1377.0.55.001 - Directory of Non-ABS Sources for Knowledge-Based Economy/Society (KBE/S) Indicators, 2002  
ARCHIVED ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 23/08/2002   
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Contents >> OECD >> OECD Science, Technology and Industry Scoreboard




The OECD Science, Technology and Industry Scoreboard 2001, Towards a Knowledge-based economy brings together the latest internationally comparable data in order to analyse trends in the knowledge-based economy. It draws mainly on OECD databases and indicators developed by the Directorate for Science, Technology and Industry (DSTI) and focuses on:

  • The growth in the knowledge base of OECD economies
  • The rising importance of the information economy
  • The increasing integration of economic activity
  • Economic growth and performance


OECD Science, Technology and industry Scoreboard Towards a Knowledge-Based Economy 2001


Statistical Annex includes:
  • Investment in Knowledge and
  • Investment in gross fixed capital formation
  • Gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD)
  • R&D Expenditure by sectors of performance
  • R&D Expenditures in manufacturing by level of technology 1991-99
  • ICT patent applications to the European Patent Office (EPO) by priority year and inventors country of residence
  • Government funded biotechnology R&D 1997
  • Number of patents in "triadic" patent families
  • Researchers per 10000 labour force
  • Foreign students in university level education as a percentage of total enrolment
  • Scientific and technical articles per million population
  • Internet hosts by country 1997-2000
  • Broadband penetration rates in OECD countries
  • Share of ICT value added in business sector value added 1999
  • Share of ICT employment in business sector employment 1999
  • Trade to GDP ratio
  • Technology Balance of Payments
  • Contribution of ICT sector to international trade
  • Growth of OECD manufacturing trade by industry and technology intensity
  • Share of high- and medium-high-technology industries in manufacturing exports 1999
Owing to the nature of some of the databases and indicators, country comparisons should be interpreted with caution when absolute differences are small.


ICT Related Occupations

There is no internationally agreed list of ICT-related occupations. For the purpose of this publication data was matched on occupations from the US Current Population Survey (CPS) with the ISCO-88-based occupation data from the Eurostat Labour Force Survey. There was a problem matching at the low-skilled level.

High Skilled ICT Occupations selected for Europe (ISCO-88)
computing professionals (213, including computer systems designers and analysts, computer programmers, computer engineers)
computer associate professionals (312, including computer assistants, computer equipment operators, industrial robot controllers)
optical and electronic equipment operators (313, including photographers and image and sound recording equipment operators, broadcasting and telecommunications equipment operators)

Low Skilled ICT Occupations selected for Europe (ISCO-88):
electrical and electronic equipment mechanics and fitters ( 213,312)

High Skilled ICT Occupations selected from United States data from the Current Population Survey (CPS), US Bureau of the Census
Computer systems analysts and scientists (64)
operations and systems researchers and analysts (65)
computer programmers (229)
tool programmers, numerical control (233)
electrical and electronic technicians (213)
broadcast equipment operators (228)
computer operators (308)
peripheral equipment operators (309)

Low Skilled ICT Occupations selected from United States data from the Current Population Survey (CPS), US Bureau of the Census Include
data processing equipment repairers (525)
electrical power installers and repairers (577)
telephone line installers and repairers (527)
telephone installers and repairers (529)
electronic repairers, communications and industrial equipment (523)

Technology Balance of Payment

Technology receipts and payments constitute the main form of disembodied technology diffusion. trade in technology comprises four main categories:
  • Transfer of techniques (through patents and licences, disclosure of know-how)
  • Transfer (sale, licensing, franchising) of designs, trademarks and patterns.
  • Services with a technical content, including technical and engineering studies, as well as technical assistance
  • Industrial R&D

    Although the balance reflects a country's ability to sell its technology abroad and use its foreign technologies a deficit position does not necessarily indicate low competitiveness. In some cases, it results from increased imports of foreign technology; in others it is due to declining receipts.

Investment in Knowledge

Research and Development (R&D) + software + public and private spending on education as a percentage of GDP

Gross Fixed Capital Formation

machinery and equipment + other as a percentage of GDP

OECD Classification of Manufacturing Industries Based on Technology
using ISIC rev.3 activity breakdown

High technology Industries
  • Aircraft and spacecraft (ISIC Rev.3, 353)
  • Pharmaceuticals (ISIC Rev.3, 2423)
  • Office, accounting and computing machinery (ISIC Rev.3, 30)
  • Radio, television and communications equipment (ISIC Rev.3, 32)
  • Medical, precision and optical instruments (ISIC Rev.3, 33)

Medium-high -technology Industries
  • electrical machinery and apparatus, n.e.c. (ISIC Rev.3, 31)
  • Motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers (ISIC Rev.3, 34)
  • Chemicals excluding pharmaceuticals (ISIC Rev.3, 24 excl.2423)
  • Railroad equipment and transport equipment n.e.c. (ISIC Rev.3, 352+359)
  • machinery and equipment n.e.c. (ISIC Rev.3, 29)

Medium-low-technology industries
  • Coke, refined petroleum products and nuclear fuel (ISIC Rev.3, 23)
  • rubber and plastic products (ISIC Rev.3, 25)
  • Other non-metallic mineral products (ISIC Rev.3, 26)
  • Building and repairing of ships and boats (ISIC Rev.3, 351)
  • Basic metals (ISIC Rev.3, 27)
  • Fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment (ISIC Rev.3, 28)

Low-technology Industries
  • Manufacturing n.e.c. and recycling (ISIC Rev.3, 36-37)
  • Wood, pulp, paper, paper products, printing, and publishing (ISIC Rev.3, 20-22)
  • Food products beverages and tobacco (ISIC Rev.3, 15-16)
  • Textiles, textile products, leather and footwear (ISIC Rev.3, 17-19)
International Strategic Alliances

The OECD data for strategic alliances are based on the Thomson Financial Securities database(SDC Platinum). The database contains almost 70 000 alliances, grouped by sector, type, purpose, etc., from 1988 to the present. It is based on public announcements by firms. Thus, it does not include information on undisclosed deals and may under-represent alliances among small and medium-sized enterprises, which tend not to be reported by the press.


OECD member nations



For information on the Knowledge-based Economy and Society see Discussion Paper Measuring a Knowledge-based Economy and Society.

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