1301.0 - Year Book Australia, 2009–10
ARCHIVED ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 04/06/2010
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Energy conversion and supply losses
The energy conversion sectors accounted for approximately three-quarters (4,494 PJ) of total domestic energy use in 2007-08 (diagram 19.4). The energy conversion sectors (including electricity generators, petroleum refiners, operators of coke ovens and blast furnaces, and gas manufacturers) transform primary energy products into more useful, higher value-added derived energy products. For example, petroleum refiners transform crude oil into petroleum products such as petrol and diesel.
The electricity generation and petroleum refining sectors are the two main users of energy. In 2007-08 these two conversion sectors used 2,514 PJ and 1,490 PJ respectively (table 19.12). Since 2002-03, energy use by the electricity generation sector has increased by 13% and energy use by the petroleum refining sector has declined by 11%.
Derived energy products
In 2007-08 Australia produced 2,638 PJ of derived energy products (diagram 19.4). These products included thermal electricity (868 PJ), automotive gasoline (584 PJ), diesel (470 PJ), aviation turbine fuel (191 PJ) and coal products (180 PJ) (table 19.13).
The production of derived energy remained essentially the same in 2007-08 as it was in 2002-03 (2,638 PJ in 2007-08 compared with 2,643 PJ in 2002-03). While the production of thermal electricity increased from 778 PJ to 868 PJ (up 12%) in this period, there was a fall in the production of most petroleum products - automotive gasoline (down 5%), fuel oil (down 32%), diesel (down 9%) and briquettes (down 44%). Aviation turbine fuel increased slightly (up 1%) along with the other coal products - coke up 1% and coal by-products up 1%.
Significant energy losses are involved in the process of transforming primary energy resources into derived energy products and in the delivery of derived energy products to the market. In 2007-08, almost one-third (1,856 PJ) of the total energy available for domestic use was lost through the conversion processes and through distribution and transmission systems (diagram 19.4).
Energy end-use by sector
In 2007-08 Australia's end-users of energy, comprising households and industries (excluding the conversion sectors), used 3,917 PJ of energy, an increase of 13% since 2002-03 (table 19.14).
The transport sector was the largest end-user of energy, using 1,362 PJ in 2007-08. In 2007-08 road transport accounted for 75% (1,028 PJ) of the transport sector's energy use, with the remaining contributors being air transport (226 PJ), water transport (71 PJ) and rail transport (38 PJ). The manufacturing sector was the second highest user of energy (1,219 PJ) in 2007-08. Together with the transport sector, these two sectors account for 66% of total energy end-use.