 2014-15 (cat. no. 4364.0.55.001) are presented using this definition. There is limited comparability between 2007-08 and previous years due to a change in derivation methodology in 2007-08.

Health risk factors

Specific lifestyle related factors impacting on health, including:
  • Tobacco smoking
  • Alcohol consumption
  • Exercise
  • Body Mass Index
  • Dietary behaviour
  • Blood pressure.

High blood pressure


See hypertension.

Household

A household is defined as one or more persons, at least one of whom is at least 15 years of age, usually resident in the same private dwelling. In this survey, only households with at least one adult (aged 18 years and over) were included.

Household income


Reported as the sum of the personal cash incomes of all household members aged 15 years and over. Household income is available in dollar amounts and deciles/quintiles, in reported and equivalised form. For further details see Income Sources.

Household structure

Refers to the composition of the household to which the respondent belonged. In this publication households are categorised as persons living alone, couple only, couple with child(ren), and other households.
High Sugar Levels

High sugar levels in blood or urine.

Hypertension

Hypertension (commonly known as high blood pressure) is a condition in which blood pressure in the arteries is elevated, requiring the heart to work harder than normal to circulate blood throughout the body. Hypertension is a major risk factor for hypertensive heart disease, strokes, myocardial infarction (heart attacks) and chronic kidney disease as well as several other medical conditions.

Information on hypertension/high blood pressure was collected in the 2014-15 NHS using two methods. These were:
    • A question on whether respondents had ever been told by a doctor or nurse they had any circulatory conditions (including hypertension or high blood pressure).
    • For adults aged 18 years and over, the taking of blood pressure measurements. A person was defined as having high blood pressure if their systolic/diastolic blood pressure was equal to or greater than 140/90 mmHg (millimetres of mercury). Numbers of people with measured high blood pressure do not include people who have high blood pressure but are managing their condition through the use of blood pressure medications.

Tables in previous NHS publications referred to hypertension as 'hypertensive disease'.

Hypertensive disease

Hypertensive disease is a disease of the circulatory system that refers to heart problems that occur because of high blood pressure (see Hypertension). Examples include coronary artery disease and thickening of the heart muscle.

ICD-10

ICD-10 refers to the tenth revision of the International Classification of Diseases and Health Related Problems. The classification of long-term conditions most commonly used in output from the 2014-15 NHS was developed for use in this survey based on the ICD-10. See Appendix 2: Classification of Health Conditions for the content of the classifications.

Incidence


Incidence refers to the number of new cases of a particular characteristic, such as cancer, which occur within a certain period. This differs from prevalence, which refers to the number of cases of a particular characteristic that are present in a population at one point in time.
Index of Relative Socio-Economic Disadvantage

This is one of four Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas (SEIFA) compiled by ABS following each Census of Population and Housing. The indexes are compiled from various characteristics of persons resident in particular areas: the Index of Relative Socio-Economic Disadvantage summarises attributes such as low income, low educational attainment, high unemployment and jobs in relatively unskilled occupations. A lower Index of Relative Socio-Economic Disadvantage quintile (e.g. the first quintile) indicates relatively greater disadvantage and a lack of advantage in general. A higher Index of Relative Socio-Economic Disadvantage (e.g. the fifth quintile) indicates a relative lack of disadvantage and greater advantage in general.

Indigenous

Refers to people who identified themselves, or were identified by another household member, as being of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander origin.
Ischaemic heart disease

A disease of the blood vessels supplying the heart muscle.
Kidney disease

A subset of symptoms including: problems or complaints about the kidneys, renal pain and renal colic (kidney stones).

Long sightedness

Long sightedness (or hyperopia/hypermetropia) is a common condition of the eye where the light that comes into the eye focuses behind the retina, causing the image of a close object to be out of focus, but that of a distant object to be in focus. Glasses, contact lenses and laser techniques are used to correct long sightedness.

Long-term health condition

A medical condition (illness, injury or disability) which has lasted at least six months, or which the respondent expects to last for six months or more.
Some reported conditions were assumed to be long-term, including asthma, arthritis, cancer, osteoporosis, diabetes, sight problems, rheumatic heart disease, heart attack, angina, heart failure and stroke. Diabetes, rheumatic heart disease, heart attack, angina, heart failure and stroke were also assumed to be current.

Margin of Error (MoE)


Margin of Error describes the distance from the population value that the sample estimate is likely to be within, and is specified at a given level of confidence. Confidence levels typically used are 90%, 95% and 99%. For example, at the 95% confidence level the MoE indicates that there are about 19 chances in 20 that the estimate will differ by less than the specified MoE from the population value (the figure obtained if all dwellings had been enumerated). For further information see Technical Note and Data Quality.
Mental and behavioural conditions

Includes organic mental problems, alcohol and drug problems, mood (affective) disorders such as depression, anxiety related problems and other mental and behavioural problems.

MET

Metabolic Equivalent of Task (MET) or intensity values are a measure of the energy expenditure required to carry out physical activity, expressed as a multiple of the resting metabolic rate (RMR). MET is defined as the ratio of metabolic rate (and therefore the rate of energy consumption) during a specific physical activity to a reference rate of metabolic rate at rest. MET or intensity values operate as a factor when determining level of exercise. For further information see Exercise.

Minerals


Minerals are chemical elements required for a very wide variety of functions including cell function, muscle function, bone formation, hormone production and fluid balance. Some minerals are essential for health and are classified into major and trace elements according to the quantity required by the body.

Moderate exercise

Exercise for fitness, recreation, or sport which caused a moderate increase in heart rate or breathing.

National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (NNPAS)

The 2011-12 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey focused on collecting information on:
  • Dietary behaviour and food avoidance (including 24-hour dietary recall)
  • Selected medical conditions that had lasted, or were expected to last for six months or more
  • Cardiovascular and circulatory conditions
  • Diabetes and high sugar levels
  • Kidney disease
  • Blood pressure
  • Female life stages
  • Physical activity and sedentary behaviour (including 8 day pedometer component)
  • Use of tobacco
  • Physical measurements (height, weight and waist circumference).
Neoplasm

A neoplasm is a new growth of abnormal tissue (a tumour). Tumours can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancer). Cancer refers to several diseases and can affect most types of cells in various parts of the body.
Not in the labour force

Persons who are not employed or unemployed as defined, including persons who:
    • Are retired
    • No longer work
    • Do not intend to work in the future
    • Are permanently unable to work
    • Have never worked and never intend to work.
Osteoporosis

A condition that thins and weakens bone mineral density, generally caused by loss of calcium, which leads to increased risk of fracture. Data was collected from persons aged 15 years and over plus younger respondents who reported having gout, rheumatism or arthritis.

Prevalence

The number of cases, of a particular characteristic (e.g. a specific long-term condition such as cancer), that are present in a population at one point in time. This differs from incidence, which refers to the number of new cases of a particular characteristic occurring within a certain period.

Priority, targeted conditions

Comprises:
  • Asthma
  • Cancer
  • Diabetes/high sugar levels
  • Heart and circulatory conditions
  • Musculoskeletal conditions (arthritis and osteoporosis/osteopenia)
  • Mental health.

Proxy

A proxy is a person who answers the survey questions when the person selected for the interview is incapable of answering for themselves. Reasons the selected person may not be able to answer for themselves include illness/injury or language difficulties. A proxy also answers on behalf of a child under 15 years of age; or for a child aged 15-17 years when parental consent is not given to interview them personally. For further information see the Personal and Proxy Interviews section of Data Collection.
Psychological distress

Derived from the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10). This is a scale of non-specific psychological distress based on 10 questions about negative emotional states in the past 30 days. The K10 is scored from 10 to 50, with higher scores indicating a higher level of distress; low scores indicate a low level of distress. In the National Health Survey: First Results, 2014-15 (cat. no. 4364.0.55.001), scores are grouped as follows:
    • Low levels of distress (10-15)
    • Moderate levels of distress (16-21)
    • High levels of distress (22-29)
    • Very high levels of distress (30-50).

Data was collected from respondents aged 18 years and over.

Self-assessed health status

A person's general assessment of their own health against a five point scale from excellent through to poor. Data was collected from respondents aged 15 years and over.

Short sightedness

Short sightedness (or myopia) is a common condition of the eye where the light that comes into the eye does not directly focus on the retina but in front of it, causing the image of a distant object to be out of focus, but that of a close object to be in focus. Glasses, contact lenses and laser techniques are used to correct short sightedness.
Significance testing

To determine whether a difference between two survey estimates is a real difference in the populations to which the estimates relate, or merely the product of different sampling variability, the statistical significance of the difference can be tested. This is particularly useful for interpreting apparent changes in estimates over time. The test is done by calculating the standard error of the difference between two estimates and then dividing the actual difference by the standard error of the difference. If the result is greater than 1.96, there are 19 chances in 20 that there is a real difference in the populations to which the estimates relate. For further information see Data Quality and Interpretation of Results.
Smoker status

Refers to the frequency of smoking of tobacco, including manufactured (packet) cigarettes, roll-your-own cigarettes, cigars and pipes, but excluding chewing tobacco, electronic cigarettes (and similar) and smoking of non-tobacco products. Categorised as:
    • Current daily smoker - a respondent who reported at the time of interview that they regularly smoked one or more cigarettes, cigars or pipes per day;
    • Current smoker - Other - a respondent who reported at the time of interview that they smoked cigarettes, cigars or pipes, less frequently than daily;
    • Ex-smoker - a respondent who reported that they did not currently smoke, but had regularly smoked daily, or had smoked at least 100 cigarettes, or smoked pipes, cigars, etc at least 20 times in their lifetime; and
    • Never smoked - a respondent who reported they had never regularly smoked daily, and had smoked less than 100 cigarettes in their lifetime and had smoked pipes, cigars, etc less than 20 times.

Data was collected from respondents aged 15 years and over.
Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas (SEIFAs)

Four Indexes compiled by the ABS following each population Census. Each index summarises different aspects of the socio-economic condition of areas. The Index of Disadvantage is the SEIFA index most frequently used in health analysis.

The Indexes available for use with 2014-15 NHS data are those compiled from the 2011 Census of Population and Housing. For further information about the indexes, see Household and Family Characteristics.
Standard drink

A standard drink of alcohol in Australia is defined as containing 12.5 mLs of alcohol. See Alcohol Guidelines: Reducing the Health Risks for more information.
Stratification

Stratification involves dividing a population or dataset in to like groups and can be used in sampling or statistical analysis.

Supplements


For the purpose of the 2014-15 NHS, dietary supplements refer to products defined as Complementary Medicines under the Therapeutic Goods Regulations 1990 and that are not intended for inhalation or use on the skin. They include products containing ingredients that are nutrients, such as multi-vitamin or fish oil products.
Systolic blood pressure

Measures the pressure in the arteries as the heart pumps blood during each beat. It is the higher number of the blood pressure reading.

Type of milk

Main type of milk usually consumed, including cow's milk, soy milk, evaporated and condensed milk, and other unspecified types of milk.

Unemployed

Persons aged 15 years and over who were not employed and actively looking for work in the four weeks prior to the survey, and were available to start work in the week prior to the survey.

Usual daily intake of fruit

Refers to the number of serves of fruit (excluding drinks and beverages) usually consumed each day, as reported by the respondent. A serve is approximately 150 grams of fresh fruit or 50 grams of dried fruit. Adequate daily fruit intake refers to whether the respondent met the minimum number of serves as recommended in the NHMRC 2013 Australian Dietary Guidelines. Juices were excluded.

Usual daily intake of vegetables

Refers to the number of serves of vegetables (excluding drinks and beverages) usually consumed each day, as reported by the respondent. A serve is approximately half a cup of cooked vegetables (including legumes) or one cup of salad vegetables - equivalent to approximately 75 grams. Adequate daily vegetable intake refers to whether the respondent met the minimum number of serves as recommended in the NHMRC 2013 Australian Dietary Guidelines. Tomatoes were included as vegetables while juices were excluded.
2013 NHMRC AUSTRALIAN DIETARY GUIDELINES


Age group (years)

Recommended serves per day
2-3
4-8
9-11
12-13
14-18
19-50
51-70
70 years and over

Fruit
Males
1
1.5
2
2
2
2
2
2
Females
1
1.5
2
2
2
2
2
2
Vegetables
Males
2.5
4.5
5
5.5
5.5
6
5.5(a)
5
Females
2.5
4.5
5
5
5
5
5
5

(a) Rounded up to 6 serves in published data.

Vigorous exercise

Exercise for fitness, recreation or sport which caused a large increase in heart rate or breathing.

Vitamins

Vitamins are organic compounds found naturally in foods and are either fat or water soluble. They are required in small amounts. Vitamins enable the human body to function efficiently by regulating biochemical processes such as growth metabolism, cell reproduction, digestion, and oxidation of the blood.
Waist circumference

Waist circumference is associated with an increased risk of metabolic complications associated with obesity. The World Health Organisation (WHO) guidelines for Caucasian men and women are as follows:
WAIST MEASUREMENT GUIDELINES, Adults


MenWomen

Not at riskWaist circumference less than 94 cmWaist circumference less than 80 cm
Increased riskWaist circumference more than or equal to 94 cmWaist circumference more than or equal to 80 cm
Greatly increased riskWaist circumference more than or equal to 102 cmWaist circumference more than or equal to 88 cm



In the National Health Survey: First Results, 2014-15 (cat. no. 4364.0.55.001), data presented in the Waist circumference chapter on people at 'Increased risk' of developing chronic disease includes people at 'Greatly increased risk', while Table 8 presents these categories separately.