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Audiology and audiometry services
Table 21.29 shows that audiology and audiometry businesses provided a range of services during 1997-98, including the fitting and post-fitting of hearing instruments (140 businesses), sale of hearing instruments (135 businesses) and consultation and diagnostic work (134 businesses). Only 49% of audiology and audiometry businesses were involved in the provision of workplace assessment services.
Chiropractic and osteopathic services
The ABS conducted its first survey of chiropractic and osteopathic businesses in private practice in respect of 1997-98. As shown in table 21.30, there were 2,150 chiropractic and osteopathic businesses in the industry at 30 June 1998, consisting of 1,776 chiropractic businesses and 374 osteopathic businesses. The majority (56%) of these businesses were unincorporated businesses (i.e. sole proprietorships or partnerships).
Practitioners accounted for 43% of employment within the industry, the remainder being support staff. The average wages and salaries paid to employed practitioners were similar for the two professions, employed chiropractors being paid $36,300 and osteopaths $34,300. In comparison, the average wage of support staff within the chiropractic and osteopathic services industry was $14,000 during 1997-98, partly reflecting the fact that the majority of support staff (67%) worked part-time.
During 1997-98 the industry received total income of $268m. Fee for service income was the major component, accounting for 95% ($254m) of total income. The industry incurred expenses of $212m, of which labour costs of $102m were the major component.
In 1997-98 the chiropractic and osteopathic services industry generated an operating profit before tax of just under $55m, representing an operating profit margin of 20.4%. The operating profit margin for osteopathic services was 29.5%, compared to 19.4% for chiropractic services.
Optometry and optical dispensing services
The ABS conducted its first survey of the optometry and optical dispensing services industry in respect of 1997-98. At 30 June 1998 there were 1,557 optometry and optical dispensing businesses in the industry. The majority (60%) of these businesses provided both optometry and optical dispensing services, while 25% provided optometry services only, the remaining 15% providing only optical dispensing services.
As shown in table 21.31, there were 8,915 persons working in the industry at the end of June 1998. Optometrists (2,702 persons) and optical dispensers (2,448 persons) accounted for 58% of total employment. Females accounted for 61% of persons working in the industry. However, the proportion of females varied by occupation, only 36% of optometrists and 54% of optical dispensers being female. In contrast, females accounted for 82% of all other staff.
During 1997-98, the optometry and optical dispensing industry generated total income of $818m. Sales of optical goods accounted for 80% of total industry income. Included in sales of optical goods were sales of:
Fees from optometry services during the period were $150m, 85% of which was from Medicare bulk billing payments.
Total expenses during 1997-98 for the optometry and optical dispensing industry were $733m. Purchases of optical goods ($253m) were the most significant expense item, followed by labour costs ($223m). On average, employed optometrists were paid wages and salaries of $40,900 during 1997-98. In contrast, the average wages and salaries paid to optical dispensers were $25,000, and those for other staff were $20,200 - partly attributable to the relatively large proportion (45%) of other staff who worked part-time.
After expenses, the industry recorded an operating profit before tax of $89m for 1997-98, representing an operating profit margin of 10.9%.
At the end of June 1998 there were 3,266 businesses in the physiotherapy services industry, operating from 4,050 private practice locations. The majority (72%) of physiotherapy businesses were unincorporated businesses i.e. sole proprietorships or partnerships.
As shown in table 21.32, there were 9,055 persons working in the industry as at 30 June 1998. Females accounted for 74% (6,719) of persons working, with 66% of physiotherapists and 88% of support staff being female. In total, 61% of persons in the physiotherapy services industry worked part-time.
In 1997-98, fee for service income accounted for $344m (95%) of total income ($364m). The physiotherapy services industry incurred expenses of $270m during the period, the majority of which was attributable to labour costs (54% of total expenses).
The operating profit before tax for the industry was $93m in 1997-98, resulting in an operating profit margin of 25.7%.
The ABS conducted its first survey of the dental services industry in respect of 1997-98. Of the 5,257 businesses in the industry at 30 June 1998, 3,339 (71%) were unincorporated businesses (i.e. sole proprietors or partnerships). As shown in table 21.33, the 5,257 businesses operated from 6,384 locations, 81% of them in capital cities.
At the end of June 1998, there were 24,108 persons working in the dental services industry, 74% of whom were female. While only 21% of dental practitioners were female, 97% of support staff were female. The average wage of support staff employees was $19,100, reflecting (in part) the fact that only 53% of support staff were working full-time. By comparison, 74% of dental practitioners were working full-time at 30 June 1998.
During 1997-98, the industry generated total income of $1,685m. Fee for service income was the major component, accounting for 97% ($1,641m) of total income. Total expenses during 1997-98 were $1,234m. Labour costs accounted for 46% ($568m) of total expenses.
The dental services industry generated an operating profit before tax of $451m in 1997-98, which represented an operating profit margin of 26.9%. The operating profit margins of businesses in the oral surgery services sector (34.1%), and the other specialist dental services sector (33.8%) were significantly higher than that recorded by the general dental services sector (25.2%).
The ABS conducted its first survey of the veterinary services industry in respect of 1999-2000, approaching a sample of employing private veterinary practices.
At the end of June 2000, there were 1,792 employing veterinary practices operating in the veterinary services industry (table 21.34). These practices operated from 2,325 locations, fairly evenly distributed between the capital cities (1,153 practices) and country areas (1,172).
These practices employed 13,218 persons at the end of June 2000, veterinarian general practitioners (4,513 persons) accounting for 34% of total employment, and veterinarian specialists (265 persons) for a further 2%. Nurses (5,667) accounted for 43% of employment; some 97% of veterinary nurses were female.
The total income of employing veterinary practices during 1999-2000 was $994m, with income from the provision of professional services ($865m) being the main source of income, representing 87% of total income.
Income from the treatment of companion animals ($714m) accounted for 83% of professional services income. Most of the remaining income was generated from the treatment of farm production animals ($83m), racehorse breeding ($30m), and treatment of animals in the horse and dog racing industry ($29m). Income from other veterinary services totalled $25m and included such services as grooming ($8m), boarding ($7m), and burial and carcass disposal ($5m).
Veterinary practices incurred total expenses of $836m during 1999-2000. The two major expense items were labour costs of $354m (42% of total expenses) and purchases of $266m (32% of total expenses). Wages and salaries of $312m were the most significant component of labour costs, with employed veterinarians being paid wages and salaries of $169m, resulting in average wages and salaries per employed veterinarian of $52,200. The most significant purchases made by veterinary practices were on goods and medications for resale totalling $244m (29% of total expenses).
The veterinary services industry recorded an operating profit before tax of $159m during 1999-2000, which represented an operating profit margin of 16.0%.